Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 62
PubMed Score 80.42
PubTator Score 184.66

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease (2)

Disease Target Count P-value
adrenocortical carcinoma 1427 6.0e-03
fibroadenoma 557 4.5e-02
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
pre-eclampsia 67 3.361 1.7


  Differential Expression (2)

Disease log2 FC p
adrenocortical carcinoma -1.029 6.0e-03
fibroadenoma 1.200 4.5e-02

Gene RIF (53)

26828479 Results show the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of wild type, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression.
26574895 Data suggest that prokineticins (PROK1 and PROK2) and prokineticin receptors (PROKR1 and PROKR2) act as main regulators of physiological functions of ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis. [REVIEW]
26475302 EG-VEGF and its receptor PKR1 might play a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors and could serve as prognostic markers for this rare malignant disease.
26401590 PROK1 levels in follicular fluid and fertilization culture media could constitute new predictive noninvasive markers of successful embryo implantation in conventional in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer
26318037 The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both PROK1 and VEGF relative to the cases that expressed only 1 protein, and the expression of both proteins was found to be an independent prognostic factor.
26192875 Expression of PROK1 and PROKR1 was significantly higher in mid-gestation ovaries (17-20 wk) than at earlier gestations (8-11 and 14-16 wk).
26047640 EG-VEGF, BV8, and PROKR2 gene expression is approximately five, four, and two times higher in cystic fibrosis lungs compared with controls.
25788276 Simultaneous targeting of both angiogenic growth factors (VEGF/PROK1) may prove more useful in colorectal cancer
25331005 High Prokineticin 1 protein expression is associated with sporadic colorectal cancer.
25128195 An increased mRNA expression of PROK1 and LIF could be one of the several abnormalities characterizing the endometrium in women recurrent pregnancy loss.
25064403 Study corroborates the clinical relevance of the EG-VEGF system in human early pregnancy, and provides evidence for the gene-gene interactions of EG-VEGF and PROKR variants.
24955357 More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions.
24671265 EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3.
24324064 number of blood vessels in PROK1-positive primary gastrointestinal lesions was higher than that in PROK1-negative primary lesions. CONCLUSION: PROK1 expression might be related to the extent of malignancy in gastrointestinal cancer
23972922 preliminary data suggest a high potential of prokineticin 1 in the success of implantation and pregnancy
23891065 Defective placental maturation is associated with an imbalance of expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and PK1.
22941044 EG-VEGF as a new placental growth factor acting during the first trimester of pregnancy, established its mechanism of action, and provide evidence for its deregulation in FGR.
22138749 During the first trimester of pregnancy, hCG and EG-VEGF exhibit the same pattern of expression, suggesting that EG-VEGF is potentially regulated by hCG.
21876489 The data shows that much more PK1 in healthy pregnant women is produced than those suffering from preeclampsia.
21858178 Data show that decidualization was associated with increased expression of 428 genes including SCARA5 (181-fold), DKK1 (71-fold) and PROK1 (32-fold), and decreased expression of 230 genes including MMP-7 (35-fold) and SFRP4 (21-fold).
21858136 Findings, together with the detection of sequence variants in PROKR1, PROK1 and PROKR2 genes associated to HSCR and, in some cases in combination with RET or GDNF mutations, provide evidence to consider them as susceptibility genes for HSCR.
21546446 identified a novel signalling pathway whereby PROK1 can induce the expression of DKK1 in the human endometrium and first trimester decidua.
21385081 Prok1 is significantly increased in ppapillary thyroid cancer, and its expression in PTC is related to BRAF mutation.
21098624 CTGF expression in early pregnancy decidua is regulated by PROK1, via activation of the Gq, PLC, cSrc, EGFR, MAPK/ERK kinase pathway and has a role in cell adhesion.
20847187 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20795791 Data show that expression of PK1 and PKR1 was detected in primary MM cells and myeloma cell lines.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20400074 When endometrial stromal cells from both groups of women were differentiated to decidual phenotype, PROK1 mRNA was up-regulated and PR and HOXA10 mRNA were down-regulated to the same extent.
20172976 Review. Role of prokineticins in inflammatory and contractile pathways at parturition in humans.
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19801577 Treatment of human decidua with a lentiviral miRNA to abolish endogenous PROK1 expression results in a significant reduction in IL-11 expression and secretion
19602057 findings identify EG-VEGF as a novel paracrine regulator of trophoblast invasion. We speculate that a failure to correctly down-regulate placental expression of EG-VEGF at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy might lead to PE
19523441 EG-VEGF protects pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis through upregulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1, an anti-apoptotic protein of the bcl-2 family.
19285664 Altered expression of PROK1 could be one of the several biochemical abnormalities characterizing eutopic endometrium in endometriosis.
19255255 hCG-mediated LIF expression in the endometrium is dependent on prior induction of PROK1.
19135668 EG-VEGF expression was significantly higher in ectopic endometriotic tissue when compared to eutopic samples in infertile women.
19077468 High PK1 mRNA levels were observed only in cultured pancreatic stellate cells and microdissected islet cells, but not in cancer cells, and PK1 protein was localized mainly in islets and cancer-associated stromal cells.
18571163 EG-VEGF may enhance cell proliferation through the activation of MAPK pathway, although not through the Akt pathway.
18339712 PROK1 and PROKR1 expression is elevated in human decidua during early pregnancy PROK1-PROKR1 interaction regulates expression of a host of implantation-related genes.
17683928 Either EG-VEGF is not exclusive of endocrine organs, or the pancreas should be considered as a functional steroidogenic tissue.
17289879 EG-VEGF/Prok-1 signaling has a role in neuroblastoma progression
17178891 Overexpressed Prk1 conferred Adriamycin resistance in a human embryo kidney cell line.
17167981 High EG-VEGF is associated with carcinogenesis and portal vein tumor thrombus formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma
16763065 study demonstrated that prokineticin 1 and 2 and their receptors are expressed in human prostate and that their levels increased with prostate malignancy
16320832 Inverse resgulation of mRNA expression by ovarian cells may suggest that in addition to its angiogenic effects, EG-VEGF/PK-1 may also play other roles in ovary. (review)
16263331 PK1 could be one of the causative factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD); transgenic mice expressing human PK1 exhibit choroidal neovascularization in a model that may be useful for establishing treatments for the exudative form of AMD.
16210375 EG-VEGF may only play a role in vascular function of peri-implantation endometrium, but is unlikely to be associated with the etiology of endometrial cancer development.
15292351 Human EG-VEGF may play a role in angiogenesis both during the early endocrine development of testis and in the adult testis as well as in Leydig cell tumor growth.
15126581 Expression of VEGFR-1 mRNA, but not EG-VEGF and the other three VEGF receptors studied, was elevated in preeclamptic vs. normal placentas.
15126578 Paracrine role for the PKs and their receptors in endometrial vascular function.
12915658 acting via either PK-R2 or PK-R1, prokineticin 1 may have angiogenic as well as nonangiogenic functions in the ovary
12858543 The role of EG-VEGF in the regulation of angiogenesis in endocrine glands. Review.
12604792 Bv8 and EG-VEGF, along with other factors such as VEGF-A, may maintain the integrity and also regulate proliferation of the blood vessels in the testis

AA Sequence

RKRKHHTCPCLPNLLCSRFPDGRYRCSMDLKNINF                                        71 - 105

Text Mined References (64)

PMID Year Title
26828479 2016 A Common Variant of PROK1 (V67I) Acts as a Genetic Modifier in Early Human Pregnancy through Down-Regulation of Gene Expression.
26574895 2015 Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.
26475302 2015 Role of Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (EG-VEGF) and Its Receptors in Adrenocortical Tumors.
26401590 2016 PROK1 Level in the Follicular Microenvironment: A New Noninvasive Predictive Biomarker of Embryo Implantation.
26318037 2015 The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 (No correlation coefficient between VEGF and PROK1).
26192875 2015 Prokineticin Ligands and Receptors Are Expressed in the Human Fetal Ovary and Regulate Germ Cell Expression of COX2.
26047640 2015 EG-VEGF, BV8, and their receptor expression in human bronchi and their modification in cystic fibrosis: Impact of CFTR mutation (delF508).
25788276 2015 The anti-tumor effect is enhanced by simultaneously targeting VEGF and PROK1 in colorectal cancer.
25331005 2015 Prokineticin 1 protein expression is a useful new prognostic factor for human sporadic colorectal cancer.
25128195 2014 Prokineticin 1 and leukemia inhibitory factor mRNA expression in the endometrium of women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.
25064403 2014 Gene-gene interactions and risk of recurrent miscarriages in carriers of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and prokineticin receptor polymorphisms.
24955357 2014 The multiple roles of EG-VEGF/PROK1 in normal and pathological placental angiogenesis.
24671265 2014 Gene-gene interactions and gene polymorphisms of VEGFA and EG-VEGF gene systems in recurrent pregnancy loss.
24324064 2013 Prokineticin 1 expression in gastrointestinal tumors.
23972922 2013 [PROK1, prognostic marker of embryo implantation?].
23891065 2013 Imbalance of expression of bFGF and PK1 is associated with defective maturation and antenatal placental insufficiency.
22941044 2013 EG-VEGF controls placental growth and survival in normal and pathological pregnancies: case of fetal growth restriction (FGR).
22138749 2012 Revisiting the role of hCG: new regulation of the angiogenic factor EG-VEGF and its receptors.
21876489 2011 The possible role of the PK1 and its receptor in the etiology of the preeclampsia.
21858178 2011 Ectopic pregnancy as a model to identify endometrial genes and signaling pathways important in decidualization and regulated by local trophoblast.
21858136 2011 Expression of PROKR1 and PROKR2 in human enteric neural precursor cells and identification of sequence variants suggest a role in HSCR.
21546446 2011 Prokineticin 1 induces Dickkopf 1 expression and regulates cell proliferation and decidualization in the human endometrium.
21385081 2011 Upregulation of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in papillary thyroid cancers displaying infiltrative patterns, lymph node metastases, and BRAF mutation.
21098624 2011 CTGF expression is up-regulated by PROK1 in early pregnancy and influences HTR-8/Svneo cell adhesion and network formation.
20847187 2010 Polymorphisms of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor gene and its receptor genes are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.
20795791 2010 Prokineticin-1/endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor is a survival factor for human multiple myeloma cells.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20400074 2010 Prokineticin 1, homeobox A10, and progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells isolated from endometrium of healthy women and from eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis.
20172976 2010 Prokineticins: novel mediators of inflammatory and contractile pathways at parturition?
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19801577 2010 Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) modulates interleukin (IL)-11 expression via prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and the calcineurin/NFAT signalling pathway.
19602057 2009 Role of EG-VEGF in human placentation: Physiological and pathological implications.
19523441 2009 Endocrine glands-derived vascular endothelial growth factor protects pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis via upregulation of the myeloid cell leukemia-1 protein.
19285664 2010 Prokineticin 1 mRNA expression in the endometrium of healthy women and in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis.
19255255 2009 Prokineticin 1 mediates fetal-maternal dialogue regulating endometrial leukemia inhibitory factor.
19135668 2010 Up-regulation of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor but not vascular endothelial growth factor in human ectopic endometriotic tissue.
19077468 2009 Pancreatic islet and stellate cells are the main sources of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor/prokineticin-1 in pancreatic cancer.
18577758 2008 Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.
18571163 2009 Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates proliferation and tube formation in human uterine microvascular endothelial cell through the mitogen-activated protein kinase but not through the Akt pathway.
18339712 2008 Prokineticin 1 signaling and gene regulation in early human pregnancy.
17683928 2007 Expression and localization of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) in human pancreas and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
17289879 2007 Implications of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor/prokineticin-1 signaling in human neuroblastoma progression.
17178891 2006 Endocytic Ark/Prk kinases play a critical role in adriamycin resistance in both yeast and mammalian cells.
17167981 2006 Correlation of four vascular specific growth factors with carcinogenesis and portal vein tumor thrombus formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
16763065 2006 The endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF)/prokineticin 1 and 2 and receptor expression in human prostate: Up-regulation of EG-VEGF/prokineticin 1 with malignancy.
16710414 2006 The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.
16320832 2005 Unique expression and regulatory mechanisms of EG-VEGF/prokineticin-1 and its receptors in the corpus luteum.
16263331 2006 Choroidal neovascularization in transgenic mice expressing prokineticin 1: an animal model for age-related macular degeneration.
16210375 2006 Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in human peri-implantation endometrium, but not in endometrial carcinoma.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15340161 2004 Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.
15292351 2004 Human endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor: expression early in development and in Leydig cell tumors suggests roles in normal and pathological testis angiogenesis.
15126581 2004 Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endocrine gland derived-VEGF, and VEGF receptors in human placentas from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.
15126578 2004 Expression and regulation of the prokineticins (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and Bv8) and their receptors in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle.
12975309 2003 The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.
12915658 2003 Presence and regulation of endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor/prokineticin-1 and its receptors in ovarian cells.
12858543 2002 The role of EG-VEGF in the regulation of angiogenesis in endocrine glands.
12759245 2003 Differential expression of the angiogenic factor genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endocrine gland-derived VEGF in normal and polycystic human ovaries.
12604792 2003 The endocrine-gland-derived VEGF homologue Bv8 promotes angiogenesis in the testis: Localization of Bv8 receptors to endothelial cells.
12538479 2003 Expression of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in ovarian carcinoma.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12427552 2002 Molecular cloning and characterization of prokineticin receptors.
11528470 2001 Identification of an angiogenic mitogen selective for endocrine gland endothelium.
11259612 2001 Identification of two prokineticin cDNAs: recombinant proteins potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle.