Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 67
PubMed Score 356.56
PubTator Score 185.65

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease (3)

Disease Target Count
Bradycardia 24
Hypotension 53
Disease Target Count P-value
malignant mesothelioma 3163 1.3e-06
Breast cancer 3098 8.0e-04
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
Eccrine acrospiroma 2 3.948 2.0
Hypertension 293 3.927 2.0


  Differential Expression (2)

Disease log2 FC p
malignant mesothelioma 1.300 1.3e-06
Breast cancer 2.100 8.0e-04

Gene RIF (20)

24647318 EDN2 expression in left internal mammary arteries depends on tissue harvesting technique.
24043815 Overexpression of Edn2 in the mouse retina causes an excess of tip cells and inhibits vascular growth. Overexpression of Edn2 in the brain and skin had no effect, but vascular development was inhibited in midgestation mouse embryos.
23518706 Endothelin 2 and endothelin receptor type B may be a regenerative pathway for central nervous system myelination and remyelination.
22921304 plasma levels of big ET-2, and big ET-3 are markedly increased in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis
22865632 Studies revealed hypermethylation of EDN2 and EDN3 genes in human primary colon cancers and in a panel of human colon cancer cell lines. Epigenetic inactivation of ET-2 and ET-3 occurs frequently in both rat and human colon cancers.
22727793 In granulosa lutein cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome, endothelin-2 mRNA was reduced as compared with normally ovulating women
22047647 although endothelin 2 does not appear to be an independent prognostic marker, there is evidence of a putative role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20140262 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20028935 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19527514 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19527488 EDN3, in contrast to EDN1 and EDN2, may act as natural tumour suppressor in the human mammary gland
19336370 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19019335 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18818748 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18037749 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18037749 The EDN2 A985 allele, which is considered to be protective in cardiovascular disease, may be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
12516960 Endothelin-2 is a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor for breast tumor cells
12207323 Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant. ET-2 expression by tumors may modulate the behavior of macrophages such that activated cells accumulate in areas of hypoxia.

AA Sequence

GELLQRLRDISTVKSLFAKRQQEAMREPRSTHSRWRKR                                    141 - 178

Text Mined References (68)

PMID Year Title
24763822 2014 Loss of function of endothelin-2 leads to reduced ovulation and CL formation.
24647318 2015 The comparison of traditional and modified harvesting techniques of left ?nternal mammary artery regarding endothelin-1/2/3 expression and free flow capacity.
24043815 2013 Endothelin-2 signaling in the neural retina promotes the endothelial tip cell state and inhibits angiogenesis.
23518706 2013 Identification of endothelin 2 as an inflammatory factor that promotes central nervous system remyelination.
22921304 2012 Increased plasma levels of big-endothelin-2 and big-endothelin-3 in patients with end-stage renal disease.
22865632 2013 Epigenetic inactivation of endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 in colon cancer.
22727793 2012 Altered endothelin expression in granulosa-lutein cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
22047647 2012 Expression of endothelin 2 and localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20140262 2010 Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth.
20028935 2010 EDNRA variants associate with smooth muscle mRNA levels, cell proliferation rates, and cystic fibrosis pulmonary disease severity.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19527514 2009 Racial disparity in pathophysiologic pathways of preterm birth based on genetic variants.
19527488 2009 Frequent loss of endothelin-3 (EDN3) expression due to epigenetic inactivation in human breast cancer.
19336370 2009 Determination of genetic predisposition to patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants.
19019335 2009 Spontaneous preterm birth in African Americans is associated with infection and inflammatory response gene variants.
18818748 2008 Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.
18037749 2007 A985G polymorphism of the endothelin-2 gene and atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
17997104 2007 The ovarian endothelin network: an evolving story.
17445867 2007 Endothelin-3 growth factor levels decreased in cervical cancer compared with normal cervical epithelial cells.
16879056 2006 Fifteen polymorphisms in endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-receptor-A genotyped by four duplex assays and seven simple assays on a LightCycler using hybridization probes.
16754659 2006 Stable association between G alpha(q) and phospholipase C beta 1 in living cells.
16714215 2006 Effect of endothelins on human neutrophil activation by immune complexes.
16710414 2006 The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.
16493522 2006 Endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor: regulation of expression via reactive oxygen species induced by CoCl2, and Biological activities including neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.
15691296 2005 Ursodeoxycholic acid reduces increased circulating endothelin 2 in primary biliary cirrhosis.
15619356 2004 Endothelin-2 down-regulation occurs in parallel with the anti-proliferative effect of dimethylsulfoxide in BeWO human choriocarcinoma cell line.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15059899 2004 A role for endothelin-2 and its receptors in breast tumor cell invasion.
12516960 2002 Endothelin-2 is a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor for breast tumor cells.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12207323 2002 Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant: implications for macrophage distribution in tumors.
12184531 2002 Endothelin content, expression, and receptor type in normal and diseased human gallbladder.
11187978 2000 The neurogenic vasodilator response to endothelin-1: a study in human skin in vivo.
10976780 2000 Association between diastolic blood pressure and variants of the endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 genes.
10750028 2000 Endothelin-2 synthesis is stimulated by the type-1 tumour necrosis factor receptor and cAMP: comparison with endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression.
10494802 1999 Transgenic rats expressing the human ET-2 gene: a model for the study of endothelin actions in vivo.
10489105 1999 Quantitative association between a newly identified molecular variant in the endothelin-2 gene and human essential hypertension.
10438732 1999 Proteolytic processing of big endothelin-3 by the kell blood group protein.
9826183 1998 The solution structure of human endothelin-2 a 1H-NMR and CD study.
9696419 1998 The involvement of protein kinase G in stimulation of neutrophil migration by endothelins.
9675146 1998 Novel 31-amino-acid-length endothelins cause constriction of vascular smooth muscle.
9588179 1998 Structure of human endothelin-2 gene and demonstration of common expression in human right atrial tissue.
9492062 1998 Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 contributes to the endothelin/sarafotoxin-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1): evidence for a protein tyrosine kinase-signaling pathway and involvement of protein kinase C.
9422810 1997 Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) activity in human vascular smooth muscle.
9284755 1997 Endothelin-1 and ETA receptor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells from human placenta: a new ETA receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is generated by alternative splicing of exon 3.
9164966 1997 Human alveolar macrophages synthesize endothelins by thrombin.
9085198 1997 Endothelins-1, 2 and 3 are released in vitro from the human bilaterally perfused placenta.
8982507 1996 Characterization of endothelin receptors in the human umbilical artery and vein.
8821821 1996 Localization of endothelin peptides in human kidney.
8697704 1996 Expression of endothelin peptides and mRNA in the human heart.
8671207 1996 Immunoreactive endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and big endothelin-1 in follicular fluids of women undergoing ovulation induction for in-vitro fertilization.
8345469 1993 Identification of endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 in human endometrium.
8323558 1993 Alternatively spliced mRNAs for human endothelin-2 and their tissue distribution.
7509960 1993 Characterization of endothelin isoforms in human heart: endothelin-2 demonstrated.
7509938 1993 Endothelin-2 mRNA splice variants detected by RT-PCR in cultured human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.
2649896 1989 The human endothelin family: three structurally and pharmacologically distinct isopeptides predicted by three separate genes.
2201681 1990 The hydrolysis of endothelins by neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase).
2018043 1991 Chromosomal assignments of the human endothelin family genes: the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1) to 6p23-p24, the endothelin-2 gene (EDN2) to 1p34, and the endothelin-3 gene (EDN3) to 20q13.2-q13.3.
1917960 1991 Effects of endothelins on signal transduction and proliferation in human melanocytes.
1840558 1991 cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2.
1816758 Contractile effect of endothelin-2 on the isolated human saphenous vein.
1725387 1991 Expression of endothelin-2 (ET-2) gene in a human renal adenocarcinoma cell line: purification and cDNA cloning of ET-2.
1725334 1991 Functional and autoradiographic studies of endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 in human bronchi, pulmonary arteries, and airway parasympathetic ganglia.
1701397 1990 Specific expression of human endothelin-2 (ET-2) gene in a renal adenocarcinoma cell line. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the precursor of ET-2 and its characterization.
1652300 1991 Positive inotropic effect of endothelin-2 on human atrium preparations in vitro.
1446139 1992 Localization of immunoreactive endothelin and proendothelin in the human lung.
1345052 1992 Radioimmunoassay of endothelin in human plasma.