Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 50
PubMed Score 89.34
PubTator Score 19.60

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (13)

Disease log2 FC p
astrocytic glioma -2.400 1.7e-03
ependymoma -3.600 3.2e-26
glioblastoma -3.200 2.1e-08
oligodendroglioma -2.200 2.5e-18
group 4 medulloblastoma -2.900 3.2e-08
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor -3.600 1.4e-17
medulloblastoma, large-cell -2.900 2.8e-07
primitive neuroectodermal tumor -3.200 3.7e-07
pediatric high grade glioma -3.100 3.1e-10
pilocytic astrocytoma -3.000 5.7e-12
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma -3.142 4.1e-02
Pick disease -1.600 1.6e-02
pituitary cancer 2.000 2.3e-07


Accession Q16143 Q6IAX7


PANTHER Protein Class (1)

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (33)

26586132 Cellular pathways affected by bSyn are similar to those affected by aSyn, including impairment of vesicular trafficking and induction of oxidative stress.
26332674 loss of inhibitory C-terminal conformations in disease associated P123H beta-synuclein
26111745 beta-Synuclein expression was locally concentrated and rather modest, but nevertheless changed its effect on amyloid precursor protein expression and plaque load in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.
25389903 The differing aggregation propensities of alpha-synuclein and beta-synuclein are associated with differences in the degree of residual structure in the C-terminus coupled to the shorter separation between the N- and C-termini in beta-synuclein.
23630590 Beta-synuclein protects against isoaspartate accumulation in alpha-synuclein.
23319586 In vivo cross-linking reveals principally oligomeric forms of alpha-synuclein and beta-synuclein in neurons and non-neural cells
23013868 both alphaS- and P123H betaS-globules were formed through similar but distinct pathogenic mechanisms.
22205345 Data provide evidence for the role of beta-synuclein minor transcript variants in the development of complex diseases and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases.
21699177 Despite both synucleins sharing considerable sequence homology, the level of carboxy-terminal Src kinase-homologous kinase (CHK) phosphorylation of beta-synuclein is significantly higher than that of alpha-synuclein.
21683963 This study suggested that the pathogenesis of dementia in Parkinson disease, indicating that differential sncb expression in the caudate nucleus may represent one of the molecular mechanisms involved in these complex diseases.
21593311 Synuclein-alpha, -beta, and -gamma are important in regulating neurotransmitter release from specific populations of midbrain dopamine neurons through mechanisms that differ from those reported in other neurons.
21386983 Transcriptional regulation of the beta-synuclein 5'-promoter metal response element by metal transcription factor-1.
21117662 Thermodynamic studies in conjunction with EPR confirm that alpha-synuclein, beta-synuclein, and gamma-synuclein bind copper(II) in a high affinity 1:1 stoichiometry.
21085664 Studies identified molecular interaction domains within the beta-synuclein polypeptide that specifically binds alpha-synuclein.
20959308 A drastic diminution of beta-synuclein expression was observed in cortical areas of all samples that presented neuropathological features corresponding to pure diffuse Lewy body pathology
20854101 beta-Synuclein mRNA expression in the control group was significantly higher than that in the schizophrenic group.
20833719 Human beta-synuclein rendered fibrillogenic by designed mutations.
20697047 members of the synuclein gene family, particularly SNCA and SNCG, affect the risk of developing diffuse lewy body disease.
20693280 Data show that alpha-synuclein, beta-synuclein, and apolipoprotein A-1 have the conserved functional ability to induce membrane curvature and to convert large vesicles into highly curved membrane tubules and vesicles.
20043104 Gamma-synuclein protein is valuable for evaluation of progression of colorectal carcinoma; it is more sensitive to predict advanced stage and lymph node invasion when combined with either alpha- or beta-synuclein protein.
18436957 The aggregation behavior of alpha- and beta-synuclein as well as a series of chimeric variants were compared by exploring the structural transitions that occur in the presence of a widely used lipid mimetic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).
18221001 structural and functional properties of beta-synuclein were characterized using biochemical and bio-physical methods including: a functional assay, mass spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy
17692832 Our data confirm the fatty acid binding properties of alpha-syn, and to a lesser extent beta-syn, but suggest that gamma-syn does not share this same characteristic.
17681534 A comparison of the structural and dynamic properties of the free states of all three synucleins, is reported in order to shed light on differences that may help to explain their different propensities to aggregate.
17653558 The accumulation of beta-synuclein was detectable only in the pons of Sandhoff disease cases. This differential accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses may be related to functional differences between these two proteins.
17556099 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16959793 findings indicate that increased expression of beta-synuclein protein results in a reduction of alpha-synuclein protein expression
16597821 An 11-residue deletion in the lipid-binding domain of beta-synuclein leads to the destabilization of an entire segment of the micelle-bound helical structure containing the deletion site.
15591046 the alpha- and gamma-synucleins regulate proteasomal function and beta-synuclein acts as a negative regulator of alpha-synuclein
15365127 2 new AA changes were found in unrelated Lewy body dementia index cases: V70M & P123H, at conserved residues in highly conserved regions of the beta-synuclein protein. Mutations in the beta-synuclein gene may predispose to DLB.
12867415 Beta-synuclein displays an antiapoptotic p53-dependent phenotype and protects neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced caspase 3 activation: cross-talk with alpha-synuclein and implication for Parkinson's disease.
12783249 Of medulloblastomas, 76% have immunoreactivity for either alpha- or beta-synuclein or both; no immunoreactivity for gamma-synuclein is seen in medulloblastomas.
11812782 Biophysical properties of the synucleins and their propensities to fibrillate: inhibition of alpha-synuclein assembly by beta- and gamma-synucleins

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (50)

PMID Year Title
26586132 2016 Yeast reveals similar molecular mechanisms underlying alpha- and beta-synuclein toxicity.
26332674 2016 The loss of inhibitory C-terminal conformations in disease associated P123H ?-synuclein.
26111745 2015 Influence of Lentiviral ?-Synuclein Overexpression in the Hippocampus of a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease on Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism and Pathology.
25389903 2014 A relationship between the transient structure in the monomeric state and the aggregation propensities of ?-synuclein and ?-synuclein.
23630590 2013 Molecular ageing of alpha- and Beta-synucleins: protein damage and repair mechanisms.
23319586 2013 In vivo cross-linking reveals principally oligomeric forms of ?-synuclein and ?-synuclein in neurons and non-neural cells.
23013868 2012 Distinct mechanisms of axonal globule formation in mice expressing human wild type ?-synuclein or dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H ?-synuclein.
22205345 2012 New brain-specific beta-synuclein isoforms show expression ratio changes in Lewy body diseases.
21699177 2011 Defining the substrate specificity determinants recognized by the active site of C-terminal Src kinase-homologous kinase (CHK) and identification of ?-synuclein as a potential CHK physiological substrate.
21683963 2011 Alpha- and beta-synuclein expression in Parkinson disease with and without dementia.
21593311 2011 Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family.
21386983 2011 Transcriptional regulation of the beta-synuclein 5'-promoter metal response element by metal transcription factor-1.
21117662 2011 The synucleins are a family of redox-active copper binding proteins.
21085664 2010 Inhibiting ?-synuclein oligomerization by stable cell-penetrating ?-synuclein fragments recovers phenotype of Parkinson's disease model flies.
20959308 2010 The decrease of ?-synuclein in cortical brain areas defines a molecular subgroup of dementia with Lewy bodies.
20854101 2010 Alpha- and beta-synucleins mRNA expression in lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients.
20833719 2010 Human beta-synuclein rendered fibrillogenic by designed mutations.
20697047 2010 Association of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Synuclein with diffuse lewy body disease.
20693280 2010 Membrane curvature induction and tubulation are common features of synucleins and apolipoproteins.
20043104 2010 Expression of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synuclein in colorectal cancer, and potential clinical significance in progression of the disease.
18436957 2008 Molecular determinants of the aggregation behavior of alpha- and beta-synuclein.
18221001 2007 Spectroscopic and functional characterization of human beta-synuclein.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17692832 2007 An investigation into the lipid-binding properties of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synucleins in human brain and cerebrospinal fluid.
17681534 2007 Residual structure, backbone dynamics, and interactions within the synuclein family.
17653558 2007 Neuronal and glial accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses.
17556099 2007 Beta-synuclein gene variants and Parkinson's disease: a preliminary case-control study.
17222866 2007 Relationships between the sequence of alpha-synuclein and its membrane affinity, fibrillization propensity, and yeast toxicity.
17092945 2006 A genome scale location analysis of human Staf/ZNF143-binding sites suggests a widespread role for human Staf/ZNF143 in mammalian promoters.
16959793 2006 Beta-synuclein modulates alpha-synuclein neurotoxicity by reducing alpha-synuclein protein expression.
16597821 2006 Secondary structure and dynamics of micelle bound beta- and gamma-synuclein.
15591046 2005 beta-Synuclein reduces proteasomal inhibition by alpha-synuclein but not gamma-synuclein.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15365127 2004 Beta-synuclein gene alterations in dementia with Lewy bodies.
15026413 2004 Beta-synuclein regulates Akt activity in neuronal cells. A possible mechanism for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease.
12867415 2003 Beta-synuclein displays an antiapoptotic p53-dependent phenotype and protects neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced caspase 3 activation: cross-talk with alpha-synuclein and implication for Parkinson's disease.
12783249 2003 Expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein in glial tumors and medulloblastomas.
12695511 2003 Association of the cytoskeletal GTP-binding protein Sept4/H5 with cytoplasmic inclusions found in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11812782 2002 Biophysical properties of the synucleins and their propensities to fibrillate: inhibition of alpha-synuclein assembly by beta- and gamma-synucleins.
11683992 2001 beta-Synuclein inhibits alpha-synuclein aggregation: a possible role as an anti-parkinsonian factor.
11588588 2001 Expression of beta-synuclein in normal human astrocytes.
11578596 2001 Altered expression of the synuclein family mRNA in Lewy body and Alzheimer's disease.
11312271 2001 Ca2+ binding to alpha-synuclein regulates ligand binding and oligomerization.
10852916 2000 Synucleins are a novel class of substrates for G protein-coupled receptor kinases.
10048491 1998 Absence of mutation in the beta- and gamma-synuclein genes in familial autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease.
9806846 1998 Genomic organization and expression of the human beta-synuclein gene (SNCB).
9163350 1997 Binding of Abeta to alpha- and beta-synucleins: identification of segments in alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor that bind Abeta and NAC.
8194594 1994 Identification of two distinct synucleins from human brain.
7558013 1995 Assignment of human alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and beta-synuclein (SNCB) genes to chromosomes 4q21 and 5q35.