Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 74
PubMed Score 165.19
PubTator Score 184.44

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (16)

Disease log2 FC p
Rheumatoid Arthritis 1.900 1.1e-02
Multiple myeloma 1.404 3.6e-03
malignant mesothelioma 1.400 1.3e-05
astrocytic glioma 1.200 4.3e-02
ependymoma 1.100 7.5e-03
oligodendroglioma 1.300 1.3e-03
osteosarcoma 2.742 6.0e-06
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor 1.400 2.4e-05
glioblastoma 1.200 8.2e-03
medulloblastoma 1.200 2.0e-02
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.700 2.7e-06
primitive neuroectodermal tumor 1.300 2.6e-06
lung cancer 1.700 8.7e-03
Breast cancer 2.500 2.7e-02
lung adenocarcinoma 1.460 5.6e-04
invasive ductal carcinoma 1.700 2.8e-02

Gene RIF (38)

26420833 Reduced RAD21 destabilizes high-level gene amplification by disrupting pre-replication complex bindings in human cancers with chromosomal instability.
25881024 found well-positioned CTCF and RAD21 peaks approximately 60-80 bp upstream of the TSS in the unidirectional genes. The peak heights were related to the amount of antisense transcription. Results provide insights into the distribution of histone modifications at promoters and suggest a novel role of CTCF and cohesin as regulators of transcriptional direction.
25575569 Some patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction carry mutations in RAD21 that disrupt the ability of its product to regulate genes such as RUNX1 and APOB.
25464844 Elevated RAD21 expression tracks with reactivation of L1 expression in human sporadic colorectal cancer.
25414306 cohesin's proposed DNA exit gate is formed by interactions between Scc1 and the coiled-coil region of Smc3.
25299688 Studied the role of looping in large-scale (supra Mb) folding of human chromosomes by knocking down the gene that codes for CTCF and the one coding for Rad21, an essential subunit of cohesin.
25006131 Cross-sectional deep-sequencing analysis for clonal hierarchy demonstrated STAG2, SMC3, and RAD21 mutations to be ancestral in 18%, 18%, and 47% of cases, respectively, and each expanded to clonal dominance concordant with disease transformation
24548858 RAD21 expression in CRC is associated with aggressive disease especially in KRAS mutant tumours and resistance to chemoradiotherapy.
24415941 CTCF and Rad21 act as host cell restriction factors for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication by modulating viral gene transcription.
24378232 This study reports the first intragenic deletion and frameshift mutations identified in RAD21 in two patients presenting with atypical Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
24148822 -RAD21 and EIF3H, both on chromosome 8q23, CHRAC1 on chromosome 8q24.3 and TANC2 on chromosome 17q23-were confirmed to be driver genes regulating the proliferation/survival of clonogenic breast cancer cells
23874961 Rad21 binds to SA proteins through two SA-binding motifs on Rad21.
23548868 ASURA specifically binds to chromatin when Scc1 is associated with chromatin.
22751501 show that the Smc5/6 subunit Mms21 sumoylates multiple lysines of the cohesin subunit Scc1
22633399 RAD21 mutations cause a human cohesinopathy
22537934 RAD21 expression is associated with a poorer prognosis in BRCA2, but not in BRCA1 breast cancers.
21876002 Rad21 cleavage by calpain-1 promotes separation of chromosome arms, which coincides with a calcium-induced partial loss of cohesin at several chromosomal loci.
21875947 HIV-1 Vpr decreases the amount of Scc1/Rad21 protein in the chromatin
21255398 RAD21 expression confers poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in high grade luminal, basal and HER2 breast cancers.
20404544 Rad21 protein are cleaved by separase are required for the localization of Rad21 to the centrosome.
20404533 Rad21 protein depletion causes centrosome defects in interphase and prophase of mitosis.
20364118 hRAD21 was significantly differently expressed in cells maintaining telomere length through a telomerase-independent mechanism, termed the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT).
20056645 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19369356 Ectopic expression of Rad21 repressed CTCF-regulated transcription of KSHV lytic genes.
19322193 The depletion of either CTCF or RAD21 disrupts the chromatin loop structure, together with significant changes in the APO expression.
19158269 These data argue that the regulation of the IL-3 and the GM-CSF promoters depends on the positions of their enhancers relative to the conserved CTCF/cohesin-binding sites.
19074885 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18854154 Knockdown of RAD21 homolog (S. pombe, RAD21) by siRNA inhibits the early stages of HIV-1 replication in 293T cells infected with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1
18829510 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18197499 As compared to the telomerase group, the alternative lengthening of telomeres group presents higher expression of hRad21, thinner tumor invasion depth, and higher survival rate.
16416296 The RAD21 gene was closely related to the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.
15767545 RAD21 suppression enhances the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents acting via induction of DNA damage
15737063 Phosphorylation of SA2 is essential for cohesin dissociation during prophase and prometaphase, but is not required for cohesin cleavage by separase.
14603436 RAD21 shows increased expression in clinical prostate carcinomas and is also amplified in 30-40% of xenografts and hormone-refractory tumors.
12417729 plays a role in apoptosis, and its cleavage during apoptosis may act as a nuclear signal to initiate cytoplasmic events involved in the apoptotic pathway
12200439 Scc1 is essential for the association of kinetochores with microtubules.
12198550 RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex directly interacts with ATPase subunit SNF2; mapping of RAD21, SNF2 and Mi2 binding sites reveals specific association of these three proteins with DNA elements containing Alu sequences
11875078 Caspase proteolysis of the cohesin component RAD21 promotes apoptosis

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (79)

PMID Year Title
26496610 2015 A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances.
26420833 2016 Reduced cohesin destabilizes high-level gene amplification by disrupting pre-replication complex bindings in human cancers with chromosomal instability.
25881024 2015 Different distribution of histone modifications in genes with unidirectional and bidirectional transcription and a role of CTCF and cohesin in directing transcription.
25575569 2015 Mutations in RAD21 disrupt regulation of APOB in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
25464844 2014 Cohesin Rad21 mediates loss of heterozygosity and is upregulated via Wnt promoting transcriptional dysregulation in gastrointestinal tumors.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25414306 2014 Characterization of a DNA exit gate in the human cohesin ring.
25299688 2014 Depletion of the chromatin looping proteins CTCF and cohesin causes chromatin compaction: insight into chromatin folding by polymer modelling.
25006131 2014 Genetic alterations of the cohesin complex genes in myeloid malignancies.
24548858 2014 RAD21 cohesin overexpression is a prognostic and predictive marker exacerbating poor prognosis in KRAS mutant colorectal carcinomas.
24415941 2014 CTCF and Rad21 act as host cell restriction factors for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication by modulating viral gene transcription.
24378232 2014 Two novel RAD21 mutations in patients with mild Cornelia de Lange syndrome-like presentation and report of the first familial case.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24148822 2014 A siRNA screen identifies RAD21, EIF3H, CHRAC1 and TANC2 as driver genes within the 8q23, 8q24.3 and 17q23 amplicons in breast cancer with effects on cell growth, survival and transformation.
23874961 2013 Characterization of the interaction between the cohesin subunits Rad21 and SA1/2.
23548868 2013 ASURA (PHB2) interacts with Scc1 through chromatin.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
22751501 2012 Scc1 sumoylation by Mms21 promotes sister chromatid recombination through counteracting Wapl.
22633399 2012 RAD21 mutations cause a human cohesinopathy.
22537934 2012 Enhanced RAD21 cohesin expression confers poor prognosis in BRCA2 and BRCAX, but not BRCA1 familial breast cancers.
22293751 2012 APRIN is a cell cycle specific BRCA2-interacting protein required for genome integrity and a predictor of outcome after chemotherapy in breast cancer.
21876002 2011 Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 to promote sister chromatid separation.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21255398 2011 Enhanced RAD21 cohesin expression confers poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in high grade luminal, basal and HER2 breast cancers.
21111234 2010 Sororin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by antagonizing Wapl.
20818333 2010 The hsSsu72 phosphatase is a cohesin-binding protein that regulates the resolution of sister chromatid arm cohesion.
20404544 2010 Determinants of Rad21 localization at the centrosome in human cells.
20404533 2010 Rad21 is required for centrosome integrity in human cells independently of its role in chromosome cohesion.
20364118 2010 hRad21 overexpresses and localizes to the ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia body in ALT cells.
20360068 2010 Systematic analysis of human protein complexes identifies chromosome segregation proteins.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
20056645 2010 Association of mitotic regulation pathway polymorphisms with pancreatic cancer risk and outcome.
19946888 2010 Defining the membrane proteome of NK cells.
19696148 2009 Releasing cohesin from chromosome arms in early mitosis: opposing actions of Wapl-Pds5 and Sgo1.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19468298 2009 Transcriptional dysregulation in NIPBL and cohesin mutant human cells.
19369356 2009 Cell cycle control of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency transcription by CTCF-cohesin interactions.
19322193 2009 Architectural roles of multiple chromatin insulators at the human apolipoprotein gene cluster.
19158269 2009 A conserved insulator that recruits CTCF and cohesin exists between the closely related but divergently regulated interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor genes.
19074885 2008 Genetic variants in apoptosis and immunoregulation-related genes are associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
18829510 2008 Single nucleotide polymorphisms, apoptosis, and the development of severe late adverse effects after radiotherapy.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18499658 2008 Studies with the human cohesin establishment factor, ChlR1. Association of ChlR1 with Ctf18-RFC and Fen1.
18197499 2008 [Expression of hRad21 and clinicopathological analysis in gastrointestinal malignant tumors maintained their telomeres by a mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres].
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17349791 2007 Sororin is required for stable binding of cohesin to chromatin and for sister chromatid cohesion in interphase.
17113138 2006 Wapl controls the dynamic association of cohesin with chromatin.
17112726 2006 Human Wapl is a cohesin-binding protein that promotes sister-chromatid resolution in mitotic prophase.
17105772 2006 The DNA helicase ChlR1 is required for sister chromatid cohesion in mammalian cells.
16416296 2006 Correlation of invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and expression of the RAD21 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
15855230 2005 Functional contribution of Pds5 to cohesin-mediated cohesion in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts.
15837422 2005 Sororin, a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex, is required for sister chromatid cohesion in vertebrates.
15767545 2005 Suppression of RAD21 gene expression decreases cell growth and enhances cytotoxicity of etoposide and bleomycin in human breast cancer cells.
15737063 2005 Dissociation of cohesin from chromosome arms and loss of arm cohesion during early mitosis depends on phosphorylation of SA2.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14603436 2004 RAD21 and KIAA0196 at 8q24 are amplified and overexpressed in prostate cancer.
12930902 2003 The alternative Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-replication factor C complex required for sister chromatid cohesion loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto DNA.
12672959 2003 Processing, localization, and requirement of human separase for normal anaphase progression.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12417729 2002 Linking sister chromatid cohesion and apoptosis: role of Rad21.
12200439 2002 Cohesin defects lead to premature sister chromatid separation, kinetochore dysfunction, and spindle-assembly checkpoint activation.
12198550 2002 A chromatin remodelling complex that loads cohesin onto human chromosomes.
12034751 2002 STAG2 and Rad21 mammalian mitotic cohesins are implicated in meiosis.
11875078 2002 Caspase proteolysis of the cohesin component RAD21 promotes apoptosis.
11793857 2001 Expression of hHR21sp gene by peripheral blood and hematopoietic cells of normal subjects and Fanconi anemia patients.
11590136 2001 A potential role for human cohesin in mitotic spindle aster assembly.
11509732 2001 Cohesin cleavage by separase required for anaphase and cytokinesis in human cells.
11483345 2001 Novel DNA sequence variants in the hHR21 DNA repair gene in radiosensitive cancer patients.
11243849 2001 Human rad21 gene, hHR21(SP), is downregulated by hypoxia in human tumor cells.
11111111 2000 Epidemiology of the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Canada.
11076961 2000 Characterization of vertebrate cohesin complexes and their regulation in prophase.
11073952 2001 Human chromatid cohesin component hRad21 is phosphorylated in M phase and associated with metaphase centromeres.
10931856 2000 Identification and characterization of SA/Scc3p subunits in the Xenopus and human cohesin complexes.
10623634 2000 NXP-1, a human protein related to Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1, is a component of the nuclear matrix.
10207075 1999 Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21p family conserved from fission yeast to humans.
8812457 1996 Sequence conservation of the rad21 Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA double-strand break repair gene in human and mouse.
7584044 1994 Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1.