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NCBI Gene PubMed Count 92
PubMed Score 487.35
PubTator Score 56.03

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  Disease (3)


Gene RIF (64)

26789270 this study demonstrated, for the first time, that Tbeta4 was down-regulated in ROS-stimulated PDLCs as well as Tbeta4 activation exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and anti-osteoclastogenesis in vitro.
26556858 Tbeta-4 was validated in clinical samples using a tissue microarray to predict overall survival in colon cancer patients
26361868 this study demonstrates, for the first time, that Tbeta4 is expressed in developing periodontal tissue and that its expression is associated with osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation.
26276576 Overexpression of Tbeta4 enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
26006229 This article reviews the potential role of thymosin beta 4 in liver fibrosis by describing the effects of exogenous and endogenous thymosin beta 4 , and discusses the possible signaling pathway regulated by TB4X. [review]
25695679 The results of the present study suggested that Tb4 may promote HB metastasis via the induction of EMT, and that Tb4 may therefore be a target for the development of novel treatments for patients with Hepatoblastoma .
25313062 the exchange of bound actin between Tbeta4 and profilin involves both steric and allosteric components.
25271630 these results suggest that NO could regulate the expression of Tbeta4 by direct or indirect effect of HIF-1alpha on Tbeta4 promoter.
25218472 Thymosin beta4 induces invasion and migration of human colorectal cancer cells through the ILK/AKT/beta-catenin signaling pathway.
24704991 Regarding HCC, Tbeta4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30%) and Tbeta10 reactivity in 22/23 (97%) cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins.
24355709 Thymosin beta 4 silencing in glioblastoma cells inhibits cell migration and invasion.
24098025 Tbeta4 expression was upregulated significantly in primary and recurrent colorectal cancers
23967050 cell trafficking of thymosin beta-4
23816466 Thymosin beta-4 levels in the serum and synovial fluid of knee osteoarthritis patients are significantly correlated with disease severity.
23811404 Tbeta4 is an important myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) regulator that controls the G-actin-MRTF-A interaction.Tbeta4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding, thus interfering with G-actin-MRTF-A complex formation.
23613983 Tbeta4 plays a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells.
23262355 Detection its amino acid conservation suggest an important role of Tb4 in the homeostasis of the mammalian oral cavity.
23235961 Thymosin beta4 could be associated with morphogenesis and tumor invasion in ameloblastoma and may play a role in the behavior of ameloblastoma.
23055022 Tbeta4 expression was also co-localized with CD133 expression in primary ovarian carcinomas.
23045970 Thymosin beta4 expression reveals intriguing similarities between fetal and cancer cells.
22944663 REVIEW: role of Tbeta4 in thrombosis and platelet aggregation
22652458 The Our data confirm the concept that externally added Tbeta4 must be internalized to induce intracellular mechanisms supporting endothelial cell migration.
22328534 investigated whether GSK-3 activity is regulated by thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4) and associated with Tbeta4-mediated migration in gastric cancer cells; expression of GSK-3alpha, beta-catenin and E-cadherin could be negatively regulated by Tbeta4 induced ERK phosphorylation; suggests that Tbeta4 could be a novel regulator to control Wnt signal pathway
22004227 Thymosin beta4 Tbeta4 may play an important role in bone degradation and inflammation in RA but not OA.
21742406 Tbeta4 is regulated by IL-18 and is involved in IL-18-enhanced IFN-gamma secretion in NK cells.
21514425 findings suggest that Tbeta4 by sequestering actin prevents binding of AKT, thus inhibiting its phosphorylation
21496200 kininogen-1 and thymosin-beta(4) are potential new biomarkers for human chronic hepatitis C.
21332672 Thymosin beta4 may play a role in diabetic retinal neovascularization.
21314931 Describe beta-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease.
21213129 Elevated expression of thymosin beta4 is associated with early-stage cervical cancers.
21109953 overexpression of Tbeta4 is strongly associated with HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha expression and is also clinicopathologically involved with lymph node metastatic potential of breast cancer
21106936 we have identified an extracellular signaling pathway where Tbeta4 increases cell surface ATP levels via ATP synthase and have shown further that ATP-responsive P2X4 receptor is required for Tbeta4-induced cell migration
20975530 The expression of thymosin beta4 is highly related with tumorigenesis of certain tumors including the osteosarcoma and colorectal cancers.
20821256 The TB4 could be a hypoxia responsive regulator to control tumor cell migration in angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.
20691219 Data in colon cancer tissue microarray showed that thymosin beta4 and HIF-1alpha co-localized in these biopsies.
20566622 colorectal cancer stem cells from different patients have higher Tbeta4 levels than normal epithelial cells
20161756 Data show a strong expression of Tbeta(4) in gut and endocrine pancreas during development.
20128033 study demonstrated a clear relationship between reductions in serum thymosin beta4 level and severity of hepatitis B virus-related liver failure
19337364 outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes
18519035 Thymosin beta4 is a downstream molecule of stabilin-2 that plays a role in stabilin-2-mediated cell corpse clearance.
18094619 Targeting thymosin beta 4 and related molecules may be a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.
17984099 These data suggest that Ku80 functions as a novel receptor for Tbeta4 and mediates its intracellular activity.
17967441 Our results show that hMLH1 interacts with Tbeta4 and regulates its expression and nuclear transport.
17600285 In both saliva and tears, concentrations of TMSB4 varied with age, which may make it an endogenous agent contributing to the rapid healing of corneal and oral wounds.
17600283 If thymosin beta4 decreases healing time, this would represent a significant advance in the treatment of pressure ulcers.
17567947 The localization of Oregon Green cadaverine-labeled thymosin beta(4), its fragments, and variants is investigated in a cytoplasm-depleted tumor cell line.
17495251 The G-actin sequestering activities of all thymosin beta(4) variants correspond to their complex stabilities with G-actin
17495244 After abdominal surgery there is a concentration of up to 20 mg thymosin beta(4) per liter decreasing to about 1 mg/L with time.
17495243 Thymosin beta(4)(Ala) and thymosin beta(10) were found, but thymosin beta(10) is present in about 2.5-fold higher amounts inplatelets.
17200658 Upregulation of thymosin-beta4 mRNA and protein in conjunctival stroma and its localization in eosinophils and myofibroblasts in vernal keratoconjunctivitis(VKC) lesions. Possible role for thymosin-beta4 in tissue inflammation and remodeling in VKC.
16956606 A search for genes upregulated by thymosin beta4 identified zyxin in SiHA cells in the presence of exogenously added thymosin beta4 and when thymosin beta4 is overexpressed using adenoviral vectors.
16949646 In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin beta4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity.
16515784 TB4 overexpression induces paclitaxel-resistance, and therefore, TB4 could be a novel target to regulate paclitaxel-resistance.
16423999 thymosin beta4 is a determinant of AdoMetDC-induced transformed phenotype and invasiveness; up-regulation of thymosin beta4 found in ras-transformed fibroblasts and metastatic human melanoma cells
16364925 thymosin beta-4 increases colon carcinoma apoptosis resistance triggered by FasL and apoptosis inhibitors by downregulating Fas and upregulating Survivin expression
16272158 PAI-1 can be bound to Tbeta4-activated endothelial cells, thus influencing their adhesive properties as well as their ability to generate plasmin
16010977 Thymosin beta4 (hTbeta4)gene was isolated and characterized.
15698487 Expression of thymosin beta 4 is closely related with keloid.
15466884 thymosin beta4 localizes to the cell nucleus
15311936 activated factor XIII incorporates thymosin beta(4) into the isolated gamma-module and alphaC-domain (fibrinogen A alpha); in fibrin the latter serves as the major incorporation site
15235586 upregulation of Tbeta-4, by promoting the disruption of cell-cell adhesion and consequential activation of the beta-catenin signaling, could be event in the acquisition of growth advantages as well as invasive phenotypes in human colorectal carcinomas
14592829 in response to T beta 4 stimulation, AP-1 activity increases to enhance PAI-1 transcription through its unique AP-1-like element at -59 to -52 in the PAI-1 promoter.
12962156 araC regulates the transcriptional level of thymosin beta4 and actin
12163032 Data show that thymosin beta4 was differentially expressed in HGF-treated HUVECs compared with control.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (101)

PMID Year Title
26789270 2016 Thymosin Beta-4 Suppresses Osteoclastic Differentiation and Inflammatory Responses in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.
26556858 2015 MALDI-imaging reveals thymosin beta-4 as an independent prognostic marker for colorectal cancer.
26361868 Expression of thymosin beta-4 in human periodontal ligament cells and mouse periodontal tissue and its role in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation.
26276576 2016 Thymosin ?4 induces proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
26006229 2015 Potential role of thymosin Beta 4 in liver fibrosis.
25946035 2015 Human Basal Tear Peptidome Characterization by CID, HCD, and ETD Followed by in Silico and in Vitro Analyses for Antimicrobial Peptide Identification.
25695679 2015 Thymosin ?4 promotes hepatoblastoma metastasis via the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
25313062 2014 Structural basis of thymosin-?4/profilin exchange leading to actin filament polymerization.
25271630 2014 The actin-sequestering protein thymosin beta-4 is a novel target of hypoxia-inducible nitric oxide and HIF-1? regulation.
25218472 2014 Thymosin ?4 induces invasion and migration of human colorectal cancer cells through the ILK/AKT/?-catenin signaling pathway.
24704991 2014 Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
24355709 2014 Thymosin ? 4 gene silencing decreases stemness and invasiveness in glioblastoma.
24098025 2014 Thymosin ?4 was upregulated in recurred colorectal cancers.
23967050 2013 Cellular trafficking of thymosin beta-4 in HEPG2 cells following serum starvation.
23816466 2013 Increased thymosin ?4 levels in the serum and SF of knee osteoarthritis patients correlate with disease severity.
23811404 2013 G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-?4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor.
23613983 2013 The role of thymosin beta 4 on odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.
23262355 2013 Characterization of thymosin ?4 in mammals' saliva.
23235961 2013 Immunohistochemical expression of thymosin ?4 in ameloblastomas and odontomas.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23055022 2013 Expression patterns of Thymosin ?4 and cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers.
23045970 2012 Thymosin ?4 expression reveals intriguing similarities between fetal and cancer cells.
23009842 2012 Structural states and dynamics of the D-loop in actin.
22944663 2012 Platelet function and thymosin ?4.
22658674 2012 Insights into RNA biology from an atlas of mammalian mRNA-binding proteins.
22652458 2012 Thymosin ?4 promotes the migration of endothelial cells without intracellular Ca2+ elevation.
22328534 2012 Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by thymosin beta-4 is associated with gastric cancer cell migration.
22223895 2012 Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-?-acetylation features.
22004227 2011 Increased levels of thymosin ?4 in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: association of thymosin ?4 with other factors that are involved in inflammation and bone erosion in joints.
21742406 2011 Interleukin-18-mediated interferon-gamma secretion is regulated by thymosin beta 4 in human NK cells.
21514425 2011 Thymosin-?4 (T?4) blunts PDGF-dependent phosphorylation and binding of AKT to actin in hepatic stellate cells.
21496200 2011 From proteomic multimarker profiling to interesting proteins: thymosin-?(4) and kininogen-1 as new potential biomarkers for inflammatory hepatic lesions.
21406692 2011 System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
21332672 2011 Intraocular expression of thymosin ?4 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
21314931 2011 ?-Thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21213129 2011 Elevated expression of thymosin ?4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1? in early-stage cervical cancers.
21109953 2011 Thymosin ?4 expression correlates with lymph node metastasis through hypoxia inducible factor-? induction in breast cancer.
21106936 2011 Regenerative protein thymosin beta-4 is a novel regulator of purinergic signaling.
20975530 2011 Thymosin ?4 expression in human tissues and in tumors using tissue microarrays.
20821256 2010 Actin-sequestering protein, thymosin beta-4, is a novel hypoxia responsive regulator.
20706999 2010 Cytoskeletal scaffolding proteins interact with Lynch-Syndrome associated mismatch repair protein MLH1.
20691219 2010 Thymosin ?4 induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?-dependent manner.
20566622 2010 Thymosin beta4 targeting impairs tumorigenic activity of colon cancer stem cells.
20161756 2010 Different thymosin Beta 4 immunoreactivity in foetal and adult gastrointestinal tract.
20128033 2010 Serum thymosin beta4 levels in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver failure.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
19608861 2009 Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions.
19337364 2009 Thymosin beta(4) and beta(10) levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18519035 2008 Thymosin beta4 is involved in stabilin-2-mediated apoptotic cell engulfment.
18094619 2008 Thymosin Beta 4 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer cells and stimulates proinflammatory cytokine secretion and JNK activation.
17984099 2008 Ku80 as a novel receptor for thymosin beta4 that mediates its intracellular activity different from G-actin sequestering.
17967441 2007 Thymosin beta 4 expression and nuclear transport are regulated by hMLH1.
17600285 2007 Identification and quantification of thymosin beta4 in human saliva and tears.
17600283 2007 Pressure ulcers: a role for thymosin beta4.
17567947 2007 Subcellular distribution of thymosin beta4.
17495251 2007 Influence of the N terminus and the actin-binding motif of thymosin beta4 on its interaction with G-actin.
17495244 2007 Determination of thymosin beta4 and protein in human wound fluid after abdominal surgery.
17495243 2007 Thymosin beta4 is not always the main beta-thymosin in mammalian platelets.
17200658 2006 Conjunctival expression of thymosin-beta4 in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.
16956606 2006 Zyxin is upregulated in the nucleus by thymosin beta4 in SiHa cells.
16949646 2007 Occurrence of thymosin beta4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment.
16515784 2006 ERK activation by thymosin-beta-4 (TB4) overexpression induces paclitaxel-resistance.
16423999 2006 Thymosin beta4 is a determinant of the transformed phenotype and invasiveness of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-transfected fibroblasts.
16364925 2006 Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 renders SW480 colon carcinoma cells more resistant to apoptosis triggered by FasL and two topoisomerase II inhibitors via downregulating Fas and upregulating Survivin expression, respectively.
16272158 2006 Binding of PAI-1 to endothelial cells stimulated by thymosin beta4 and modulation of their fibrinolytic potential.
16010977 2005 Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the functional human thymosin beta4 gene.
15698487 2005 [Expression of thymosin beta 4 mRNA expression in keloid tissues and fibroblasts cultured from keloid and its significance].
15565145 2004 Thymosin beta4 activates integrin-linked kinase and promotes cardiac cell migration, survival and cardiac repair.
15466884 2004 Nuclear localisation of the G-actin sequestering peptide thymosin beta4.
15311936 2004 Factor XIIIa incorporates thymosin beta4 preferentially into the fibrin(ogen) alphaC-domains.
15235586 2004 Overexpression of the thymosin beta-4 gene is associated with increased invasion of SW480 colon carcinoma cells and the distant metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma.
15163409 2004 The beta-thymosin/WH2 domain; structural basis for the switch from inhibition to promotion of actin assembly.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14592829 2004 Thymosin beta 4 induces the synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in cultured endothelial cells and increases its extracellular expression.
12962156 2003 Reduction of thymosin beta4 and actin in HL60 cells during apoptosis is preceded by a decrease of their mRNAs.
12852258 2003 Thymosin beta 4 interactions.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12163032 2002 Hepatocyte growth factor upregulates thymosin beta4 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
11812134 2002 Polymerisation of chemically cross-linked actin:thymosin beta(4) complex to filamentous actin: alteration in helical parameters and visualisation of thymosin beta(4) binding on F-actin.
11311852 2001 beta-Thymosins, small acidic peptides with multiple functions.
10848969 2000 Structural requirements for thymosin beta4 in its contact with actin. An NMR-analysis of thymosin beta4 mutants in solution and correlation with their biological activity.
10777749 2000 Thymosin-beta(4) changes the conformation and dynamics of actin monomers.
10611475 1999 Thymosin beta(4) serves as a glutaminyl substrate of transglutaminase. Labeling with fluorescent dansylcadaverine does not abolish interaction with G-actin.
9647778 1998 Alpha 4 associates with protein phosphatases 2A, 4, and 6.
9381176 1997 Functional coherence of the human Y chromosome.
9194528 1997 Thymosin beta 4 stimulates directional migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
9153421 1997 Thymosin beta 4 binds actin in an extended conformation and contacts both the barbed and pointed ends.
8630056 1996 The N-terminal sequences (5-20) of thymosin beta 4 binds to monomeric actin in an alpha-helical conformation.
8617195 1996 The actin binding site of thymosin beta 4 mapped by mutational analysis.
8252614 1993 How profilin promotes actin filament assembly in the presence of thymosin beta 4.
6838210 1983 Distribution of thymosin beta 4 in vertebrate classes.
6548414 1984 Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells.
3500230 1987 Differential expression of the human thymosin-beta 4 gene in lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes.
2998351 1985 Detection of a countertranscript in promyelocytic leukemia cells HL60 during early differentiation by TPA.
2677145 1989 Thymosin-beta 4 gene. Preliminary characterization and expression in tissues, thymic cells, and lymphocytes.
2004759 1991 Human thymosin-beta 4/6-26 gene is part of a multigene family composed of seven members located on seven different chromosomes.
1999398 1991 Thymosin beta 4 and Fx, an actin-sequestering peptide, are indistinguishable.
1584803 1992 Thymosin beta 4 (Fx peptide) is a potent regulator of actin polymerization in living cells.
1330091 1992 The control of actin nucleotide exchange by thymosin beta 4 and profilin. A potential regulatory mechanism for actin polymerization in cells.