Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 43
PubMed Score 147.67
PubTator Score 115.47

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

Expression

  Differential Expression (15)

Disease log2 FC p
pancreatic cancer 1.100 3.8e-03
psoriasis -3.800 2.8e-05
osteosarcoma -3.572 4.2e-06
ependymoma -1.100 4.3e-03
sonic hedgehog group medulloblastoma -2.800 2.0e-07
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor -2.100 1.8e-07
medulloblastoma, large-cell -2.200 3.4e-05
primitive neuroectodermal tumor -1.900 3.2e-03
tuberculosis 1.100 5.6e-03
colon cancer -2.800 3.7e-03
lung cancer -4.600 6.4e-06
active Crohn's disease -1.724 3.0e-03
ulcerative colitis -3.500 1.0e-10
pancreatic carcinoma 1.100 3.8e-03
Breast cancer -1.500 7.3e-05

Synonym

Accession Q9Y2J8 Q96DA7 Q9UPN2
Symbols PAD2
PDI2
PAD-H19

Gene

PANTHER Protein Class (1)

PDB

4N20   4N22   4N24   4N25   4N26   4N28   4N2A   4N2B   4N2C   4N2D   4N2E   4N2F   4N2G   4N2H   4N2I   4N2K   4N2L   4N2M   4N2N  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

MLP Assay (12)

AID Type Active / Inconclusive / Inactive Description
588438 confirmatory 1 / 0 / 0 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of compound 1 against PAD1-4
588462 confirmatory 1 / 0 / 0 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of streptonigrin against PAD1-3
588471 confirmatory 1 / 0 / 0 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of compound 3 against PAD1-4
588472 confirmatory 1 / 0 / 0 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of compound 14 against PAD1-4
588484 confirmatory 0 / 0 / 1 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of compound 10 against PAD1-4
588486 confirmatory 1 / 0 / 0 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of compound 21 against PAD1-4
588487 other 35 / 0 / 44 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): fluorescence-based biochemical gel-based competitive Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) inhibition by HTS hits of PADs 1-4
588488 other 0 / 0 / 34 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of HTS hits against PAD1-4
588490 confirmatory 1 / 0 / 0 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4): colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to assess potency of compound 17 against PAD1-4
588560 other 12 / 0 / 18 Late stage assay provider results from the probe development effort to identify inhibitors of PAD4: colorimetric biochemical substrate assay to identify inhibitors of PADs 1-4
More...

Gene RIF (31)

PMID Text
26255191 We identified the presence of PADI3 mRNA expression in synovial tissue and PADI2 and PADI4 mRNA expressions in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
26245941 PAD2 activity was significantly higher in cell-free synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to osteoarthritis patients.
25897949 Report increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers.
25621824 Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds six calcium ions in an ordered fashion.
25475141 PAD2 activity was detected in synovial fluid samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
25213324 these studies provide the first genetic evidence that PAD2 functions as an oncogene and suggest that PAD2 may promote tumor progression by enhancing inflammation within the tumor microenvironment.
24989433 PAD2 appears to use a substrate-assisted mechanism of catalysis in which the positively charged substrate guanidinium depresses the pKa of the nucleophilic cysteine
24850148 PADI2 and vimentin participate in the apoptotic mechanisms of activated T lymphocytes.
24594197 PAD2 and PAD4 have distinct substrate specificities.
24384061 Data suggest peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) as a possible biomarker in various inflammatory diseases.
23562679 Our observations show increased levels of protein deimination but not PAD2 in age related macular degeneration retinas and retinal pigment epithelium suggesting reduced rate of turnover of deiminated proteins.
23022892 These findings suggest that PAD2 and citrullinated proteins may play a key role in the brain pathology of prion diseases. [review]
22911765 PAD2 binds directly to the promoters of the PTN and MAGEA12 genes and that the likely mechanism by which PAD2 regulates expression of these genes is via citrullination of arginine residues 2-8-17 on histone H3 tails.
22853951 17beta-estradiol stimulation induces the recruitment of PAD2 to target promoters by ERalpha, whereby PAD2 then citrullinates H3R26, which leads to local chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation.
22614825 Contact between stimulated T cells and monocyte-macrophages or cytokine-activated monocyte-macrophages constitutes a highly likely source of PAD2 and PAD4, which are observed in inflamed synovial tissues.
22520816 Normal human and canine mammary epithelium showed strong cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of PAD2, but there was reduced PAD2 expression in mammary carcinomas from both species.
21878453 Defective regulation of PAD2 in the periphery blood, without the immunological shelter of the blood-brain barrier, may contribute to the development of the autoimmune responses in MS.
20806090 This is the first report demonstrating that like in primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma also possesses elevated levels of both PAD2 and protein-bound citrulline.
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20013286 PAD2 activation and aberrant citrullinated proteins could play a role in pathogenesis and have value as a marker for the postmortem classification of neurodegenerative diseases.
19564157 PAD2 is expressed in human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cells during differentiation into macrophages
19478818 PADI2 does not contribute to genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia.
19478818 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18923545 Results describe the in vitro kinetic properties of the human peptidylarginine deiminase isoform 2 (hPAD2), and explore the putative inhibitory action of the methyl ester side chain of paclitaxel.
18668562 The citrullinating enzyme PAD-4 was detected in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthritides.
18645041 These data provide new structure-function dimensions for chemokines in leukocyte mobilization, disclosing an anti-inflammatory role for PAD.
17968929 PAD-2 & PAD-4 are only isotypes expressed in synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis & other arthritides; inflammatory cells are major source, but PAD-4 also comes from hyperplastic synoviocytes; both isotypes probably involved in citrullination of fibrin
17469138 The amount of peptidyl arginine deiminase type II enzyme and citrullinated myelin basic protein was increased in multiple sclerosis
15629448 hPADI2 and hPADI4 have different roles under physiological and pathological conditions
15555572 first report to demonstrate a measurable response in the amounts of peptidylarginine deiminase type II mRNA, protein and activity in human astrocytes by prolonged hypoxic exposure
12392711 molecular cloning and gene organization; expressed by all the living epidermal layers, suggesting that PAD type II is functionally important during terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes

AA Sequence

MLRERTVRLQYGSRVEAVYVLGTYLWTDVYSAAPAGAQTFSLKHSEHVWVEVVRDGEAEEVATNGKQRWL      1 - 70
LSPSTTLRVTMSQASTEASSDKVTVNYYDEEGSIPIDQAGLFLTAIEISLDVDADRDGVVEKNNPKKASW     71 - 140
TWGPEGQGAILLVNCDRETPWLPKEDCRDEKVYSKEDLKDMSQMILRTKGPDRLPAGYEIVLYISMSDSD    141 - 210
KVGVFYVENPFFGQRYIHILGRRKLYHVVKYTGGSAELLFFVEGLCFPDEGFSGLVSIHVSLLEYMAQDI    211 - 280
PLTPIFTDTVIFRIAPWIMTPNILPPVSVFVCCMKDNYLFLKEVKNLVEKTNCELKVCFQYLNRGDRWIQ    281 - 350
DEIEFGYIEAPHKGFPVVLDSPRDGNLKDFPVKELLGPDFGYVTREPLFESVTSLDSFGNLEVSPPVTVN    351 - 420
GKTYPLGRILIGSSFPLSGGRRMTKVVRDFLKAQQVQAPVELYSDWLTVGHVDEFMSFVPIPGTKKFLLL    421 - 490
MASTSACYKLFREKQKDGHGEAIMFKGLGGMSSKRITINKILSNESLVQENLYFQRCLDWNRDILKKELG    491 - 560
LTEQDIIDLPALFKMDEDHRARAFFPNMVNMIVLDKDLGIPKPFGPQVEEECCLEMHVRGLLEPLGLECT    561 - 630
FIDDISAYHKFLGEVHCGTNVRRKPFTFKWWHMVP                                       631 - 665
//

Text Mined References (44)

PMID Year Title
26255191 2016 The amount of citrullinated proteins in synovial tissue is related to serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels.
26245941 2015 Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid.
25897949 Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs.
25621824 2015 Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: implications for inhibitor design.
25475141 2014 Demonstration of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) activity in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a novel assay for citrullination of fibrinogen.
25213324 2014 PAD2 overexpression in transgenic mice promotes spontaneous skin neoplasia.
24989433 2014 Mechanistic studies of protein arginine deiminase 2: evidence for a substrate-assisted mechanism.
24850148 2014 Vimentin is involved in peptidylarginine deiminase 2-induced apoptosis of activated Jurkat cells.
24594197 2014 The human peptidylarginine deiminases type 2 and type 4 have distinct substrate specificities.
24384061 2014 Generation of monoclonal antibodies against peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) and development of a PAD2-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
23562679 2013 Retinal deimination and PAD2 levels in retinas from donors with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
23022892 Peptidylarginine deiminase and protein citrullination in prion diseases: strong evidence of neurodegeneration.
22926577 2012 Quantitative proteomic analysis of human substantia nigra in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Multiple sclerosis.
22911765 2012 Potential role for PAD2 in gene regulation in breast cancer cells.
22853951 2012 Peptidylarginine deiminase 2-catalyzed histone H3 arginine 26 citrullination facilitates estrogen receptor ? target gene activation.
22614825 2012 Contact with stimulated T cells up-regulates expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 and 4 by human monocytes.
22520816 Comparative analysis of peptidylarginine deiminase-2 expression in canine, feline and human mammary tumours.
21878453 2012 Methylation-dependent PAD2 upregulation in multiple sclerosis peripheral blood.
20806090 2010 Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 is over expressed in the glaucomatous optic nerve.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
20013286 2010 Involvement of peptidylarginine deiminase-mediated post-translational citrullination in pathogenesis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
19564157 2009 Dynamic expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 in human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cells during macrophage differentiation.
19478818 2009 A two-stage case-control association study of PADI2 with schizophrenia.
19056867 2009 Large-scale proteomics and phosphoproteomics of urinary exosomes.
18923545 2008 Kinetics of human peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (hPAD2)--reduction of Ca2+ dependence by phospholipids and assessment of proposed inhibition by paclitaxel side chains.
18668562 2008 Synovial fluid is a site of citrullination of autoantigens in inflammatory arthritis.
18645041 2008 Citrullination of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by peptidylarginine deiminase: a naturally occurring posttranslational modification of chemokines and new dimension of immunoregulation.
17968929 2007 Peptidyl arginine deiminase type 2 (PAD-2) and PAD-4 but not PAD-1, PAD-3, and PAD-6 are expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovium in close association with tissue inflammation.
17469138 2007 Peptidyl argininedeiminase 2 CpG island in multiple sclerosis white matter is hypomethylated.
17031564 2007 The role of citrullinated proteins suggests a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
16973334 2006 Peptidylarginine deiminases and deimination in biology and pathology: relevance to skin homeostasis.
16723463 2006 Proteomics implicates peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 and optic nerve citrullination in glaucoma pathogenesis.
16710414 2006 The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.
15704193 2005 Abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase in hippocampal extracts from patients with Alzheimer's disease.
15629448 2005 Comparison of enzymatic properties between hPADI2 and hPADI4.
15555572 2004 Increased peptidylarginine deiminase type II in hypoxic astrocytes.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15087120 2004 Comparative analysis of the mouse and human peptidylarginine deiminase gene clusters reveals highly conserved non-coding segments and a new human gene, PADI6.
14579251 2003 PAD, a growing family of citrullinating enzymes: genes, features and involvement in disease.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12392711 2002 Human peptidylarginine deiminase type II: molecular cloning, gene organization, and expression in human skin.
11181995 2001 The sequence of the human genome.
10231032 1999 Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.
2768262 1989 Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding rat skeletal muscle peptidylarginine deiminase.