Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 45
PubMed Score 168.78
PubTator Score 146.98

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (11)

Disease log2 FC p
osteosarcoma -2.518 3.8e-02
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.300 4.8e-02
tuberculosis 1.500 2.5e-02
non-small cell lung cancer -2.369 1.1e-16
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (... -1.100 3.1e-02
interstitial cystitis 2.200 1.1e-03
posterior fossa group B ependymoma 1.400 2.0e-04
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 1.494 1.3e-02
lung adenocarcinoma -1.300 2.6e-09
ulcerative colitis 3.700 1.3e-04
psoriasis 1.200 7.0e-07

Gene RIF (35)

26728949 Prokineticin-2 is correlated with various cardiometabolic risk factors.
26574895 Data suggest that prokineticins (PROK1 and PROK2) and prokineticin receptors (PROKR1 and PROKR2) act as main regulators of physiological functions of ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis. [REVIEW]
26317645 Suggest PROK2 as an angiogenic growth factor in colorectal cancer.
26192875 PROK2 significantly increased in human fetal ovary across gestation.
26047640 EG-VEGF, BV8, and PROKR2 gene expression is approximately five, four, and two times higher in cystic fibrosis lungs compared with controls.
25531638 study found a novel mutation in PROK2 in two male siblings presenting normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, in whom a mutation in the GNRHR gene had been previously described, suggesting the possibility of a digenic inheritance
24423319 PROK2 signaling in humans is not required for central circadian pacemaker function.
24002956 No abnormalities were found in the patient group for the PROKR2 and GNRH1genes. In addition, no genomic rearrangements were identified in the healthy control individuals for the described genes
23548897 A novel role of BV8 in promoting oncogenesis intrinsic to malignant cells of myeloid origin.
23386640 We could not implicate the ligand PROK2 in congenital hypopituitarism and septo-optic dysplasia.
23333304 HIV-1 Vif upregulates the expression of prokineticin 2 (PROK2) in Vif-expression T cells
23082007 Three PROKR2 mutations previously described in Kallmann syndrome and one new PROK2 mutation were found in patients with isolated congenital anosmia.
22528488 Induction of Bv8 expression by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in CD11b+Gr1+ cells: key role of Stat3 signaling.
22050240 Data suggest that elevated prokineticin 2 levels, as a consequence of gastrointestinal tract inflammation, induce visceral pain via prokineticin receptors.
20734064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20389090 Patients with this genetic form of Kallmann syndrome have been reported to have a possible increased prevalence of obesity and sleep disorders, which may be related to the role of PROK2 in food intake and circadian rhythms (Review)
20172976 Review. Role of prokineticins in inflammatory and contractile pathways at parturition in humans.
20022991 Male patients carrying biallelic mutations in PROK2 or PROKR2 have a less variable and on average a more severe reproductive phenotype than patients carrying monoallelic mutations in these genes.
20022991 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19336519 Bv8 expression is regulated by several cytokines in a cell type-specific fashion
18723471 no mutations found in Kallmann syndrome
18723471 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18682503 Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 or prokineticin receptor-2 cause autosomal recessive Kallmann syndrome.
18682503 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18559922 Loss-of-function mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 underlie both Kallmann syndrome (KS) and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).
18300343 PK2/Bv8 expression decreases as the liver evolves towards cancer and does not correlate with HCC angiogenesis
18285834 The identification of PROK2 biallelic mutations, that is, a missense mutation, p.R73C, and a frameshift mutation, c.163delA, in two out of 273 patients presenting as sporadic cases, is reported.
17959774 Homozygous loss-of-function PROK2 mutations cause both Kallmann syndrome and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
17903308 Observational study and genome-wide association study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17054399 These findings reveal that insufficient prokineticin-signaling through PROKR2 leads to abnormal development of the olfactory system and reproductive axis in man.
16763065 study demonstrated that prokineticin 1 and 2 and their receptors are expressed in human prostate and that their levels increased with prostate malignancy
15548611 potentially modulates growth, survival, and function of cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, possibly through autocrine or paracrine signaling mechanisms
15126578 Paracrine role for the PKs and their receptors in endometrial vascular function.
12604792 Bv8 and EG-VEGF, along with other factors such as VEGF-A, may maintain the integrity and also regulate proliferation of the blood vessels in the testis
12024206 Prokineticin 2 transmits the behavioural circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (46)

PMID Year Title
26728949 2016 Prokineticin-2 is associated with metabolic syndrome in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.
26574895 2015 Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.
26317645 2015 Prokineticin 2 (PROK2) is an important factor for angiogenesis in colorectal cancer.
26192875 2015 Prokineticin Ligands and Receptors Are Expressed in the Human Fetal Ovary and Regulate Germ Cell Expression of COX2.
26047640 2015 EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptor expression in human bronchi and their modification in cystic fibrosis: Impact of CFTR mutation (delF508).
25531638 2015 Triallelic digenic mutation in the prokineticin 2 and GNRH receptor genes in two brothers with normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
25077900 2014 The prevalence of CHD7 missense versus truncating mutations is higher in patients with Kallmann syndrome than in typical CHARGE patients.
24423319 2014 Absence of central circadian pacemaker abnormalities in humans with loss of function mutation in prokineticin 2.
24002956 2013 [Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification analysis of KAL1, GNRH1, GNRHR, PROK2 and PROKR2 in male patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].
23643382 2013 Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 are identified in individuals with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
23548897 2013 G-protein-coupled receptor agonist BV8/prokineticin-2 and STAT3 protein form a feed-forward loop in both normal and malignant myeloid cells.
23386640 2013 Variations in PROKR2, but not PROK2, are associated with hypopituitarism and septo-optic dysplasia.
23082007 2013 PROKR2 and PROK2 mutations cause isolated congenital anosmia without gonadotropic deficiency.
22528488 2012 Induction of Bv8 expression by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in CD11b+Gr1+ cells: key role of Stat3 signaling.
22050240 2012 Increased prokineticin 2 expression in gut inflammation: role in visceral pain and intestinal ion transport.
21666788 2011 Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study.
20734064 2010 A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause.
20389090 2010 Kallmann syndrome caused by mutations in the PROK2 and PROKR2 genes: pathophysiology and genotype-phenotype correlations.
20172976 2010 Prokineticins: novel mediators of inflammatory and contractile pathways at parturition?
20022991 2010 A comparative phenotypic study of kallmann syndrome patients carrying monoallelic and biallelic mutations in the prokineticin 2 or prokineticin receptor 2 genes.
19336519 2009 Characterization and regulation of bv8 in human blood cells.
18723471 Genetic analysis in patients with Kallmann syndrome: coexistence of mutations in prokineticin receptor 2 and KAL1.
18682503 2008 Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 or prokineticin receptor-2 cause autosomal recessive Kallmann syndrome.
18577758 2008 Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.
18559922 2008 Mutations in prokineticin 2 and prokineticin receptor 2 genes in human gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency: molecular genetics and clinical spectrum.
18300343 2008 Prokineticin 2/Bv8 is expressed in Kupffer cells in liver and is down regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
18285834 2008 Biallelic mutations in the prokineticin-2 gene in two sporadic cases of Kallmann syndrome.
17959774 2007 Loss-of-function mutation in the prokineticin 2 gene causes Kallmann syndrome and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
17903308 2007 Genome-wide association of sleep and circadian phenotypes.
17054399 2006 Kallmann syndrome: mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 and prokineticin receptor-2.
16763065 2006 The endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF)/prokineticin 1 and 2 and receptor expression in human prostate: Up-regulation of EG-VEGF/prokineticin 1 with malignancy.
15772293 2005 Identification and pharmacological characterization of prokineticin 2 beta as a selective ligand for prokineticin receptor 1.
15548611 2004 Bv8 and endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stimulate hematopoiesis and hematopoietic cell mobilization.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15340161 2004 Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.
15126578 2004 Expression and regulation of the prokineticins (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and Bv8) and their receptors in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle.
14978236 2004 Structural determinants required for the bioactivities of prokineticins and identification of prokineticin receptor antagonists.
12728244 2003 The AVIT protein family. Secreted cysteine-rich vertebrate proteins with diverse functions.
12604792 2003 The endocrine-gland-derived VEGF homologue Bv8 promotes angiogenesis in the testis: Localization of Bv8 receptors to endothelial cells.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12466223 2002 Nociceptive sensitization by the secretory protein Bv8.
12427552 2002 Molecular cloning and characterization of prokineticin receptors.
12024206 2002 Prokineticin 2 transmits the behavioural circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
11259612 2001 Identification of two prokineticin cDNAs: recombinant proteins potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle.
11054548 2000 Murine Bv8 gene maps near a synteny breakpoint of mouse chromosome 6 and human 3p21.
10580115 1999 The mammalian homologues of frog Bv8 are mainly expressed in spermatocytes.