Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 94
PubMed Score 136.30
PubTator Score 106.77

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease (3)

Disease Target Count
Neoplasms, Second Primary 6
Disease Target Count P-value
osteosarcoma 7933 1.8e-09
malignant mesothelioma 3163 9.9e-08
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
Cancer 2346 3.295 1.6


  Differential Expression (2)

Disease log2 FC p
malignant mesothelioma 1.700 9.9e-08
osteosarcoma 2.266 1.8e-09

Gene RIF (61)

26860083 TLK1B mediated phosphorylation of Rad9 regulates its nuclear/cytoplasmic localization and cell cycle checkpoint
26667770 RAD9 has a prominent role in the ATR-Chk1 pathway that is necessary for successful formation of the damage-sensing complex and DNA damage checkpoint signaling.
26658951 these results demonstrate a positive feedback loop involving Rad9A-dependend activation of Chk1.
26088138 Intramolecular binding of the rad9 C-terminus in the checkpoint clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 is closely linked with its DNA binding.
25485590 The role of Rad9 in homologous recombination is independent of its function in checkpoint activation, and this function is important for preventing alternative non-homologous end joining.
25234738 we found that H1299 cells with reduced RAD9 protein levels showed a higher frequency of radiation induced bystander micronuclei formation
25127721 These data reveal that human Rad9 interacts directly with N-terminal region of human MYH.
25111005 Downregulation of RAD9 when combined with ionizing radiation results in reduction of ITGB1 protein levels in prostate cancer cells, and increased lethality.
24971543 These data suggest that v-Src attenuates ATR-Chk1 signaling through the inhibition of Rad17-Rad9 interaction.
24403312 Loss of hrad9 expression is associated with breast and lung cancer.
24376897 Tousled-like kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Rad9 plays a role in cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint exit.
23433811 Loss of Rad9 alters expression of nucleotide excision repair factors.
23383325 Rad9, Rad17, TopBP1 and claspin play essential roles in heat-induced activation of ATR kinase and heat tolerance.
23066031 Rad9 contributes to prostate tumorigenesis by increasing not only tumor proliferation and survival but also tumor migration and invasion, anoikis resistance, and anchorage-independent growth
23028682 cyclin A-Cdk2 regulates apoptosis through a mechanism that involves Rad9phosphorylation
22925454 the affinity of Rad9 to TopBP1 correlates with the activation of the cellular DNA damage response and survival after DNA damage in HeLa cells.
22586102 Data show models for the ternary PCNA/FEN1/DNA and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1 complex)/FEN1/DNA assemblies.
22034047 A review of the many activities assigned to Rad9, and speculation as to which influence its function in tumor development.
21991345 Modulation of RAD9A and other cell cycle arrest and DNA repair proteins contribute to the risk of developing a second malignancy in childhood cancer patients.
21978893 The RAD9 is loaded to damaged sites where it serves as a platform for the selective recruitment of checkpoint and repair proteins.
21858012 Data indicate that association of RAD18 with DSBs through ubiquitylated H2A and other ubiquitylated chromatin components allows recruitment of RAD9.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20545769 When over-expressed in HeLa cells, a mutant Rad9 harboring phospho-deficient substitutions at both Ser-341 and Ser-387 residues causes hypersensitivity to UV and methyl methane sulfonate.
20305300 results emphasize the importance of Rad9A in preserving genomic integrity in the presence of catenated chromosomes and all types of DNA aberrations
20188637 9-1-1 complex is a component of the mismatch repair involved in MNNG-induced damage response.
20081369 Rad9A-mediated Claspin localization is a vital step during checkpoint activation.
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19615952 Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex enhances in vitro activity of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase.
19536092 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
19535328 The interdomain connecting loops (IDC loop) of hRad9, hHus1, and hRad1 are largely divergent and unique structural features of the 9-1-1 complex that are proposed to contribute to DNA damage recognition.
19523882 The DNA binding domain (DBD) within the hLigI catalytic fragment interacts with both PCNA and the heterotrimeric cell-cycle checkpoint clamp, hRad9-hRad1-hHus1 (9-1-1).
19411845 Rad9 foci were predominately formed in G1 and S phase after UV light, while treatment of cells with ionizing radiation (IR) resulted in accumulation of Rad9 into foci in S and G2.
18936170 Data show that the basic cleft of the RPA70 N-terminal OB-fold domain binds multiple checkpoint proteins, including RAD9, to promote ATR signaling.
18842633 Disruption of the Rad9-MLH1 interaction by a single-point mutation in Rad9 leads to significantly reduced DNA mismatch repair activity.
18616832 up-regulated in breast cancer; mRNA up-regulation correlates with tumor size and local recurrenc;hyperphosphorylated forms of the protein inthe nucleus of the cancer cells
18316588 Rad9 levels are high in prostate cancer cells due at least in part to aberrant methylation or gene amplification
18215141 elements found in the aquaporin-5 and the Rad9 (radiation-sensitive 9) genes showed selective AR versus GR binding in band-shift assays and a strong activity and selectivity in functional assays, both as isolated elements and in their original contexts
18156970 Rad9 expression correlated closely to significance only with the apoptotic and mitotic indices in epithelial ovarian tumors
17511890 Rad9 modulates the P21WAF1 pathway by direct association with p53.
17493829 we report successful tri-cistronic cloning, overexpression and purification of a three-protein complex of Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 using a single hexa-histidine tag.
17395641 Human NEIL1 DNA glycosylase activity is significantly stimulated by hRad9 and by the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 heterotrimer.
16814252 These data provide in vivo evidence that the human 9-1-1 complex participates in DNA repair in addition to its previously described role in DNA damage sensing.
16731526 human DNA ligase I is stimulated by the Rad9-rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex
16479004 role for Rad9 in telomere stability and homologous recombinational repair as a mechanism for promoting cell survival after ionizing radiation exposure
16365875 The encoded mammalian proteins participate in promoting resistance to DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, and apoptosis.
15871698 The long-patch base excision machinery is an important target of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, thus enhancing the quality control of DNA.
15773892 Rad9 plays critical role in the activation of S-phase checkpoint and the maintenance of chromosome stability.
15558813 Rad9 expression may play an important role in cell cycle control in NSCLC cells and may influence NSCLC cell phenotype
15556996 complex with rad1 and hus1 is a damage-specific activator of flap endonuclease 1
15326225 Rad9 stimulates the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase activity of the multifunctional protein CAD.
15314187 The human Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 complex interacts with and stimulates DNA polymerase beta activity.
14988409 results suggest that the predominant role of Rad9 in embryonic stem cells is to promote survival after replicative stress and topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage
14966297 Data report the identification of Rad9, a key member of the checkpoint Rad protein family, as a coregulator to suppress androgen-androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells.
14500360 HRAD9 and Mrad9 are part of a gene family and reveal a new genetic element encoding a product that interacts with multiple, known cell cycle checkpoint control proteins.
12941802 hRad9/hHus1/hRad1 complex acts as a checkpoint sensor during S phase by rapidly localizing to sites of DNA damage and transducing checkpoint responses by facilitating proper localization of downstream checkpoint proteins, including TopBP1.
12734188 Characterization of nonphosphorylatable mutants has revealed that Rad9 phosphorylation plays a critical role in checkpoint signaling.
12709442 the Rad9 phospho-tail is a key participant in the transduction of downstream checkpoint signals
12628935 Protein kinase C-delta is responsible for constitutive and DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of this protein.
12228248 Rad9, Hus1, and Rad1 heterotrimeric complex chromatin binding is a proximal event in the checkpoint signaling cascade
11994305 role of C-terminal region in nuclear transport of the hRad9 checkpoint complex
11971963 These findings indicate that Rad9 is regulated by a c-Abl-dependent mechanism in the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. (c-abl protein)

AA Sequence

TVPGTPPPKKFRSLFFGSILAPVRSPQGPSPVLAEDSEGEG                                 351 - 391

Text Mined References (103)

PMID Year Title
26860083 2016 TLK1B mediated phosphorylation of Rad9 regulates its nuclear/cytoplasmic localization and cell cycle checkpoint.
26667770 2015 Regulation of ATRIP protein abundance by RAD9 in the DNA damage repair pathway.
26658951 2015 Chk1 Activation Protects Rad9A from Degradation as Part of a Positive Feedback Loop during Checkpoint Signalling.
26088138 2015 Intramolecular Binding of the Rad9 C Terminus in the Checkpoint Clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 Is Closely Linked with Its DNA Binding.
25485590 2014 The checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 facilitates DNA-end resection and prevents alternative non-homologous end joining.
25234738 2014 RAD9 deficiency enhances radiation induced bystander DNA damage and transcriptomal response.
25127721 2014 Visualization of the physical and functional interaction between hMYH and hRad9 by Dronpa bimolecular fluorescence complementation.
25111005 2014 RAD9 enhances radioresistance of human prostate cancer cells through regulation of ITGB1 protein levels.
24971543 2014 v-Src inhibits the interaction between Rad17 and Rad9 and induces replication fork collapse.
24403312 2014 hRAD9 functions as a tumor suppressor by inducing p21-dependent senescence and suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through inhibition of Slug transcription.
24376897 2013 Tousled-like kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Rad9 plays a role in cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint exit.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
23433811 2013 Checkpoint protein Rad9 plays an important role in nucleotide excision repair.
23383325 2013 Rad9, Rad17, TopBP1 and claspin play essential roles in heat-induced activation of ATR kinase and heat tolerance.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23066031 2012 Rad9 protein contributes to prostate tumor progression by promoting cell migration and anoikis resistance.
23028682 2012 Phosphorylation of Rad9 at serine 328 by cyclin A-Cdk2 triggers apoptosis via interfering Bcl-xL.
22925454 2012 Two serine phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of Rad9 are critical for 9-1-1 binding to TopBP1 and activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response in HeLa cells.
22586102 2012 Repair complexes of FEN1 endonuclease, DNA, and Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 are distinguished from their PCNA counterparts by functionally important stability.
22034047 2012 Contributions of Rad9 to tumorigenesis.
21991345 2011 Reduced mRNA and protein expression of the genomic caretaker RAD9A in primary fibroblasts of individuals with childhood and independent second cancer.
21978893 2011 9-1-1: PCNA's specialized cousin.
21858012 2011 Human RAD18 interacts with ubiquitylated chromatin components and facilitates RAD9 recruitment to DNA double strand breaks.
21659603 2011 A DNA damage response screen identifies RHINO, a 9-1-1 and TopBP1 interacting protein required for ATR signaling.
21406692 2011 System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20545769 2010 Casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of human Rad9 mediates the interaction between human Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex and TopBP1.
20305300 2010 Rad9A is required for G2 decatenation checkpoint and to prevent endoreduplication in response to topoisomerase II inhibition.
20188637 2010 Interaction between human mismatch repair recognition proteins and checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1.
20081369 2010 The Rad9A checkpoint protein is required for nuclear localization of the claspin adaptor protein.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19615952 2009 Repair activities of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase are stimulated by the interaction with human checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex.
19536092 2009 Explorative study to identify novel candidate genes related to oxaliplatin efficacy and toxicity using a DNA repair array.
19535328 2009 Structure and functional implications of the human rad9-hus1-rad1 cell cycle checkpoint complex.
19523882 2009 The DNA binding domain of human DNA ligase I interacts with both nicked DNA and the DNA sliding clamps, PCNA and hRad9-hRad1-hHus1.
19464297 2009 Crystal structure of the human rad9-hus1-rad1 clamp.
19413330 2009 Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach.
19411845 2009 Cell cycle-dependent processing of DNA lesions controls localization of Rad9 to sites of genotoxic stress.
18936170 2008 The basic cleft of RPA70N binds multiple checkpoint proteins, including RAD9, to regulate ATR signaling.
18842633 2008 Rad9 plays an important role in DNA mismatch repair through physical interaction with MLH1.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18616832 2008 Localization of hRad9 in breast cancer.
18316588 2008 Rad9 has a functional role in human prostate carcinogenesis.
18215141 2008 Identification of androgen-selective androgen-response elements in the human aquaporin-5 and Rad9 genes.
18156970 2008 Expression of DNA damage checkpoint protein Hus1 in epithelial ovarian tumors correlates with prognostic markers.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17511890 2007 Rad9 modulates the P21WAF1 pathway by direct association with p53.
17493829 2007 Tri-cistronic cloning, overexpression and purification of human Rad9, Rad1, Hus1 protein complex.
17395641 2007 The human checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 interacts with and stimulates NEIL1 glycosylase.
17081983 2006 Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.
16814252 2006 The Rad9 protein enhances survival and promotes DNA repair following exposure to ionizing radiation.
16731526 2006 Mechanism of stimulation of human DNA ligase I by the Rad9-rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex.
16712791 2006 Identification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma related genes by comparison with normal liver tissues using expressed sequence tags.
16479004 2006 Mammalian Rad9 plays a role in telomere stability, S- and G2-phase-specific cell survival, and homologous recombinational repair.
16365875 2006 Rad9, an evolutionarily conserved gene with multiple functions for preserving genomic integrity.
16216273 2005 The two DNA clamps Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 complex and proliferating cell nuclear antigen differentially regulate flap endonuclease 1 activity.
15897895 2005 Interaction and colocalization of Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 checkpoint complex with replication protein A in human cells.
15871698 2005 The human checkpoint sensor and alternative DNA clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 modulates the activity of DNA ligase I, a component of the long-patch base excision repair machinery.
15773892 2005 Human Rad9 is required for the activation of S-phase checkpoint and the maintenance of chromosomal stability.
15558813 2005 Accumulation of hRad9 protein in the nuclei of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cells.
15556996 2004 The human Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex stimulates flap endonuclease 1.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15326225 2004 The human Rad9 checkpoint protein stimulates the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase activity of the multifunctional protein CAD.
15314187 2004 The human Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 damage sensor clamp interacts with DNA polymerase beta and increases its DNA substrate utilisation efficiency: implications for DNA repair.
15146197 2004 Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.
14988409 2004 Rad9 protects cells from topoisomerase poison-induced cell death.
14966297 2004 Human checkpoint protein hRad9 functions as a negative coregulator to repress androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14611806 2003 Identification and characterization of RAD9B, a paralog of the RAD9 checkpoint gene.
14500360 2003 Expression of mammalian paralogues of HRAD9 and Mrad9 checkpoint control genes in normal and cancerous testicular tissue.
12941802 2003 hRad9 rapidly binds DNA containing double-strand breaks and is required for damage-dependent topoisomerase II beta binding protein 1 focus formation.
12791985 2003 Sensing DNA damage through ATRIP recognition of RPA-ssDNA complexes.
12766152 2003 Human claspin is required for replication checkpoint control.
12734188 2003 A role for the phosphorylation of hRad9 in checkpoint signaling.
12709442 2003 Phosphorylation of human Rad9 is required for genotoxin-activated checkpoint signaling.
12628935 2003 Protein kinase Cdelta is responsible for constitutive and DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Rad9.
12578958 2003 Loading of the human 9-1-1 checkpoint complex onto DNA by the checkpoint clamp loader hRad17-replication factor C complex in vitro.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12228248 2002 Genotoxin-induced Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) chromatin association is an early checkpoint signaling event.
12049741 2002 Rad9 phosphorylation sites couple Rad53 to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage checkpoint.
11994305 2002 A role of the C-terminal region of human Rad9 (hRad9) in nuclear transport of the hRad9 checkpoint complex.
11971963 2002 c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates the human Rad9 checkpoint protein in response to DNA damage.
11944979 2002 Identification and characterization of a paralog of human cell cycle checkpoint gene HUS1.
11907025 2002 Structures of the human Rad17-replication factor C and checkpoint Rad 9-1-1 complexes visualized by glycerol spray/low voltage microscopy.
11799063 2002 Regulation of ATR substrate selection by Rad17-dependent loading of Rad9 complexes onto chromatin.
11573955 2001 The J domain of Tpr2 regulates its interaction with the proapoptotic and cell-cycle checkpoint protein, Rad9.
11551919 2001 DNA damage-dependent and -independent phosphorylation of the hRad9 checkpoint protein.
11395493 2001 BRCT domain-containing protein TopBP1 functions in DNA replication and damage response.
11340080 2001 Reconstitution and molecular analysis of the hRad9-hHus1-hRad1 (9-1-1) DNA damage responsive checkpoint complex.
11278446 2001 ATM-dependent phosphorylation of human Rad9 is required for ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint activation.
11077446 2000 PCNA interacts with hHus1/hRad9 in response to DNA damage and replication inhibition.
10884395 2000 The human checkpoint protein hRad17 interacts with the PCNA-like proteins hRad1, hHus1, and hRad9.
10852904 2000 Retention of the human Rad9 checkpoint complex in extraction-resistant nuclear complexes after DNA damage.
10846170 2000 HDAC1, a histone deacetylase, forms a complex with Hus1 and Rad9, two G2/M checkpoint Rad proteins.
10777662 2000 Physical interactions among human checkpoint control proteins HUS1p, RAD1p, and RAD9p, and implications for the regulation of cell cycle progression.
10713044 2000 Human DNA damage checkpoint protein hRAD9 is a 3' to 5' exonuclease.
10620799 2000 Human homologue of S. pombe Rad9 interacts with BCL-2/BCL-xL and promotes apoptosis.
10359610 1999 The human G2 checkpoint control protein hRAD9 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that forms complexes with hRAD1 and hHUS1.
9872989 1999 Human homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1, hus1, and rad9 form a DNA damage-responsive protein complex.
8943031 1996 A human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9+ checkpoint control gene.