Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 49
PubMed Score 111.59
PubTator Score 69.12

Knowledge Summary

Patent (2,545)


  Differential Expression (11)

Disease log2 FC p
Waldenstrons macroglobulinemia 1.275 3.0e-02
Multiple myeloma 1.121 1.4e-02
astrocytic glioma -1.700 9.1e-03
oligodendroglioma -1.400 2.6e-02
group 3 medulloblastoma 2.500 2.0e-05
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.400 6.0e-05
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma... 1.300 2.0e-03
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.800 1.9e-03
lung cancer 1.500 3.3e-04
acute myeloid leukemia -1.100 4.7e-02
pituitary cancer 1.100 1.9e-06

 GWAS Trait (1)

Protein-protein Interaction (1)

Gene RIF (33)

26869104 VRK1 regulation of NBS1 contributes to the stability of the repair complex and permits the sequential steps in DNA damage response.
26375549 VRK1 may act as a tumor promoter by controlling the level of cell cycle regulators associated with G1/S transition and could potentially serve as a therapeutic target and/or prognostic biomarker for HCC.
26068304 VRK1 is a novel regulator of CBs dynamics and stability in cell cycle by protecting coilin from ubiquitination and degradation in the proteasome, and propose a model of CB dynamics.
25923214 VRK1 is a novel chromatin component that reacts to its alterations and participates very early in DNA damage response, functioning by itself or in cooperation with Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins.
25609612 VRK1 deficiency in human and mouse leads to downregulation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP). APP overexpression rescues the phenotype caused by Vrk1 knockdown, suggesting that VRK1 affects neuronal migration through an APP-dependent mechanism.
24731990 VRK1 can contribute to make these tumors more resistant to DNA damage-based therapies, such as ionizing radiation or doxorubicin, which is consistent with its association to a poor prognosis in ER positive breast cancer.
24492002 The VRK1-p53 basal complex is an early-warning system for immediate cellular responses to DNA damage.
24430874 VRK1 deficiency disrupts nuclear envelope morphology and leads to BAF retention on mitotic chromosomes.
24126608 This study identification of disease-causing alleles in 3 children from 2 unrelated families with Mutations in VRK1 associated with complex motor and sensory axonal neuropathy plus microcephaly.
23223570 MKP2 is a negative regulator of VRK1-mediated histone H3 phosphorylation.
23082977 Data from molecular dynamic simulations suggest that bivalent cations play key structural roles in stabilization of VRK1/VRK2; bivalent cations have no obvious effects on VRK3. These kinases are targets in search for antineoplastic agents. [REVIEW]
22621922 Data show that vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) in resting cells plays an important role in the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci that assemble on the 53BP1 scaffold protein during the DNA damage response.
22194607 direct interaction and binding features between VRK1 and macroH2A1.2
21920476 VRK1 interacts and phosphorylates coilin, a protein regulating the assembly of Cajal bodies in the nucleus.
21543316 NMR solution structure of a catalytically active form of human VRK1
21386980 VRK1 downregulation is necessary to modulate the block in cell cycle progression induced by p53 as part of its DNA damage response.
19646678 Spinal muscular atrophy with pontocerebellar hypoplasia is caused by a mutation in the VRK1 gene.
19103756 The Plk3-VRK1 kinase module might represent two consecutive steps of a signaling cascade that participates in the regulation of Golgi fragmentation.
18713830 Results show that VRK1 activates CREB and regulates cell cycle progression in the DNA replication period by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression.
18617507 Ran is a novel negative regulator of nuclear VRK1 and VRK2 kinase activity, which may vary in different subcellular localizations generating an asymmetric intracellular distribution of kinase activity depending on local protein interactions.
18612383 the downregulation of VRK1 protein levels, as a consequence of p53 accumulation, is thus dependent on the levels of the p300/CBP protein available for transcriptional complexes
18286197 VRK1 is an immediate early response gene required for entry in G1
18257281 vrk1 gene mutation can be excluded in 2 Chinese pedigrees of the first and second branchial arch syndrome.
17951261 Small interference RNAs specific for Vrk1, was identified that reproducibly reduce viral RNA and viral protein levels in hepatitis C virus replicon-bearing cells.
17938195 These findings collectively support a role of VRK1 as a novel mitotic histone H3 kinase in mammals.
17689819 accumulation of VRK1 in tumours with mutant p53 could result in stimulation of other signalling pathways
17617371 The different reactivity of the VRK1 protein indicates that this protein has a subcellular localization that can be regulated, thus adding an additional level of regulatory complexity to the VRK1 protein.
16782868 As the amount of p53 protein increases, there is a downregulation of the VRK1 protein level independent of its promoter.
16547155 VRK1 might play a role in cell cycle regulation and is likely to represent the beginning of a new control mechanism of cell cycle, particularly late in the G1-S phase.
15542844 VRK1 is the first step in a new pathway regulating p53 activity during cell proliferation
15378002 c-Jun is phosphorylated by the human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and cooperates with the N-terminal kinase of c-Jun (JNK)
15105425 VRK1 phosphorylates ATF2 and is an element of a novel signaling pathway that regulates gene transcription.
14747564 can perform the functions of B1 kinase required for vaccinia virus genome replication, most likely due to overlapping specificity for cellular and/or viral substrates

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (55)

PMID Year Title
26869104 2016 VRK1 phosphorylates and protects NBS1 from ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation in response to DNA damage.
26375549 2015 Vaccinia-related kinase 1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by controlling the levels of cell cycle regulators associated with G1/S transition.
26068304 2015 VRK1 regulates Cajal body dynamics and protects coilin from proteasomal degradation in cell cycle.
25923214 2015 VRK1 chromatin kinase phosphorylates H2AX and is required for foci formation induced by DNA damage.
25609649 2015 Proteomic analyses reveal distinct chromatin-associated and soluble transcription factor complexes.
25609612 2015 The spinal muscular atrophy with pontocerebellar hypoplasia gene VRK1 regulates neuronal migration through an amyloid-? precursor protein-dependent mechanism.
24847357 2014 Genome wide association study of SNP-, gene-, and pathway-based approaches to identify genes influencing susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infections.
24731990 2014 Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) confers resistance to DNA-damaging agents in human breast cancer by affecting DNA damage response.
24684796 2014 Heritability and genetic association analysis of cognition in the Diabetes Heart Study.
24492002 2014 VRK1 interacts with p53 forming a basal complex that is activated by UV-induced DNA damage.
24430874 2014 Depletion of the protein kinase VRK1 disrupts nuclear envelope morphology and leads to BAF retention on mitotic chromosomes.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24126608 2013 Mutations in VRK1 associated with complex motor and sensory axonal neuropathy plus microcephaly.
23223570 2013 Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation via interaction with vaccinia-related kinase 1.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23082977 2013 Role of bivalent cations in structural stabilities of new drug targets--vaccinia-related kinases (VRK) from molecular dynamics simulations.
22621922 2012 Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is an upstream nucleosomal kinase required for the assembly of 53BP1 foci in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage.
22572157 Sensitive detection of idiotypic platelet-reactive alloantibodies by an electrical protein chip.
22194607 2012 Macro histone H2A1.2 (macroH2A1) protein suppresses mitotic kinase VRK1 during interphase.
21920476 2011 Substrate profiling of human vaccinia-related kinases identifies coilin, a Cajal body nuclear protein, as a phosphorylation target with neurological implications.
21543316 2011 NMR solution structure of human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) reveals the C-terminal tail essential for its structural stability and autocatalytic activity.
21507922 2011 Duffy-null-associated low neutrophil counts influence HIV-1 susceptibility in high-risk South African black women.
21386980 2011 Downregulation of VRK1 by p53 in response to DNA damage is mediated by the autophagic pathway.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
19646678 2009 Spinal muscular atrophy with pontocerebellar hypoplasia is caused by a mutation in the VRK1 gene.
19103756 2009 Plk3 interacts with and specifically phosphorylates VRK1 in Ser342, a downstream target in a pathway that induces Golgi fragmentation.
18713830 2008 VRK1 phosphorylates CREB and mediates CCND1 expression.
18617507 2008 Proteomics identification of nuclear Ran GTPase as an inhibitor of human VRK1 and VRK2 (vaccinia-related kinase) activities.
18612383 2008 The C/H3 domain of p300 is required to protect VRK1 and VRK2 from their downregulation induced by p53.
18286197 2008 Human VRK1 is an early response gene and its loss causes a block in cell cycle progression.
18257281 2007 [vrk1 gene mutation test in two Chinese pedigrees of the first and second branchial arch syndrome].
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17951261 2008 Identification of human kinases involved in hepatitis C virus replication by small interference RNA library screening.
17938195 2007 Mitotic histone H3 phosphorylation by vaccinia-related kinase 1 in mammalian cells.
17689819 2007 Alteration of the VRK1-p53 autoregulatory loop in human lung carcinomas.
17617371 2007 Identification of a dominant epitope in human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and detection of different intracellular subpopulations.
16782868 2006 p53 downregulates its activating vaccinia-related kinase 1, forming a new autoregulatory loop.
16704422 2006 The subcellular localization of vaccinia-related kinase-2 (VRK2) isoforms determines their different effect on p53 stability in tumour cell lines.
16547155 2006 VRK1 signaling pathway in the context of the proliferation phenotype in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
16495336 2006 The vaccinia-related kinases phosphorylate the N' terminus of BAF, regulating its interaction with DNA and its retention in the nucleus.
15635413 2005 Nucleolar proteome dynamics.
15542844 2004 p53 Stabilization and accumulation induced by human vaccinia-related kinase 1.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15378002 2004 c-Jun phosphorylation by the human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and its cooperation with the N-terminal kinase of c-Jun (JNK).
15105425 2004 Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional activity by novel phosphorylation on Thr-73 and Ser-62 and cooperates with JNK.
14747564 2004 Members of a novel family of mammalian protein kinases complement the DNA-negative phenotype of a vaccinia virus ts mutant defective in the B1 kinase.
14645249 2004 Characterization of three paralogous members of the Mammalian vaccinia related kinase family.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11883897 2002 Kinetic properties of p53 phosphorylation by the human vaccinia-related kinase 1.
11709713 2001 UV-radiation induces dose-dependent regulation of p53 response and modulates p53-HDM2 interaction in human fibroblasts.
10951572 2000 The human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) phosphorylates threonine-18 within the mdm-2 binding site of the p53 tumour suppressor protein.
10747897 2000 Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
10083742 1999 Isolation and mapping of a polymorphic CA repeat sequence at the human VRK1 locus.
9344656 1997 Identification of two novel human putative serine/threonine kinases, VRK1 and VRK2, with structural similarity to vaccinia virus B1R kinase.