Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 65
PubMed Score 54.58
PubTator Score 47.66

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

Expression

  Differential Expression (8)

Disease log2 FC p
Multiple myeloma 1.586 1.1e-04
astrocytoma 1.100 1.5e-02
glioblastoma 1.500 6.1e-04
juvenile dermatomyositis 1.299 7.5e-17
tuberculosis 1.300 6.4e-08
lung cancer -1.100 1.3e-03
ovarian cancer 1.500 1.7e-03
dermatomyositis 1.100 8.4e-03

Synonym

Accession Q06323 A6NJG9 H0YNE3 Q6IBM2 Q9UEF4
Symbols PA28A
IFI5111
REGalpha
PA28alpha
HEL-S-129m

Gene

PDB

1AVO  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

 MGI Phenotype (1)

Protein-protein Interaction (5)

Gene RIF (36)

PMID Text
26892607 Results show that PA28alpha was found to be overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and tumor tissues. High expression of PA28alpha was significantly associated with recurrence and poorer overall survival.
26399368 Constitutive expression of PA28 and ERAP1 in melanoma cells indicate that both interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation even in the absence of IFN-gamma
23918357 PA28 is a tumor marker and a potential target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.
23383295 Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFNbeta in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.
22532226 the first evidence of a novel ovarian cancer-specific marker
19403671 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
19225532 bortezomib-adapted HL-60 cells showed increased expression and proteasome association of the 11S proteasome activator
17939699 the 11S proteasome activator complex, Reg alpha fragment, may have a role in ovarian cancer
17671684 DJ-1 and PA28alpha may have roles in the onset of hepatocarcinogenesis
14760793 The relationship between anti-PA28alpha and Ki antibodies suggests the importance of an antigen-driven system in the induction of an autoimmune response to PA28 complex.
14614829 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
14564014 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
14557625 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
14550573 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
14528301 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
14528300 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
14527406 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12970355 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12920286 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12914693 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12859895 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12840737 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12830140 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12809610 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12808466 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12808465 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12750511 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12719574 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12519221 Impaired expression of proteasome subunits is involved in the loss of HLA class I expression in human colon cancer cells.
12419264 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
12200048 PA28 selectively up-regulates the presentation of viral MHC class I epitopes and that down regulation PA28 in tumor cells results in impaired presentation of a human TRP2 tumor antigen.
12167863 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
10893419 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
9846577 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
9811770 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA
9079628 HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA

AA Sequence

MAMLRVQPEAQAKVDVFREDLCTKTENLLGSYFPKKISELDAFLKEPALNEANLSNLKAPLDIPVPDPVK      1 - 70
EKEKEERKKQQEKEDKDEKKKGEDEDKGPPCGPVNCNEKIVVLLQRLKPEIKDVIEQLNLVTTWLQLQIP     71 - 140
RIEDGNNFGVAVQEKVFELMTSLHTKLEGFHTQISKYFSERGDAVTKAAKQPHVGDYRQLVHELDEAEYR    141 - 210
DIRLMVMEIRNAYAVLYDIILKNFEKLKKPRGETKGMIY                                   211 - 249
//

Text Mined References (71)

PMID Year Title
26892607 2016 Overexpression of proteasomal activator PA28? serves as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
26399368 2015 The proteasome immunosubunits, PA28 and ER-aminopeptidase 1 protect melanoma cells from efficient MART-126-35 -specific T-cell recognition.
25944712 2015 N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
23918357 2013 Proteasome activator complex PA28 identified as an accessible target in prostate cancer by in vivo selection of human antibodies.
23383295 2013 Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFN? in mouse pancreatic ?-cells.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
22532226 2012 The C-terminal fragment of the immunoproteasome PA28S (Reg alpha) as an early diagnosis and tumor-relapse biomarker: evidence from mass spectrometry profiling.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
20458337 MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.
20010787 2010 Proteasomes in immune cells: more than peptide producers?
19225532 2009 Characterization of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in bortezomib-adapted cells.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17939699 2007 Specific MALDI imaging and profiling for biomarker hunting and validation: fragment of the 11S proteasome activator complex, Reg alpha fragment, is a new potential ovary cancer biomarker.
17719568 2007 Subtractive hybridisation screen identifies genes regulated by glucose deprivation in human neuroblastoma cells.
17671684 2007 Proteomic identification of down-regulation of oncoprotein DJ-1 and proteasome activator subunit 1 in hepatitis B virus-infected well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
17323924 2007 Mass spectrometric characterization of the affinity-purified human 26S proteasome complex.
16189514 2005 Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.
16169070 2005 A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.
16130169 2005 Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15029244 2004 Mammalian Cdh1/Fzr mediates its own degradation.
14760793 2004 Autoimmune response to proteasome activator 28alpha in patients with connective tissue diseases.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14614829 2003 The Vif protein of HIV triggers degradation of the human antiretroviral DNA deaminase APOBEC3G.
14564014 2003 Induction of APOBEC3G ubiquitination and degradation by an HIV-1 Vif-Cul5-SCF complex.
14557625 2003 The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein reduces intracellular expression and inhibits packaging of APOBEC3G (CEM15), a cellular inhibitor of virus infectivity.
14550573 2003 Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein interacts with distinct proteasomal alpha and beta subunits.
14528301 2003 HIV-1 Vif protein binds the editing enzyme APOBEC3G and induces its degradation.
14528300 2003 The antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasome in response to HIV-1 Vif.
14527406 2003 HIV-1 Vif blocks the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by impairing both its translation and intracellular stability.
12970355 2003 The enzymatic activity of CEM15/Apobec-3G is essential for the regulation of the infectivity of HIV-1 virion but not a sole determinant of its antiviral activity.
12920286 2003 Virology. Weapons of mutational destruction.
12914693 2003 Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1.
12859895 2003 Species-specific exclusion of APOBEC3G from HIV-1 virions by Vif.
12840737 2003 Good to CU.
12830140 2003 DNA deamination: not just a trigger for antibody diversification but also a mechanism for defense against retroviruses.
12809610 2003 DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection.
12808466 2003 Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts.
12808465 2003 The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA.
12791267 2003 Prophase destruction of Emi1 by the SCF(betaTrCP/Slimb) ubiquitin ligase activates the anaphase promoting complex to allow progression beyond prometaphase.
12750511 2003 Hypermutation of HIV-1 DNA in the absence of the Vif protein.
12719574 2003 Comprehensive investigation of the molecular defect in vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions.
12519221 2003 Impaired expression of proteasome subunits and human leukocyte antigens class I in human colon cancer cells.
12508121 2003 The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12419264 2002 The RTP site shared by the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen processing.
12200048 2002 The role of the proteasome activator PA28 in MHC class I antigen processing.
12167863 2002 Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein.
11922078 2001 Structural plasticity of the proteasome and its function in antigen processing.
11285280 2001 Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is not subject to the spindle assembly checkpoint.
10893419 2000 Degradation of HIV-1 integrase by the N-end rule pathway.
10799514 2000 Hybrid proteasomes. Induction by interferon-gamma and contribution to ATP-dependent proteolysis.
10199920 1999 Organization of the genes encoding the human proteasome activators PA28alpha and beta.
9846577 1998 Evidence for a newly discovered cellular anti-HIV-1 phenotype.
9811770 1998 An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein.
9620878 1998 Simultaneous binding of PA28 and PA700 activators to 20 S proteasomes.
9590240 1998 Characterization of the mouse PA28 activator complex gene family: complete organizations of the three member genes and a physical map of the approximately 150-kb region containing the alpha- and beta-subunit genes.
9403698 1997 Structure of the proteasome activator REGalpha (PA28alpha).
9394799 1997 Rapamycin inhibits proteasome activator expression and proteasome activity.
9385652 1997 The proteasome 11S regulator subunit REG alpha (PA28 alpha) is a heptamer.
9344661 1997 Genetic relationships of the genes encoding the human proteasome beta subunits and the proteasome PA28 complex.
9287111 1997 Expression and subcellular localization of mouse 20S proteasome activator complex PA28.
9079628 1997 HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated activation.
8889548 1996 Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.
8811196 1996 Structure and functions of the 20S and 26S proteasomes.
8663520 1996 In vivo characterization of the proteasome regulator PA28.
8269930 1993 Interferon-gamma up-regulates a unique set of proteins in human keratinocytes. Molecular cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding the RGD-sequence-containing protein IGUP I-5111.
8051173 1994 Molecular cloning and expression of a gamma-interferon-inducible activator of the multicatalytic protease.
7789512 1995 Primary structures of two homologous subunits of PA28, a gamma-interferon-inducible protein activator of the 20S proteasome.
1286667 1992 Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes.