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NCBI Gene PubMed Count 52
PubMed Score 101.42
PubTator Score 126.97

Knowledge Summary


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Gene RIF (28)

26392304 PRM2 gene expression was significantly decreased in immature sperm extracted from the fertile and infertile groups. Caspase 9 activity was significantly increased in immature sperm extracted from both groups.
25649960 The expressed human protamine2 in two fast-growing cell systems, E. coli and HeLa cells. The protamine2 expression significantly attenuated cell proliferation when compared with control cells.
25536093 the quantity of PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 transcripts and the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio affect spermiogenesis, sperm morphology
23271023 Data indicate changed ecpression levels of PRM2, HSP90 and WNT5A in male of couples experiencing idiopathic recurrent miscarriages.
22472940 significant correlation has been found between protamine 1 and 2 transcripts/proteins and: sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility, sperm fertilization ability as well as embryo quality
22104739 Single nuclotide polymorphisms in PRM2 gene is associated with male infertility.
21317160 Data suggest that Casp4, Casp 6 and TNFSF10 are differentially expressed in potentially fertile and subfertile men and represent useful biomarkers for predicting male fertility in combination with P1 and P2.
21029114 identified and we report for the first time five novel rare haplotypes encompassing the protamine 1 and 2 genes
20378615 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19863670 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19602509 Mutations in the protamine locus may be an infrequent cause of male infertility.
19602509 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18692784 The CCNA1, CCNB1, CCNB2, PRM1, and PRM2 messenger RNA transcript ratios were significantly decreased in patients with spermatogenic disorders. Transcript ratios in patients with successful sperm retrieval were higher than with failed sperm retrieval.
18478156 Histones localized to the posterior ring region (i.e. the sperm nuclear annulus), whereas PRM1 and PRM2 appeared to be dispersed throughout the entire nucleus.
18314125 Decreased pre-P2/P2 and P1/P2 ratios are related to a poor pregnancy outcome, but not with the proportion of embryos obtained after assisted reproduction.
18309899 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18292846 A reduction in contents of PRM2 transcript in spermatozoa may be linked with asthenozoospermia.
18292840 The PRM2 contributes not only to successful fertilization, but may has an important impact in development of preimplantation embryos.
17113348 Novel polycythemia vera (PV)-associated tumor antigen PV13 (protamine 2) elicits IgG antibody reactions in a subset of PV patients but not in healthy donors, suggesting that it is an authentic tumor antigens.
17011555 The P1/P2 ratio has a significant relationship to sperm fertilization ability.
16989827 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16989827 A number of SNPs are present in the testis-specific nuclear protein genes.
16632464 levels of pre-P2 may provide clues into pathogenesis of infertility. increased proportion of pre-P2 in some men with increased P1/P2 ratio suggests involvement of pre-P2 processing & link between deficient protamine processing & decreased DNA integrity.
15670415 Altered protamine P1/P2 ratio effects fertilization rate and embryo quality which subsequently may affect implantation and pregnancy outcome.
12569175 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12569175 single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene in fertile and infertile males
12524352 significantly enhanced evolutionary rates in the hominid lineage
11869379 analyse the presence of DAZ, RBMY1, USP9Y, protamine-2, SRY and actin messenger RNA (mRNA) in testicular cells of men suffering from idiopathic azoospermia.

AA Sequence

HRSCRRRKRRSCRHRRRHRRGCRTRKRTCRRH                                           71 - 102

Text Mined References (54)

PMID Year Title
26392304 2016 The Role of Protamine 2 Gene Expression and Caspase 9 Activity in Male Infertility.
25649960 2015 Expression of sperm-specific protamines impairs bacterial and eukaryotic cell proliferation.
25536093 2015 Quantification of sperm specific mRNA transcripts (PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2) in teratozoospermia and normozoospermia: New correlations between mRNA content and morphology of sperm.
23568457 2013 Genetic variants associated with disordered eating.
23271023 2012 Expression pattern of PRM2, HSP90 and WNT5A in male partners of couples experiencing idiopathic recurrent miscarriages.
22472940 2012 Impact of protamine transcripts and their proteins on the quality and fertilization ability of sperm and the development of preimplantation embryos.
22190364 2011 Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci.
22104739 2012 Protamine-1 and -2 polymorphisms and gene expression in male infertility: an Italian study.
21630459 2011 Proteomic characterization of the human sperm nucleus.
21317160 2011 Apoptotic gene expression in potentially fertile and subfertile men.
21029114 2011 Polymorphisms, haplotypes and mutations in the protamine 1 and 2 genes.
20378615 2010 Evaluation of 172 candidate polymorphisms for association with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in a large cohort of men of European descent.
19863670 2010 A common haplotype of protamine 1 and 2 genes is associated with higher sperm counts.
19602509 2009 Mutations in the protamine locus: association with spermatogenic failure?
18692784 2009 Cyclin and protamine as prognostic molecular marker for testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia.
18478156 2008 Characterization of nucleohistone and nucleoprotamine components in the mature human sperm nucleus.
18314125 2009 Protamine 2 precursors (Pre-P2), protamine 1 to protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2), and assisted reproduction outcome.
18309899 Identification of genetic variation in the 5' and 3' non-coding regions of the protamine genes in patients with protamine deregulation.
18292846 2007 Evaluation of protamines 1 and 2 transcript contents in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic men.
18292840 2007 Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.
17113348 2007 Novel tumor antigens elicit anti-tumor humoral immune reactions in a subset of patients with polycythemia vera.
17011555 2006 Sperm protamine 1/protamine 2 ratios are related to in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates and predictive of fertilization ability.
16989827 2006 Identification of novel polymorphisms in the nuclear protein genes and their relationship with human sperm protamine deficiency and severe male infertility.
16632464 2006 Protamine 2 precursors, protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio, DNA integrity and other sperm parameters in infertile patients.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
15670415 2004 Effect of protamine-2 deficiency on ICSI outcome.
15616553 2004 The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15342556 2004 Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12569175 2003 Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protamine-1 and -2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations.
12524352 2002 Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11869379 2002 A preliminary report on the implication of RT-PCR detection of DAZ, RBMY1, USP9Y and Protamine-2 mRNA in testicular biopsy samples from azoospermic men.
11686187 2001 Differential zinc and DNA binding by partial peptides of human protamine HP2.
11326282 2001 Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in mice.
10898591 2000 Lead interaction with human protamine (HP2) as a mechanism of male reproductive toxicity.
10659848 2000 Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man.
9795985 Immunoelectron microscopic visualization of intermediate basic proteins HPI1 and HPI2 in human spermatids and spermatozoa.
9282840 1997 Binding of nickel(II) and copper(II) to the N-terminal sequence of human protamine HP2.
9239704 1997 Haploid transcripts persist in mature human spermatozoa.
8513794 1993 Amino acid sequence of the human intermediate basic protein 2 (HPI2) from sperm nuclei. Structural relationship with protamine P2.
8024562 1994 Interaction of human P1 and P2 protamines with DNA.
7983046 1994 Characterization of a human locus in transition.
7714151 1994 Disturbances of nuclear condensation in human spermatozoa: search for mutations in the genes for protamine 1, protamine 2 and transition protein 1.
3956509 1986 Human sperm protamines. Amino-acid sequences of two forms of protamine P2.
3527226 1986 Isolation and amino-acid sequence analysis of human sperm protamines P1 and P2. Occurrence of two forms of protamine P2.
3412906 1988 Sequence of human protamine 2 cDNA.
3403514 1988 Comparison of the amino acid sequences of human protamines HP2 and HP3 and of intermediate basic nuclear proteins HPS1 and HPS2. Structural evidence that HPS1 and HPS2 are pro-protamines.
2384091 1990 Molecular characterization of nuclear basic protein HPI1, a putative precursor of human sperm protamines HP2 and HP3.
2370044 1990 Chromosomal localization of the human protamine genes, PRM1 and PRM2, to 16p13.3 by in situ hybridization.
2081589 1990 Genomic sequences of human protamines whose genes, PRM1 and PRM2, are clustered.
1907596 1991 Detection of human spermatid-specific transcripts in peripheral blood lymphocytes of males and females.
1889406 1991 Molecular structure of human protamine P4 (HP4), a minor basic protein of human sperm nuclei.