Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 93
PubMed Score 159.20
PubTator Score 263.28

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (15)

Disease log2 FC p
psoriasis 1.100 1.9e-04
osteosarcoma 1.131 1.1e-02
glioblastoma 1.700 6.1e-05
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor 1.300 5.8e-04
group 4 medulloblastoma 1.200 6.3e-04
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.200 1.7e-03
primitive neuroectodermal tumor 1.300 4.5e-04
tuberculosis -1.900 1.6e-07
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma... 1.100 4.0e-04
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.600 1.2e-02
pancreatic cancer 1.200 3.8e-05
diabetes mellitus -1.100 2.4e-03
pediatric high grade glioma 1.600 1.2e-05
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 1.557 6.7e-03
ovarian cancer 3.600 3.8e-08

Gene RIF (50)

26477566 agonist-induced Gbetagamma-mediated conversion of RalA from the GTP-bound form to the GDP-bound form could be a mechanism to facilitate agonist-induced internalization of GPCRs.
26216878 striking isoform-specific consequences of distinct CAAX-signaled posttranslational modifications that contribute to the divergent subcellular localization and activity of RalA and RalB.
26205497 RalA activation was remarkably impaired in rac1-deficient skeletal muscle fibres.
26158537 RCC2 exhibits guanine exchange factor activity, in vitro and in cells, for the small GTPase RalA. RCC2 and RalA apparently work together to contribute to the regulation of kinetochore-microtubule interactions in early mitosis.
25210032 expression of K-Ras and RalB and possibly RalA proteins is critical for maintaining low levels of p53, and down-regulation of these GTPases reactivates p53 by significantly enhancing its stability, contributing to suppression of malignant transformation
24222664 These results indicate that MLN8237 treatment may be effective for a subset of patients with PDAC independent of RalA S194 phosphorylation
24063364 microRNA-140 targets RALA and regulates chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by translational enhancement of SOX9 and ACAN.
23874603 A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies upregulation of v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (RALA) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages
23830877 RalA and RalB exhibit both distinct and redundant roles in tumorigenesis (Review).
23770673 Data show that small GTPase RALA regulates formation of a JIP1 (C-Jun-amino-terminal-interacting protein 1) scaffold complex to propagate JNK signaling toward FOXO4 (forkhead box O transcription factor) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS).
22790202 The study found upregulated RalA and RalB activation in colorectal cancer tumor cell lines and tumors.
22761837 We identified interactions between RalA and its effectors sec5 and exo84 in the Exocyst complex as directly necessary for migration and invasion of prostate cancer tumor cells.
22700969 the existence of an ubiquitination/de-ubiquitination cycle superimposed on the GDP/GTP cycle of RalA, involved in the regulation of RalA activity as well as in membrane raft trafficking.
22580611 Targeted interference of EP2/EP4 signal to RalA.GTP may provide benefit to patients diagnosed with advanced kidney cancer.
22442671 RalA is directly regulated by miR-181a and plays an important role in CML.
22330069 This study detected RALA level in Chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, which is highly expressed and distributed mainly in the cytoplasm and/or partially in endomembrane.
22013078 RalA and RalB differentially regulate development of epithelial tight junctions.
21822277 Data show that disrupting either RALA or RALBP1 leads to a loss of mitochondrial fission at mitosis, improper segregation of mitochondria during cytokinesis and a decrease in ATP levels and cell number.
21810610 Our results identify a role for RalA and RalB in cell-mediated cytotoxicity
21645515 The RalA was not only cytoprotective against multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, but also promigratory inducing stress fiber formation, which was accompanied by the activation of Akt and Erk pathways.
21634118 Correlation between RalA protein expression decrease and absence of regional metastases was revealed for squamous cell lung cancer.
21441953 conclude that the ability of hRgr to activate both Ral and Ras is responsible for its transformation-inducing phenotype and it could be an important contributor in the development of some T-cell malignancies
21346190 RalA, the binding partner of PKC eta, is involved in not only the keratinocyte differentiation induced by PKCeta overexpression but also in normal keratinocyte differentiation induced by calcium and cholesterol sulfate.
21282111 Ral is a critical regulator in PMN that specifically controls secondary granule release during PMN response to chemoattractant stimulation.
21199803 RalA interaction with the Exo84 but not Sec5 exocyst component was necessary for supporting anchorage-independent growth, whereas RalB interaction with Sec5 but not Exo84 was necessary for inhibition of anchorage-independent growth
21170262 studies suggest that the expression of RalBP1 is necessary for human cancer cell metastasis; show that the requirement for RalA expression for manifestation of this phenotype is not entirely dependent on a RalA-RalBP1 interaction
20579884 RalA is activated by Salmonella infection in a SopE-dependent manner, and is required for exocyst assembly.
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20018811 Expression of the small GTPase RalA is required for angiotensin II type I receptor-stimulated inositol phosphate formation.
19901077 Aurora-A may converge upon oncogenic Ras signaling through RalA.
19822090 Data suggest that RalA might contribute to liver malignant transformation, and could be used as a potential tumor marker in hepatocellular carcinoma detection.
19802010 Data show that conversion of Ras-expressing keratinocytes from a premalignant to malignant state induced by decreasing E-cadherin function was associated with and required an approximately two to threefold decrease in RalA expression.
19414599 RalA was overactivated in all malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells and tumor samples compared to nontransformed Schwann cells.
19306925 These results establish RalA and GRK2 as key regulators of LPA receptor signalling and demonstrate for the first time that LPA(1) activity facilitates the formation of a novel protein complex between these two proteins.
18948269 RalGDS and RalA act downstream of Rheb and RalA activation is a crucial step in nutrient-induced mTORC1 activation
18756269 RalA and RalB support mitotic progression through mobilization of the exocyst for two spatially and kinetically distinct steps of cytokinesis
17875936 Data suggest that RalA and RalB are important, functionally distinct targets for GGTI-mediated tumor apoptosis and growth inhibition.
17709381 These data extend understanding of the functional roles of the Ral pathway and begin to identify signaling pathways relevant for organ-specific metastasis.
17606711 analysis of activation and differential expression of RalA and RalB in human bladder cancer
17540176 These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA.
17524504 Results suggest that Rab5 and RalA regulate P-gp trafficking between the plasma membrane and an intracellular compartment.
17237388 Ral is activated upon BCR stimulation and mediates BCR-controlled activation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors.
17174914 study concludes RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, while RalB is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested pancreatic carcinoma cell lines & argues for critical roles of Ral proteins during progression of Ras-driven pancreatic cancers
16964283 androgen deprivation of human prostate carcinoma cells activates the small GTPase, RalA, a molecule important for human oncogenesis
15950903 Activation of RalA signaling appears to be a critical step in Ras-induced transformation and tumorigenesis of human cells.
15817490 the Ral-CaM complex defines a multifaceted regulatory mechanism for PLC-delta1 activation
15809419 crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 A
15130921 Protein kinase A-dependent activation of Ral regulates cAMP-mediated exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells.
12856001 RALA and RALB collaborate to maintain tumorigenicity through regulation of both proliferation and survival; RALA is dispensable for survival, but is required for anchorage-independent proliferation
12034722 differential binding of calmodulin by RalA and RalB

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (96)

PMID Year Title
26477566 2016 Agonist-induced changes in RalA activities allows the prediction of the endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors.
26216878 2015 Divergent roles of CAAX motif-signaled posttranslational modifications in the regulation and subcellular localization of Ral GTPases.
26205497 2015 Role for RalA downstream of Rac1 in skeletal muscle insulin signalling.
26158537 2015 TD-60 links RalA GTPase function to the CPC in mitosis.
25944712 2015 N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome.
25210032 2014 Ral GTPase down-regulation stabilizes and reactivates p53 to inhibit malignant transformation.
24222664 2014 Response to MLN8237 in pancreatic cancer is not dependent on RalA phosphorylation.
24063364 2014 microRNA-140 targets RALA and regulates chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by translational enhancement of SOX9 and ACAN.
24056301 2013 The deubiquitylase USP33 discriminates between RALB functions in autophagy and innate immune response.
23830877 2013 Ral GTPases in tumorigenesis: emerging from the shadows.
23770673 2013 The small GTPase RALA controls c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated FOXO activation by regulation of a JIP1 scaffold complex.
23533145 2013 In-depth proteomic analyses of exosomes isolated from expressed prostatic secretions in urine.
22790202 Differential involvement of RalA and RalB in colorectal cancer.
22761837 2012 Sec5 and Exo84 mediate distinct aspects of RalA-dependent cell polarization.
22700969 2012 RalA and RalB proteins are ubiquitinated GTPases, and ubiquitinated RalA increases lipid raft exposure at the plasma membrane.
22580611 2013 PGE2 promotes renal carcinoma cell invasion through activated RalA.
22442671 2012 miR-181a post-transcriptionally downregulates oncogenic RalA and contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
22330069 2012 Inhibition of small GTPase RalA regulates growth and arsenic-induced apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells.
22013078 2011 RalA and RalB differentially regulate development of epithelial tight junctions.
21822277 2011 RALA and RALBP1 regulate mitochondrial fission at mitosis.
21810610 2011 Ral GTPases regulate cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells.
21645515 2011 Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death: cytoprotective and promigratory effects of RalA.
21634118 [Arf6, RalA and BIRC5 protein expression in non small cell lung cancer].
21441953 2011 The human Rgr oncogene is overexpressed in T-cell malignancies and induces transformation by acting as a GEF for Ras and Ral.
21423176 2011 Analysis of the myosin-II-responsive focal adhesion proteome reveals a role for ?-Pix in negative regulation of focal adhesion maturation.
21346190 2011 Direct binding of RalA to PKC? and its crucial role in morphological change during keratinocyte differentiation.
21282111 2011 Control of secondary granule release in neutrophils by Ral GTPase.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21241894 2011 RalB and the exocyst mediate the cellular starvation response by direct activation of autophagosome assembly.
21199803 2011 Activation and involvement of Ral GTPases in colorectal cancer.
21170262 2010 RalBP1 is necessary for metastasis of human cancer cell lines.
20579884 2010 Salmonella-directed recruitment of new membrane to invasion foci via the host exocyst complex.
20458337 MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
20018811 2010 The small GTPase Ral couples the angiotensin II type 1 receptor to the activation of phospholipase C-delta 1.
20005108 2010 RalA-exocyst complex regulates integrin-dependent membrane raft exocytosis and growth signaling.
19901077 2010 Aurora-A phosphorylates, activates, and relocalizes the small GTPase RalA.
19822090 Immunogenicity of Ra1A and its tissue-specific expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
19802010 2010 RalA suppresses early stages of Ras-induced squamous cell carcinoma progression.
19414599 2009 Ral overactivation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
19306925 2009 Dual regulation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA1) receptor signalling by Ral and GRK.
19199708 2009 Proteomic analysis of human parotid gland exosomes by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT).
19056867 2009 Large-scale proteomics and phosphoproteomics of urinary exosomes.
18948269 2008 RalA functions as an indispensable signal mediator for the nutrient-sensing system.
18756269 2008 Distinct roles of RalA and RalB in the progression of cytokinesis are supported by distinct RalGEFs.
17875936 2007 Geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors target RalB to inhibit anchorage-dependent growth and induce apoptosis and RalA to inhibit anchorage-independent growth.
17709381 2007 Activation of the RalGEF/Ral pathway promotes prostate cancer metastasis to bone.
17606711 2007 Expression of ral GTPases, their effectors, and activators in human bladder cancer.
17540176 2007 The tumor suppressor PP2A Abeta regulates the RalA GTPase.
17524504 2007 The small GTPases Rab5 and RalA regulate intracellular traffic of P-glycoprotein.
17237388 2007 The B cell antigen receptor controls AP-1 and NFAT activity through Ras-mediated activation of Ral.
17174914 2006 Divergent roles for RalA and RalB in malignant growth of human pancreatic carcinoma cells.
16964283 2007 RalA regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) synthesis in prostate cancer cells during androgen ablation.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
16291724 2005 CEACAM1 functionally interacts with filamin A and exerts a dual role in the regulation of cell migration.
16177825 2005 Crystal structure of the C3bot-RalA complex reveals a novel type of action of a bacterial exoenzyme.
15950903 2005 Activation of RalA is critical for Ras-induced tumorigenesis of human cells.
15920473 2005 Exo84 and Sec5 are competitive regulatory Sec6/8 effectors to the RalA GTPase.
15817490 2005 Regulation of phospholipase C-delta1 through direct interactions with the small GTPase Ral and calmodulin.
15809419 2005 Molecular recognition of an ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme by RalA GTPase.
15592429 2005 RalA interacts with ZONAB in a cell density-dependent manner and regulates its transcriptional activity.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15231748 2004 Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.
15130921 2004 Small GTP-binding protein Ral is involved in cAMP-mediated release of von Willebrand factor from endothelial cells.
14597674 2003 Human homologue of Drosophila CNK interacts with Ras effector proteins Raf and Rlf.
14525976 2003 Ral GTPases regulate exocyst assembly through dual subunit interactions.
12874025 2003 rgr oncogene: activation by elimination of translational controls and mislocalization.
12856001 2003 RAL GTPases are linchpin modulators of human tumour-cell proliferation and survival.
12853948 2003 The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.
12839989 2003 Structural basis of the interaction between RalA and Sec5, a subunit of the sec6/8 complex.
12690205 2003 Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.
12624092 2003 Structure of the GTPase-binding domain of Sec5 and elucidation of its Ral binding site.
12509462 2003 Elevated phospholipase D activity in H-Ras- but not K-Ras-transformed cells by the synergistic action of RalA and ARF6.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12034722 2002 Calmodulin binds RalA and RalB and is required for the thrombin-induced activation of Ral in human platelets.
11744922 2002 The exocyst complex binds the small GTPase RalA to mediate filopodia formation.
11520933 2001 Nerve growth factor signaling, neuroprotection, and neural repair.
11406615 2001 The brain exocyst complex interacts with RalA in a GTP-dependent manner: identification of a novel mammalian Sec3 gene and a second Sec15 gene.
10889189 2000 RalGEF2, a pleckstrin homology domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ral.
10848592 2000 Involvement of Ras and Ral in chemotactic migration of skeletal myoblasts.
10747847 2000 Identification and characterization of a new family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the ras-related GTPase Ral.
10329639 1999 Ca2+/calmodulin stimulates GTP binding to the ras-related protein ral-A.
10051605 1999 The small GTPase RalA targets filamin to induce filopodia.
9688545 1998 Activation of phospholipase D1 by direct interaction with ADP-ribosylation factor 1 and RalA.
9488663 1998 Identification of Nore1 as a potential Ras effector.
9422736 1998 Identification and characterization of a novel protein interacting with Ral-binding protein 1, a putative effector protein of Ral.
9297626 1997 Ras effectors and their role in mitogenesis and oncogenesis.
9207251 1997 RalA interacts directly with the Arf-responsive, PIP2-dependent phospholipase D1.
9188503 1997 Identification and characterization of a calmodulin-binding domain in Ral-A, a Ras-related GTP-binding protein purified from human erythrocyte membrane.
8889548 1996 Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.
7673236 1995 Bridging Ral GTPase to Rho pathways. RLIP76, a Ral effector with CDC42/Rac GTPase-activating protein activity.
7623849 1995 Identification and characterization of Ral-binding protein 1, a potential downstream target of Ral GTPases.
3292391 1988 The ras-related ral gene maps to chromosome 7p15-22.
2662142 1989 Coding sequences of human ralA and ralB cDNAs.
2550440 1989 Identification of the ral and rac1 gene products, low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins from human platelets.
1903399 1991 Carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation of ras-related GTP-binding proteins encoded by rac1, rac2, and ralA.