Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 81
PubMed Score 204.03
PubTator Score 135.59

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (19)

Disease log2 FC p
Rheumatoid Arthritis -1.300 2.3e-02
osteosarcoma -1.502 3.6e-03
posterior fossa group A ependymoma 1.600 5.8e-09
glioblastoma 1.800 2.0e-05
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor 1.400 2.2e-05
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.200 5.8e-04
adrenocortical carcinoma -1.086 7.7e-04
primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 1.142 1.7e-02
non-small cell lung cancer -1.004 1.7e-10
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.500 5.2e-03
active Crohn's disease 1.215 1.7e-02
pancreatic cancer 1.100 4.9e-04
adult high grade glioma 1.500 1.9e-04
pilocytic astrocytoma 1.400 2.9e-06
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 1.156 1.3e-02
lung carcinoma -1.500 6.4e-30
gastric carcinoma 1.200 1.5e-02
ulcerative colitis 1.800 6.0e-05
ovarian cancer 1.700 1.9e-07

 IMPC Phenotype (1)

Protein-protein Interaction (5)

Gene RIF (66)

26893169 A STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses.
26867174 cGAS and STING are intracellular sensors that activate the interferon pathway in response to virus infection. [review]
26738286 STING(sv) inhibited the activity of the interferon (IFN)-beta promoter.
26603901 Studies indicate that the STING (stimulator of interferon genes)-controlled innate immune pathway has provided insight for treating autoinflammatory disease and cancer.
26593864 The study demonstrates the lack of association between the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases and mutations in exon 5 of the TMEM173 gene.
26471009 The cGAS-STING signaling pathway is required for not only the innate immune response against HBV but also the suppression of HBV assembly.
26468527 These results demonstrate a novel hepatitis C virus genotype-specific inhibition of the STING-mediated host antiviral immune response via the viral NS4B protein.
26315534 Studies suggest that the transmembrane protein 173 (STING) pathway is the main innate immune pathway involved in sensing of tumors, and its endogenous activation in APCs leads to subsequent T cell priming against tumor-associated antigens.
26311870 Knockout of cGAS and STING Rescues Virus Infection of Plasmid DNA-Transfected Cells.
26199418 Gammaherpesviruses encode inhibitors that block cGAS-STING-mediated antiviral immunity.
26150511 Cyclic GMP-AMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation.
26058929 Chronic HBV infected patients were unable to express appropriate levels of STING.
25947293 Results reveal a critical role of STING in regulating dsDNA-triggered activation of the JAK1-STAT1 signaling in B cells and highlight the close associations of STING low-expression with JAK1-STAT1 signaling in systemic lupus erythematosus B cells.
25815785 findings demonstrate a novel regulatory circuit in which STING and TBK1 reciprocally regulate each other to enable efficient antiviral signaling activation, and PPM1A dephosphorylates STING and TBK1
25792739 stimulation of STING-dependent IRF3 activation by UV is due to apoptotic signaling-dependent disruption of ULK1 (Unc51-like kinase 1), a pro-autophagic protein that negatively regulates STING
25790474 Data identifies a single amino acid change in STING that leads to its constitutive activation of downstream signaling, by increasing its propensity to dimerize and associate with TBK1.
25639870 STING constitutes a critical component of the host early response to intestinal damage and is essential for invigorating tissue repair pathways that may help prevent tumorigenesis.
25636800 findings show MAVS and STING harbor 2 conserved serine and threonine clusters that are phosphorylated by IKK and/or TBK1 in response to stimulation; results reveal phosphorylation of innate adaptor proteins is an essential and conserved mechanism that selectively recruits IRF3 to activate the type I IFN pathway
25505063 Hepatitis B virus Pol has a role in suppression of IFN-beta production by direct interaction with STING and subsequent disruption of its K63-linked ubiquitination, providing a new mechanism to counteract the innate DNA-sensing pathways.
25459004 STING (for stimulator of interferon genes) has been found to be seminal for controlling cytosolic-DNA induced cytokine production, and may be responsible for a wide variety of inflammatory diseases
25425575 Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS-STING pathway.
25401470 These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus.
25311841 PLP2-TM interacts with the key autophagy regulators, LC3 and Beclin1, and promotes Beclin1 interaction with STING, the key regulator for antiviral IFN signaling, to negatively regulate antiviral innate immunity.
25299331 In an expression screen for proteins that can activate the IFNB1 promoter, authors identified the ER-associated protein ZDHHC1 as a positive regulator of virus-triggered, MITA/STING-dependent immune signaling.
25297994 The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and authors found no evidence that adenovirus stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency.
25212897 antagonism of STING signalling during RNA virus infection.
25029335 STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173.
25007740 The mechanism of double-stranded DNA sensing through the cGAS-STING pathway.
24929887 the molecular mechanisms of MITA-mediated signal transduction and regulation
24614210 This study demonstrates that E2 proteins of high risk human papillomavirus reduce STING and IFN-kappa transcription.
24449861 STING is stable in cancer-derived HEp-2 or HeLa cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 but is degraded in cells infected with mutants lacking the genes encoding functional infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), ICP4, or the US3 protein kinase.
24391220 An alternatively spliced isoform of MITA lacking exon 7, shares the N-terminal portion aa 1-253 with MITA but has a unique 30-aa sequence at the carboxyl terminal. MRP is as a dominant negative regulator of MITA-mediated induction of IFN production.
24239807 Data indicate that NF-kappaB leads to elevated expression of TNF-alpha sensitizing mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA) induced cell death.
24204993 Single nucleotide polymorphisms of human STING is associated with innate immune response to cyclic dinucleotides.
24139400 This study provides a mechanistic explanation for abortive HTLV-1 infection of monocytes and reports a link between SAMHD1 restriction, HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate sensing by STING, and initiation of IRF3-Bax driven apoptosis.
24119841 After activation and trafficking, STING is phosphorylated by UNC-51-like kinase (ULK1). This occurs following ULK1 dissociation from its repressor AMPK and was found to be triggered by cGAS-generated cyclic dinucleotides.
24116191 Data indicate that cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is important for the stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent immune activation
23910378 Study shows that human hSTING(H232) adopts a "closed" conformation upon binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and its linkage isomer c[G(2',5')pA(2',5')p], as does mouse mSting(R231) on binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], c[G(3',5')pA(3',5')p]
23722158 cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING
23707065 The hSTING variants have evolved to distinguish conventional (3'-5') cyclic dinucleotides from the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide produced by mammalian cGAS.
23631912 Chlamydia induces STING-mediated IFN responses through the detection of c-di-AMP in the host cell cytosol and propose that c-di-AMP is the ligand predominantly responsible for inducing such a response in Chlamydia-infected cells.
23585680 study identified STING as a direct receptor for 6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) leading to TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 signaling; the ability to sense DMXAA was restricted to murine STING; human STING failed to bind to or signal in response to DMXAA
23542348 Mechanistic studies indicated that NS4B disrupts the interactions between STING/MITA and TBK1, an additional mechanism for HCV evasion of host interferon responses.
23478444 STING instigates cytoplasmic DNA-mediated cellular defense gene transcription and facilitates adoptive responses that are required for protection of the host.
23055924 study describes the mechanism of inhibition of type I IFN production by Dengue virus in primary cells and identify the adaptor molecule STING as a target of the DENV NS2B3 protease complex
22911572 Hepatitis C virus NS4B suppresses RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production signaling through a direct protein interaction with STING.
22761576 we identified MITA as a novel host target of dengue virus protease
22745133 TRIM32 protein modulates type I interferon induction and cellular antiviral response by targeting MITA/STING protein for K63-linked ubiquitination
22728660 In response to c-di-GMP binding, two surface loops, which serve as a gate and latch of the cleft formed by the dimeric STING(CTD), undergo rearrangements to interact with the ligand
22728659 report here the crystal structures of the STING cytoplasmic domain and its complex with c-di-GMP, thus providing the structural basis for understanding STING function
22728658 Guanines of c-di-GMP stack against the phenolic rings of a conserved tyrosinein STING, and mutations at the c-di-GMP binding surface reduce nucleotide binding and affect signaling
22706339 virus-cell fusion is sensed by the innate immune system and activates a STING-dependent signaling pathway that leads to the production of type I interferon and molecules encoded by interferon-stimulated genes
22705373 We elucidate the structural features of the cytosolic c-di-GMP binding domain (CBD) of STING and its complex with c-di-GMP
22470840 results indicate that interaction between the pattern recognition receptor RIG-I and the adapter molecule STING, is a major contributor to elicit immunological responses involving the type 1 interferons in neurons following JEV infections
22394562 results suggest that STING functions as a scaffold protein to specify and promote the phosphorylation of IRF3 by TBK1.
22394560 study now shows that in response to cytosolic double-stranded DNA, the C-terminal tail of STING provides a scaffold to assemble IRF3 and TBK1, which leads to TBK1-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3
22312431 a new mechanism used by CoVs in which CoV PLPs negatively regulate antiviral defenses by disrupting the STING-mediated IFN induction
21892174 DDX41 is an additional DNA sensor that depends on STING to sense pathogenic DNA.
21248775 R71H-G230A-R293Q haplotype MPYS exhibits a > 90% loss in the ability to stimulate IFNbeta production
21170271 Cellular reactive oxygen species inhibit MPYS induction of IFNbeta
19433799 dimerization of ERIS was critical for self-activation and subsequent downstream signaling
19285439 E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF5 interacted with MITA in a viral-infection-dependent manner
19240791 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18818105 results suggest MITA is a critical mediator of virus-triggered IRF3 activation and IFN expression and further demonstrate the importance of certain mitochondrial proteins in innate antiviral immunity.
18724357 identification, following expression cloning, of a molecule (STING; stimulator of interferon genes) that appears essential for effective innate immune signalling processes
18724357 STING (TMEM173) is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor protein that facilitates innate immune signaling

AA Sequence

VPSTSTMSQEPELLISGMEKPLPLRTDFS                                             351 - 379

Text Mined References (90)

PMID Year Title
26893169 2016 Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.
26867174 2016 The cGAS-STING Defense Pathway and Its Counteraction by Viruses.
26738286 2015 [Structure and Function of an Alternative Splicing Isoform of Stimulator of Interferon Genes STING(sv)].
26669264 2015 Rat and human STINGs profile similarly towards anticancer/antiviral compounds.
26603901 2015 STING: infection, inflammation and cancer.
26593864 2016 Sequence analysis of TMEM173 exon 5 in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.
26471009 2016 The cyclic GMP-AMP synthetase-STING signaling pathway is required for both the innate immune response against HBV and the suppression of HBV assembly.
26468527 2015 Hepatitis C Virus NS4B Can Suppress STING Accumulation To Evade Innate Immune Responses.
26315534 2016 Endogenous and pharmacologic targeting of the STING pathway in cancer immunotherapy.
26311870 2015 Knockout of cGAS and STING Rescues Virus Infection of Plasmid DNA-Transfected Cells.
26300263 2015 Ancient Origin of cGAS-STING Reveals Mechanism of Universal 2',3' cGAMP Signaling.
26229117 2015 Viruses transfer the antiviral second messenger cGAMP between cells.
26199418 2015 Modulation of the cGAS-STING DNA sensing pathway by gammaherpesviruses.
26150511 2015 Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING.
26058929 2015 Decreased Expressions of STING but not IRF3 Molecules in Chronic HBV Infected Patients.
25947293 2015 STING Negatively Regulates Double-Stranded DNA-Activated JAK1-STAT1 Signaling via SHP-1/2 in B Cells.
25944712 2015 N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome.
25815785 2015 PPM1A regulates antiviral signaling by antagonizing TBK1-mediated STING phosphorylation and aggregation.
25792739 2015 UV Light Potentiates STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes)-dependent Innate Immune Signaling through Deregulation of ULK1 (Unc51-like Kinase 1).
25790474 2015 Single amino acid change in STING leads to constitutive active signaling.
25639870 2015 Diverse roles of STING-dependent signaling on the development of cancer.
25636800 2015 Phosphorylation of innate immune adaptor proteins MAVS, STING, and TRIF induces IRF3 activation.
25505063 2015 Hepatitis B virus polymerase disrupts K63-linked ubiquitination of STING to block innate cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways.
25459004 2014 Self-DNA, STING-dependent signaling and the origins of autoinflammatory disease.
25425575 2014 Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS-STING axis.
25401470 2014 Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations.
25311841 2014 Coronavirus membrane-associated papain-like proteases induce autophagy through interacting with Beclin1 to negatively regulate antiviral innate immunity.
25299331 2014 The ER-associated protein ZDHHC1 is a positive regulator of DNA virus-triggered, MITA/STING-dependent innate immune signaling.
25297994 2014 Unabated adenovirus replication following activation of the cGAS/STING-dependent antiviral response in human cells.
25212897 2014 Message in a bottle: lessons learned from antagonism of STING signalling during RNA virus infection.
25129146 2014 Joint analysis of three genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese populations.
25029335 2014 Activated STING in a vascular and pulmonary syndrome.
25007740 2014 The mechanism of double-stranded DNA sensing through the cGAS-STING pathway.
24929887 2014 MITA/STING: a central and multifaceted mediator in innate immune response.
24614210 2014 E2 proteins of high risk human papillomaviruses down-modulate STING and IFN-? transcription in keratinocytes.
24449861 2014 HSV-1 degrades, stabilizes, requires, or is stung by STING depending on ICP0, the US3 protein kinase, and cell derivation.
24391220 2014 An alternative splicing isoform of MITA antagonizes MITA-mediated induction of type I IFNs.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24239807 2014 Antiviral signaling protein MITA acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by regulating NF-?B induced cell death.
24204993 2013 Single nucleotide polymorphisms of human STING can affect innate immune response to cyclic dinucleotides.
24139400 2013 Host restriction factor SAMHD1 limits human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection of monocytes via STING-mediated apoptosis.
24119841 2013 Cyclic dinucleotides trigger ULK1 (ATG1) phosphorylation of STING to prevent sustained innate immune signaling.
24116191 2013 Structural and functional analyses of DNA-sensing and immune activation by human cGAS.
23910378 2013 Structure-function analysis of STING activation by c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and targeting by antiviral DMXAA.
23722158 2013 cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING.
23707065 2013 The innate immune DNA sensor cGAS produces a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide that activates human STING.
23631912 2013 STING-dependent recognition of cyclic di-AMP mediates type I interferon responses during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
23585680 2013 Mouse, but not human STING, binds and signals in response to the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid.
23542348 2013 Hepatitis C virus NS4B blocks the interaction of STING and TBK1 to evade host innate immunity.
23478444 2013 STING recognition of cytoplasmic DNA instigates cellular defense.
23258412 2013 Cyclic GMP-AMP is an endogenous second messenger in innate immune signaling by cytosolic DNA.
23055924 2012 DENV inhibits type I IFN production in infected cells by cleaving human STING.
23027953 2012 Nuclear IFI16 induction of IRF-3 signaling during herpesviral infection and degradation of IFI16 by the viral ICP0 protein.
22911572 2013 Hepatitis C virus NS4B protein targets STING and abrogates RIG-I-mediated type I interferon-dependent innate immunity.
22908223 2012 Tetraspanin 6 (TSPAN6) negatively regulates retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor-mediated immune signaling in a ubiquitination-dependent manner.
22761576 2012 Dengue virus targets the adaptor protein MITA to subvert host innate immunity.
22745133 2012 TRIM32 protein modulates type I interferon induction and cellular antiviral response by targeting MITA/STING protein for K63-linked ubiquitination.
22728660 2012 Crystal structures of STING protein reveal basis for recognition of cyclic di-GMP.
22728659 2012 The structural basis for the sensing and binding of cyclic di-GMP by STING.
22728658 2012 Structure of STING bound to cyclic di-GMP reveals the mechanism of cyclic dinucleotide recognition by the immune system.
22706339 2012 Virus-cell fusion as a trigger of innate immunity dependent on the adaptor STING.
22705373 2012 Cyclic di-GMP sensing via the innate immune signaling protein STING.
22610502 2012 Genome-wide analysis of polymorphisms associated with cytokine responses in smallpox vaccine recipients.
22579474 2012 Structural analysis of the STING adaptor protein reveals a hydrophobic dimer interface and mode of cyclic di-GMP binding.
22470840 2012 STING mediates neuronal innate immune response following Japanese encephalitis virus infection.
22394562 2012 STING specifies IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1 in the cytosolic DNA signaling pathway.
22394560 2012 The STING in the tail for cytosolic DNA-dependent activation of IRF3.
22312431 2012 Coronavirus papain-like proteases negatively regulate antiviral innate immune response through disruption of STING-mediated signaling.
22000020 2011 Activation of STAT6 by STING is critical for antiviral innate immunity.
21947006 2011 STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP.
21903422 2011 Mapping a dynamic innate immunity protein interaction network regulating type I interferon production.
21892174 2011 The helicase DDX41 senses intracellular DNA mediated by the adaptor STING in dendritic cells.
21248775 2011 Identification and characterization of a loss-of-function human MPYS variant.
21170271 2010 Cellular reactive oxygen species inhibit MPYS induction of IFN?.
21074459 2010 The ubiquitin ligase TRIM56 regulates innate immune responses to intracellular double-stranded DNA.
20890285 2010 IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA.
19776740 2009 STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity.
19433799 2009 ERIS, an endoplasmic reticulum IFN stimulator, activates innate immune signaling through dimerization.
19416887 2009 ISG56 is a negative-feedback regulator of virus-triggered signaling and cellular antiviral response.
19285439 2009 The ubiquitin ligase RNF5 regulates antiviral responses by mediating degradation of the adaptor protein MITA.
19240791 2009 Integrated genomic analysis implicates haploinsufficiency of multiple chromosome 5q31.2 genes in de novo myelodysplastic syndromes pathogenesis.
18818105 2008 The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation.
18724357 2008 STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling.
18559423 2008 MPYS, a novel membrane tetraspanner, is associated with major histocompatibility complex class II and mediates transduction of apoptotic signals.
17207965 2007 hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15372022 2004 The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
8889548 1996 Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.