Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 77
PubMed Score 357.28
PubTator Score 247.79

Knowledge Summary

Patent (215,395)


  Differential Expression (19)

Disease log2 FC p
osteosarcoma -1.527 4.7e-02
group 3 medulloblastoma 1.800 6.4e-06
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.800 1.0e-06
Atopic dermatitis 1.600 1.4e-05
adrenocortical carcinoma 1.056 5.7e-03
non-small cell lung cancer 3.006 1.3e-37
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.200 5.6e-03
breast carcinoma 2.400 2.9e-06
fibroadenoma 1.400 4.4e-02
interstitial cystitis 1.100 2.1e-03
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor 1.100 2.7e-07
psoriasis 2.000 8.4e-14
lung adenocarcinoma 2.600 1.5e-11
Endometriosis 1.558 1.9e-02
inflammatory breast cancer 2.500 2.7e-04
ductal carcinoma in situ 1.500 7.9e-03
invasive ductal carcinoma 2.700 1.6e-04
ulcerative colitis 1.200 1.6e-04
ovarian cancer 1.600 9.8e-05

Gene RIF (56)

27069161 Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 Activity Following Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma and Radiofrequency Ablation of Metastases to Lung and Liver
26231311 TK1 expression is significantly different in invasive urothelial carcinoma and benign urothelium, which underlines its potential as a diagnostic marker
25964590 A regression analysis showed that only TK1 levels were significant (relative risk (RR)=1.03 for each unit, confidence interval (CI)=1-1.05; p=0.015) for diagnosing a true transformation
25921119 High Thymidine Kinase expression is associated with adenocarcinoma in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
25881026 These results demonstrate that there are differences in the specific activities and the subunit compositions of STK1 in hematological malignancies compared with breast and prostate cancer.
25769404 Protein expression of BIRC5, TK1, and TOP2A in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours--A prognostic test after surgical resection.
24455740 We suggest that a chip including DPYD, TYMS, TYMP, TK1, and TK2 genes is a potential tool to predict response in LARC following fluoropyrimidine-based CCRT.
23693054 Nuclear TK1 expression in early grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia predicts risk for progression to malignancy
23229746 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) kinetics correlates with thymidine kinase-1 expression and cell proliferation in newly diagnosed gliomas
23179401 Increased serum level of thymidine kinase 1 correlates with metastatic site in patients with malignant melanoma.
23116493 The magnitude of maximum fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in primary tumors and the serum TK1 level in patients with metastatic NSCLC were found to be independent prognostic predictors of overall survival.
22741536 results suggest that the serum TK1 protein differs from cellular or recombinant forms, is more active in high molecular weight complexes, and is sensitive to reducing agents
22385435 The crystal structure of the T163S-mutated HuTK1 reveals a less ordered conformation of the ligand thymidine triphosphate compared with the wild-type structure
22263569 Data suggest that serum thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) levels may help to refine risk assessment in the modern immunotherapy era.
22143937 TK1 may be involved in poor survival in patients with pT1 of lung adenocarcinoma
22027876 frequencies of polymorphic mutations in HIV-1 (subtype B) were compared between patients detected with the 69 insertion (n = 17), Q151M (n = 29), >/=2 thymidine analogue mutations (TAM) 1 (n = 400) or >/=2 TAM 2 (n = 249).
21764789 (18)F-FLT uptake and retention within cells may be complicated by a variety of still undetermined factors in addition to TK1 enzymatic activity
21545220 Elevated serum thymidine kinase 1 is associated with pre/early cancerous progression.
21505426 data demonstrate that the Flt3L/TK gene therapeutic approach can induce systemic immunological memory capable of recognizing a brain tumor neoantigen in a model of recurrent GBM
20849417 direct involvement of the G-quadruplex motif in transcription of TK1
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20592392 thymidine kinase has a role in progression of lung cancer
20560637 nucleoside recognition mechanisms for TK1 and TK2 are very different. nonpolar nucleosides are likely to be active in the nucleotide salvage pathway in human cells.
20554529 more dTTP synthesis via TK1 take place after genotoxic insults in tumor cells, improving DNA repair during G(2) arrest.
20544519 The expression of TK1 in tumor tissues correlated to pathological stages and clinical grades of carcinomas (ca) of esophagus, lung and in premalignancy of breast ductal ca. STK1p could monitor the out-come of tumor therapy.
20544518 Results suggest that higher thymidine levels in the TK- cells caused by defect thymidine salvage to dTTP protects against UV irradiation.
20479645 Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a useful marker for prognosis in patients with esophageal, cardial and lung carcinomas.
20450760 High levels of HER2 and Ki-67 or TK1 expression correlate with the increase of tumor grades and tumor recurrence in meningiomas.
20372850 Thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase expression was markedly different between cancer types, suggesting that response to TAS-102 may differ.
20354751 Serum TK1 correlates to clinical stages and clinical reactions and monitors the effect of tumor therapies, not only in controlled clinical trials, but also in routine clinical settings.
20140744 TK1 in serum may possess a reference value in the evaluation of treatment and prognosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma following chemotherapy.
20003201 The TK1 model presented supports both K and k positive cooperativity. Three-parameter mass action models can and should replace the 3-parameter Hill model.
19957115 cell cycle regulation of TK1 in normal tubule cells differ from that in other type of normal and malignant renal cells.
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19654105 the relationship between the expression of TK1 and TP as they relate to proliferation (Ki-67 labeling index) and angiogenesis (Chalkley count of CD31-stained blood vessels) in a series of 110 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors
19396699 study indicates that the tumour proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 has a potential as a serum marker in breast cancer
19282758 Increased TK1 is associated with renal cell carcinoma.
19123476 Mice with reduced thymidine Kinase treated neonatally with acrylamide or glycidamide is associated with DNA adduct formation and induction of micronuclei and mutations.
19087190 TK1 concentration was found to have a pivotal effect on catalytic efficiency
18615770 Clinical-grade preparation of regulatory T-cells encoding the TK1 suicide gene as a safety gene is reported.
17407781 The structures of hTK1 and of the Thermotoga maritima thymidine kinase (TmTK) in complex with the bisubstrate inhibitor TP4A, is reported.
17227951 thymidine is not only a substrate of TK1 but also acts as its expression regulator by modulating its proteolytic control during mitotic exit, conferring a feed-forward regulation of dTTP formation
17065087 analysis of the role of C-terminal 20, 40, and 44 amino acids of TK1 in in vitro stability, oligomerization, and enzyme kinetics
16969512 an increase in activity of dCK, TK1 and 2 might be involved in an adaptive response of cultured human squamous lung carcinoma cells to radiation by facilitation of DNA repair
15978330 an increased expression of mRNA, specific for TK1, deoxycytidine kinase, and thymidine phosphorylase, may be involved in carcinogenic processes in the human thyroid
15809747 TK1 expression is apparently a reliable marker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
15733844 crystal structure of thymidine kinase 1
15611477 analysis and comparison of human and mycoplasmic thymidine kinase 1
15353126 activation of TK1 may be critical to modulate the radiation-induced cell death and cell cycle progression in irradiated K562 cells.
15153115 The importance of valine 106 for the structure and function of TK1.
14719072 Activity of thymidine kinase, thymidine phosphorylase and thymidilate synthase in human cancer xenografts to investigate the contribution of these enzymes to the sensitivity of TAS-102.
14701726 activation of the APC/C-Cdh1 complex during mitotic exit controls timing of TK1 destruction
14697231 the enzymatic function at the G2/M phase of TK1 depends on its quaternary structure
14659972 Long-term treatment of H9 human lymphoid cells in the presence of dideoxycytidine down-regulated TK1 gene expression and reduced the expression and activity of TK in resistant cells.
12699056 Mutation analysis in the coding sequence of thymidine kinase 1 in breast and colorectal cancer
11992400 TK1 gene expression together with TS, TP and DPD gene expression may play important roles in influencing the malignant behavior of epithelial ovarian cancer.

AA Sequence

KPGEAVAARKLFAPQQILQCSPAN                                                  211 - 234

Text Mined References (85)

PMID Year Title
27069161 2016 Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 Activity Following Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma and Radiofrequency Ablation of Metastases to Lung and Liver.
26231311 2015 Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is characterized by overexpression of thymidine kinase 1.
25964590 2015 Thymidine kinase levels correlate with prognosis in aggressive lymphoma and can discriminate patients with a clinical suspicion of indolent to aggressive transformation.
25921119 2015 Expression of TS, RRM1, ERCC1, TUBB3 and STMN1 Genes in Tissues of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and its Significance in Guiding Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy.
25881026 2015 Breast and prostate cancer patients differ significantly in their serum Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) specific activities compared with those hematological malignancies and blood donors: implications of using serum TK1 as a biomarker.
25769404 2015 Protein expression of BIRC5, TK1, and TOP2A in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours--A prognostic test after surgical resection.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
24455740 2013 DPYD, TYMS, TYMP, TK1, and TK2 genetic expressions as response markers in locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy.
23693054 2013 Nuclear TK1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for survival in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.
23229746 2013 Evaluation of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) kinetics correlated with thymidine kinase-1 expression and cell proliferation in newly diagnosed gliomas.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23179401 2013 Increased serum level of thymidine kinase 1 correlates with metastatic site in patients with malignant melanoma.
23116493 2013 Serum thymidine kinase 1 levels correlates with FDG uptake and prognosis in patients with non small cell lung cancer.
22814378 2012 N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB.
22741536 2012 Quaternary structures of recombinant, cellular, and serum forms of thymidine kinase 1 from dogs and humans.
22385435 2012 Comparative active-site mutation study of human and Caenorhabditis elegans thymidine kinase 1.
22263569 2012 High baseline serum thymidine kinase 1 level predicts unfavorable outcome in patients with follicular lymphoma.
22223895 2012 Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-?-acetylation features.
22143937 2012 High thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) expression is a predictor of poor survival in patients with pT1 of lung adenocarcinoma.
22027876 2012 Polymorphic mutations associated with the emergence of the multinucleoside/tide resistance mutations 69 insertion and Q151M.
21900206 2011 A directed protein interaction network for investigating intracellular signal transduction.
21764789 2011 Tumor 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) uptake by PET correlates with thymidine kinase 1 expression: static and kinetic analysis of (18)F-FLT PET studies in lung tumors.
21545220 2011 Elevated serum thymidine kinase 1 predicts risk of pre/early cancerous progression.
21505426 2011 Combined Flt3L/TK gene therapy induces immunological surveillance which mediates an immune response against a surrogate brain tumor neoantigen.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
20849417 2010 A novel G-quadruplex motif modulates promoter activity of human thymidine kinase 1.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20592392 2010 Clinical relevance of thymidine kinase for the diagnosis, therapy monitoring and prognosis of non-operable lung cancer.
20560637 2009 Nonpolar nucleoside mimics as active substrates for human thymidine kinases.
20554529 2010 Regulation and functional contribution of thymidine kinase 1 in repair of DNA damage.
20544519 2010 Thymidine kinase 1 is a potential marker for prognosis and monitoring the response to treatment of patients with breast, lung, and esophageal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
20544518 2010 Thymidine kinase 1 deficient cells show increased survival rate after UV-induced DNA damage.
20479645 2010 Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a prognostic factor in oesophageal, cardial and lung carcinomas.
20450760 2010 [Expression of HER2/neu in meningiomas: an immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization study].
20372850 2010 Immunohistochemical characterization of pyrimidine synthetic enzymes, thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase, in various types of cancer.
20354751 2010 Serum thymidine kinase 1 correlates to clinical stages and clinical reactions and monitors the outcome of therapy of 1,247 cancer patients in routine clinical settings.
20140744 2010 Serum thymidine kinase 1 concentration as a prognostic factor of chemotherapy-treated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
20003201 2009 Mass action models versus the Hill model: an analysis of tetrameric human thymidine kinase 1 positive cooperativity.
19957115 2010 The proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 level is high in normal kidney tubule cells compared to other normal and malignant renal cells.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19654105 2009 Thymidine kinase 1 and thymidine phosphorylase expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma in relation to angiogenesis and proliferation.
19396699 2009 Elevated levels of thymidine kinase 1 peptide in serum from patients with breast cancer.
19369195 2009 Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome.
19282758 2009 Thymidine kinase activity in serum of renal cell carcinoma patients is a useful prognostic marker.
19123476 2009 DNA adduct formation and induction of micronuclei and mutations in B6C3F1/Tk mice treated neonatally with acrylamide or glycidamide.
19087190 2009 Reversible tetramerization of human TK1 to the high catalytic efficient form is induced by pyrophosphate, in addition to tripolyphosphates, or high enzyme concentration.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18615770 2008 Clinical-grade preparation of human natural regulatory T-cells encoding the thymidine kinase suicide gene as a safety gene.
17407781 2007 Binding of ATP to TK1-like enzymes is associated with a conformational change in the quaternary structure.
17227951 2007 Hiding human thymidine kinase 1 from APC/C-mediated destruction by thymidine binding.
17065087 2006 Effect of C-terminal of human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) on in vitro stability and enzymatic properties.
16969512 2006 Time course of enhanced activity of deoxycytidine kinase and thymidine kinase 1 and 2 in cultured human squamous lung carcinoma cells, SW-1573, induced by gamma-irradiation.
16964243 2006 A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.
15978330 2005 Increased expression of mRNA specific for thymidine kinase, deoxycytidine kinase or thymidine phosphorylase in human papillary thyroid carcinoma.
15809747 2005 Expression of cell proliferating genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemistry and cDNA profiling.
15733844 2005 Structure of a type II thymidine kinase with bound dTTP.
15611477 2004 Structures of thymidine kinase 1 of human and mycoplasmic origin.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15353126 2004 The modulation of radiation-induced cell death by genistein in K562 cells: activation of thymidine kinase 1.
15153115 2004 Effect of valine 106 on structure-function relation of cytosolic human thymidine kinase. Kinetic properties and oligomerization pattern of nine substitution mutants of V106.
14719072 2004 Thymidine kinase and thymidine phosphorylase level as the main predictive parameter for sensitivity to TAS-102 in a mouse model.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14701726 2004 Mitotic degradation of human thymidine kinase 1 is dependent on the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-CDH1-mediated pathway.
14697231 2004 Perturbation of ATP-induced tetramerization of human cytosolic thymidine kinase by substitution of serine-13 with aspartic acid at the mitotic phosphorylation site.
14659972 2004 2', 3'-Dideoxycytidine represses thymidine kinases 1 and 2 expression in T-lymphoid cells.
12699056 Mutation analysis in the coding sequence of thymidine kinase 1 in breast and colorectal cancer.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12449723 2002 A comparative study: immunohistochemical detection of cytosolic thymidine kinase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in breast cancer.
11992400 2002 Thymidine kinase in epithelial ovarian cancer: relationship with the other pyrimidine pathway enzymes.
11474248 2001 Clinical value of thymidine kinase in patients with cervical carcinoma.
11389691 2001 Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1).
10924519 2000 Valine, not methionine, is amino acid 106 in human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1). Impact on oligomerization, stability, and kinetic properties.
9575153 1998 Serine 13 is the site of mitotic phosphorylation of human thymidine kinase.
8786092 1996 Localization and ordering of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) and thymidine kinase (TK1) by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
6549046 1984 Human thymidine kinase gene: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a cDNA expressible in mammalian cells.
3785218 1986 Genetic analysis of the human thymidine kinase gene promoter.
3335503 1988 Human cytosolic thymidine kinase. Purification and physical characterization of the enzyme from HeLa cells.
3301530 1987 Sequence, structure and promoter characterization of the human thymidine kinase gene.
3128713 1987 Clustering and subfamily relationships of the Alu family in the human genome.
2538159 1989 Co-purification of thymidylate kinase and cytosolic thymidine kinase from human term placenta by affinity chromatography.
2263164 1990 Transition from cytosolic to mitochondrial thymidine kinase during development in human fetal tissues.
2026611 1991 Diverging substrate specificity of pure human thymidine kinases 1 and 2 against antiviral dideoxynucleosides.
1848304 1991 Cloning and expression of the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein gene in Escherichia coli: analysis of phosphorylation status versus transcriptional activity.
1370831 1992 Identification of a protein-binding site in the promoter of the human thymidine kinase gene required for the G1-S-regulated transcription.