Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 83
PubMed Score 270.69
PubTator Score 88.67

Knowledge Summary


No data available


Gene RIF (42)

26348351 PTMA is a potential novel therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes
25582950 Data suggest that KEAP1 (kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) mutations (as those observed in lung cancer patients) affect conformation/folding/stability of KEAP1 and binding affinity for ligands PTMA and NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2).
25404520 Knockdown of prothymosin alpha by siRNA enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages through the downregulation of type I interferon
25197357 disease-free survival and overall survival rates were significantly lower among colorectal cancer patients with PTMA- and TP53-positive tumors
24733561 prothymosin-alpha expression is a determinant of disease progression in superficial bladder cancer
23859021 phosphorylation of ProTalpha is required for its antiapoptotic activity, but it does not affect its nuclear import
23857453 PTalpha offers cardioprotection against ischemic injury by an Akt-dependent mechanism.
23695700 These results demonstrate the clinical relevance of prothymosin alpha in regulating acetylation events during the pathogenesis of emphysema.
23359453 Western blot analysis of protein extracts from sperm head fractions confirms that the peptide is specifically associated with the inner acrosomal membrane fraction.
23318954 ProTalpha is crucial for the interaction with the Kelch domain, while the flanking residues play relatively minor roles in the affinity of binding.
22609059 Data suggest that plasma thymosin-alpha1 (TA1) and prothymosin-alpha (PTMA) level may be a biomarker for differentiating between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and urothelial carcinoma.
22463375 The decrease of ProTalpha mRNA during differentiation was not accompanied by changes in the methylation status
22125611 Findings suggest that the binding of prothymosin alpha (ProTalpha) and Neh2 to Keap1 occurs synergistically via preformed structural elements.
22110140 when added to cultured cells expressing mHtt, the purified recombinant ProTalpha protein not only entered the cells but it also significantly suppressed the mHtt-caused cytotoxicity.
22059741 The prothymosin alpha is one of miR-1 target genes which involve in miR-1 inducing apoptosis
22059741 The PTMA is one of miR-1 target genes which involve in miR-1 inducing apoptosis.
21954601 These results are consistent with the model that ProTa may enhance p53 transcription activity by displacement of histone H1 from p53-H1 repressive complex.
21573209 Nuclear PTMA may serve as prognostic marker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to determine the subset of patients that are likely to show recurrence of the disease.
20977946 A study on the relationship between prothymosin alpha kinase(ProTalphaK) activity and pyruvate kinase isoforms confirmed that the M2 isoform is the enzyme responsible for ProTalphaK activity in proliferating cells.
20430720 Data suggest that prothymosin alpha immunostaining may be helpful in predicting pituitary tumor recurrence.
20121050 Prothymosin alpha amino acid residues 4-14, 31-43, 84-87, and 106-110 strongly and specifically bind to apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) in the regulation of the mitochondrial cell death pathway.
18976813 immune response stimulation by ProTalpha is in principle exerted via its bioactive C-terminal decapaptide, which can acquire a sequence-specific beta-sheet conformation and induce DC maturation.
18856068 Influence of prothymosin alpha and its mutants on activity of the p53 tumor suppressor
18240569 ProTalpha and Nrf2 compete for interaction with Keap1, therefore ProTalpha is able to liberate Nrf2 from complex with Keap1 and hence contribute to Nrf2-dependent transcription.
17929838 Basis on site-specific information obtained here, as well as results from previous studies, we propose that the conformational and dynamic changes upon zinc binding may act as an entropic switch that greatly facilitates the binding to other proteins
17876542 PTMA may be a novel marker for predicting the effectiveness of radiotherapy in clinical cases.
17188166 although prothymosin-alpha is overexpressed in gastric adenocarcinoma, it is not associated with alterations in survival
17046193 Decreased ERbeta and increased ProTalpha expression in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma indicated that ERbeta may play an anti-proliferation role which is opposed to the role of ProTalpha in gastric epithelium.
17012289 interaction of ProTalpha with core histones in the nucleus may be related to structural modification of histones H3 & H4, & hence to chromatin activity, raising the possibility that other proteins in the nuclear complex may play a role in this process.
16940531 suppression of viral replication by ProTalpha is not HIV LTR specific
16669873 Marked differences in the expression of PTMA and Tim10 were observed during the differentiation of human primary skeletal muscle cells.
16628001 the anti-apoptotic effect previously attributed separately to p8 and prothymosin alpha is in fact borne by the p8/ProTalpha complex, the two proteins being individually inactive
16478804 Antiapoptotic response of cells requires expression of both p8 and ProTalpha.
16353248 PTMA expression is intimately involved in the differentiation and progression of human prostate cancers, and could be a target for therapy and diagnostic purposes.
15657435 Prothymosin alpha functions as intranuclear dissociator of the Nrf2-Keap1 complex.
15556635 PTMA associates with SET and is involved in chromatin decondensation.
15325071 study suggests involvement of prothymosin a, in the formation, maintenance, or functioning of the mitotic spindle
12522243 regulatory roles of oncoprotein ProT and tumor suppressor PHAP in apoptosis
12062405 prothymosin alpha is capable of forming regular elongated fibrils
11727831 we demonstrate the existence of three binding partners (31, 29, and 19 kDa) for ProTalpha in the membrane of PHA-activated lymphoblasts. These surface molecules possess the expected affinity and specificity for a ProTalpha receptor
11528108 induces unravelling of metaphase chromosomes in vitro
7588773 prothymosin alpha has been identified through the use of a Rev affinity column as specifically binding to the activation domain of Rev (amino acids 75-83)

AA Sequence

DGEEEDGDEDEEAESATGKRAAEDDEDDDVDTKKQKTDEDD                                  71 - 111

Text Mined References (96)

PMID Year Title
26348351 2015 Prothymosin-? Overexpression Contributes to the Development of Insulin Resistance.
25582950 2015 Molecular effects of cancer-associated somatic mutations on the structural and target recognition properties of Keap1.
25556234 2015 New host factors important for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication revealed by a novel microfluidics screen for interactors of matrix (M) protein.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25197357 2014 Increased expression of prothymosin-?, independently or combined with TP53, correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
24733561 2014 Loss of nuclear prothymosin-? expression is associated with disease progression in human superficial bladder cancer.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
23859021 2013 The influence of phosphorylation of prothymosin ? on its nuclear import and antiapoptotic activity.
23857453 2013 Prothymosin alpha protects cardiomyocytes against ischemia-induced apoptosis via preservation of Akt activation.
23695700 2013 Prothymosin ? overexpression contributes to the development of pulmonary emphysema.
23568457 2013 Genetic variants associated with disordered eating.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
23359453 2013 First evidence of prothymosin ? localization in the acrosome of mammalian male gametes.
23318954 2013 Fuzzy complex formation between the intrinsically disordered prothymosin ? and the Kelch domain of Keap1 involved in the oxidative stress response.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
22814378 2012 N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB.
22609059 2013 Plasma thymosin-?1 level as a potential biomarker in urothelial and renal cell carcinoma.
22463375 2012 Preliminary methylation analysis of prothymosin ? genomic sequences.
22223895 2012 Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-?-acetylation features.
22125611 2011 Microsecond molecular dynamics simulations of intrinsically disordered proteins involved in the oxidative stress response.
22115779 2011 NMR structure of human thymosin alpha-1.
22110140 2012 Prothymosin-? interacts with mutant huntingtin and suppresses its cytotoxicity in cell culture.
22059741 2011 MicroRNA-1 induces apoptosis by targeting prothymosin alpha in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
21954601 [Prothymosin alpha interacts with C-terminal domain of histone H1 and dissociates p53-histone H1 complex].
21573209 2011 Overexpression of prothymosin alpha predicts poor disease outcome in head and neck cancer.
21406692 2011 System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21044950 2011 Genome-wide YFP fluorescence complementation screen identifies new regulators for telomere signaling in human cells.
20977946 2011 The M2-type isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase phosphorylates prothymosin ? in proliferating lymphocytes.
20430720 2009 Immunohistochemical detection of prothymosin alpha in pituitary adenomas--a new marker of tumor recurrence?
20121050 2010 Novel small molecules relieve prothymosin alpha-mediated inhibition of apoptosome formation by blocking its interaction with Apaf-1.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19608861 2009 Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions.
19413330 2009 Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach.
19369195 2009 Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome.
18976813 2009 Prothymosin alpha immunoactive carboxyl-terminal peptide TKKQKTDEDD stimulates lymphocyte reactions, induces dendritic cell maturation and adopts a beta-sheet conformation in a sequence-specific manner.
18856068 [Influence of prothymosin alpha and its mutants on activity of the p53 tumor suppressor].
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18391951 2008 Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.
18240569 [Prothyomosin alpha interaction with KEAP1 doesn't lead to prothymosin alpha ubiquination and degradation].
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17929838 2007 Effects of zinc binding on the structure and dynamics of the intrinsically disordered protein prothymosin alpha: evidence for metalation as an entropic switch.
17876542 2007 Effectiveness of gene expression profiling for response prediction of rectal cancer to preoperative radiotherapy.
17188166 2007 Expression and prognostic significance of prothymosin-alpha and ERp57 in human gastric cancer.
17081983 2006 Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.
17046193 2007 Altered expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: correlation with prothymosin alpha and clinicopathological parameters.
17012289 2006 Prothymosin alpha interacts with free core histones in the nucleus of dividing cells.
16940531 2006 Novel function of prothymosin alpha as a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in primary macrophages.
16669873 2006 Identification of novel genes expressed during rhabdomyosarcoma differentiation using cDNA microarrays.
16628001 2006 p8 and prothymosin alpha: unity is strength.
16478804 2006 Regulation of apoptosis by the p8/prothymosin alpha complex.
16353248 2006 Expression of prothymosin alpha is correlated with development and progression in human prostate cancers.
16341674 2005 Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.
15657435 2005 Nuclear oncoprotein prothymosin alpha is a partner of Keap1: implications for expression of oxidative stress-protecting genes.
15607035 2004 Systematic identification of hepatocellular proteins interacting with NS5A of the hepatitis C virus.
15556635 2004 Prothymosin alpha associates with the oncoprotein SET and is involved in chromatin decondensation.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15325071 2004 Prothymosin alpha is localized in mitotic spindle during mitosis.
15242774 2004 Interferon induces the interaction of prothymosin-alpha with STAT3 and results in the nuclear translocation of the complex.
12943695 2003 Modulation of estrogen receptor activity by selective coregulators.
12634383 2003 Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C recruits histone deacetylase activity and associates with the corepressors mSin3A and NCoR in human B-cell lines.
12522243 2003 Distinctive roles of PHAP proteins and prothymosin-alpha in a death regulatory pathway.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11967287 2002 Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and prothymosin alpha interact with the p300 transcriptional coactivator at the CH1 and CH3/HAT domains and cooperate in regulation of transcription and histone acetylation.
11897665 2002 Prothymosin alpha interacts with the CREB-binding protein and potentiates transcription.
11759895 2001 Expression of the prothymosin-a gene as a prognostic factor in lung cancer.
11528108 2001 Prothymosin alpha, a mammalian c-myc-regulated acidic nuclear protein, provokes the decondensation of human chromosomes in vitro.
11310559 2001 Identification of nuclear-import and cell-cycle regulatory proteins that bind to prothymosin alpha.
11282171 2001 Decreased expression of c-myc family genes in thymuses from myasthenia gravis patients.
10891508 2000 Modulation of histone acetyltransferase activity through interaction of epstein-barr nuclear antigen 3C with prothymosin alpha.
10854063 2000 Nuclear distribution of prothymosin alpha and parathymosin: evidence that prothymosin alpha is associated with RNA synthesis processing and parathymosin with early DNA replication.
10675528 2000 Prothymosin alpha fragmentation in apoptosis.
9334214 1997 Prothymosin alpha in vivo contains phosphorylated glutamic acid residues.
9099694 1997 A 180-kDa protein kinase seems to be responsible for the phosphorylation of prothymosin alpha observed in proliferating cells.
8886855 1996 Thymosin alpha 1 interacts with the VIP receptor-effector system in rat and mouse immunocompetent cells.
8814229 1996 Prothymosin alpha binds histones in vitro and shows activity in nucleosome assembly assay.
8592501 [New intronless members of human prothymosin alpha genes].
8485135 1993 Phosphorylation of human and bovine prothymosin alpha in vivo.
8415730 1993 Expression of alpha-thymosins in human tissues in normal and abnormal growth.
8125298 1994 Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.
7916742 1993 Prothymosin alpha gene in humans: organization of its promoter region and localization to chromosome 2.
7913591 1994 Distribution of prothymosin alpha in rat and human adrenal cortex.
7588773 1995 Binding of human prothymosin alpha to the leucine-motif/activation domains of HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 Rev.
3532956 1986 Human prothymosin alpha: amino acid sequence and immunologic properties.
3474615 1987 Prothymosin alpha in human blood.
3467312 1986 The human prothymosin alpha gene is polymorphic and induced upon growth stimulation: evidence using a cloned cDNA.
3466166 1986 Molecular cloning of cDNA for human prothymosin alpha.
2785990 1989 The expression of prothymosin alpha gene in T lymphocytes and leukemic lymphoid cells is tied to lymphocyte proliferation.
2708378 1989 Isolation and partial sequencing of the human prothymosin alpha gene family. Evidence against export of the gene products.
2209614 1990 Thymosins: both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins.
1814846 1991 Prothymosin alpha enhances interleukin 2 receptor expression in normal human T-lymphocytes.
1632187 1992 Prothymosin alpha expression in lymph nodes and tonsils: an optical and ultrastructural study.
1612591 1992 The human prothymosin alpha gene family contains several processed pseudogenes lacking deleterious lesions.
1545115 1992 Prothymosin alpha enhances human and murine MHC class II surface antigen expression and messenger RNA accumulation.
1426245 1992 Prothymosin alpha is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2.