Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 55
PubMed Score 1145.89
PubTator Score 304.34

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (17)

Disease log2 FC p
posterior fossa group B ependymoma -3.500 7.3e-13
oligodendroglioma -1.800 1.1e-02
glioblastoma -2.600 3.4e-04
group 3 medulloblastoma -4.100 4.7e-06
cystic fibrosis 1.296 1.1e-02
medulloblastoma, large-cell -3.100 3.5e-05
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 1.962 1.6e-10
juvenile dermatomyositis 2.181 1.4e-10
adrenocortical adenoma -2.157 1.4e-02
adrenocortical carcinoma -2.159 2.7e-04
colon cancer -3.500 5.9e-07
breast carcinoma -1.400 4.4e-06
adult high grade glioma -2.200 1.5e-03
pilocytic astrocytoma -2.900 1.1e-05
aldosterone-producing adenoma -4.712 6.5e-03
invasive ductal carcinoma -3.908 1.4e-03
Gaucher disease type 3 -1.100 1.2e-02

Gene RIF (33)

26634308 Nav1.7 deletion has profound effects on gene expression, leading to an upregulation of enkephalin precursor Penk mRNA and met-enkephalin protein in sensory neurons.
26218633 Serum PENK-A levels were not associated with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its association with cardiovascular mortality was strongly attenuated after accounting for all traditional risk factors.
26164485 The PENK polymorphism-and potentially opioid neurotransmission more generally-modulates functioning and structural integrity of brain regions.
25891176 BSP demonstrated that emodin, to a certain degree, affected the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A, and ppENK in the pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1.
24937655 enhanced plasma proenkephalin A could be a useful, complementary tool to predict short- or long-term clinical outcome after severe traumatic brain injury.
24937654 increased plasma PENK-A levels are associated with disease severity and in-hospital mortality after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.
24496384 EPS led to the discovery of two novel immunomodulatory proteins, MFAP5 and PENK that when administered to mice subjected to endotoxemic shock, reversed the cytokine storm and provided a significant survival benefit
24289328 Promoter methylation of WIF1, PENK and NPY is associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) diagnosis and can be used to CRC from other cancers.
23937196 Data from women undergoing hysterectomy for uterine fibroids suggest that uterine isthmian-cervical region exhibits nerve fibers expressing enkephalin (ENK); uterine fundus/corpus myoma pseudocapsules do not exhibit nerve fibers expressing ENK.
23395721 Peptide F is bound to white blood cells in the blood. Exercise alters Peptide F in the plasma and white blood cell blood fractions.
22745721 The findings suggest an important role for Neuroticism as an endophenotype linking PENK polymorphisms to cannabis-dependence vulnerability synergistically amplifying the apparent genetic risk.
22393040 Findings indicate the unique function of cathepsin V for producing enkephalin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuropeptides required for neurotransmission in health and neurological diseases.
22391864 Expression of preproenkephalin is significantly decreased in brain from HIV-1 infected patients compared to HIV-1 negative subjects.
22102294 Differential tertiary conformations of PE subdomains undergo ordered proteolytic processing to generate active enkephalin peptides for cell-cell communication in the nervous and endocrine systems.
21810780 found higher levels for MOR mRNA (+27%) in schizophrenia but no differences in DOR or proenkephalin mRNAs
20734064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20628265 we demonstrated reduced ppE expression in patients with elevated psychological distress.
20546612 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20207019 indicate alterations of the cerebral PENK A- and PTA-system in both, dementia and acute neuroinflammatory disorders
19874574 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19086053 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18184800 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18184800 analysis of polymorphisms of proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes in relation to heroin abuse and gene expression in the human striatum and the relevance of genetic dopaminergic tone
18082911 It found widespread expression of preproenkephalin (pPENK) mRNA and production of the enkephalin precursor protein proenkephalin (PENK) in rat and mouse tissues, as well as in tissues and cells from humans and pigs.
17599100 study provides evidence that the growth-responsive nuclear protein, proenkephalin (Penk), is required, in part, for apoptosis induction, in response to activation or overexpression of p53 and RelA(p65)
17503481 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17198183 Smoking was not associated with p16 or ppENK hypermethylation in pancreatic cancer patients
17074347 The discrete cell-phenotype localization and timing of the changes in the level of PEA and of piGABA-R mRNA.
16621157 Proenkephalin A 119-159 is a stable proenkephalin A precursor fragment identified in human circulation
16406203 Proenkephalin peptide F has varying immunoreactivity in different circulatory biocompartments after exercise
12000709 Results suggest that methylation-related inactivation of the ppENK gene is an intermediate or late event during pancreatic carcinogenesis.
11140838 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (56)

PMID Year Title
26634308 2015 Endogenous opioids contribute to insensitivity to pain in humans and mice lacking sodium channel Nav1.7.
26218633 2015 Serum Proenkephalin A Levels and Mortality After Long-Term Follow-Up in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ZODIAC-32).
26164485 2015 Effects of an opioid (proenkephalin) polymorphism on neural response to errors in health and cocaine use disorder.
26029055 2015 Downregulation of the endogenous opioid peptides in the dorsal striatum of human alcoholics.
25891176 2015 Effects of emodin on the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.
24961912 2014 A DNA hypermethylation profile reveals new potential biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
24937655 2014 Prognostic value of neuropeptide proenkephalin A in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
24937654 2014 Neuropeptide proenkephalin A is associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage.
24727154 2014 Circulating levels of neuropeptide proenkephalin A predict outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
24496384 2014 Enriched protein screening of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell secretions reveals MFAP5 and PENK as novel IL-10 modulators.
24289328 2013 Aberrant methylation of NPY, PENK, and WIF1 as a promising marker for blood-based diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
23937196 2013 The opioid neuropeptides in uterine fibroid pseudocapsules: a putative association with cervical integrity in human reproduction.
23597562 2013 Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and growth by a small-molecule multi-FGF receptor blocker with allosteric properties.
23395721 2013 Responses of proenkephalin Peptide F to aerobic exercise stress in the plasma and white blood cell biocompartments.
22745721 2012 Cannabis-dependence risk relates to synergism between neuroticism and proenkephalin SNPs associated with amygdala gene expression: case-control study.
22393040 2012 Human cathepsin V protease participates in production of enkephalin and NPY neuropeptide neurotransmitters.
22391864 2012 Prefrontal dopaminergic and enkephalinergic synaptic accommodation in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and encephalitis.
22102294 2012 The prohormone proenkephalin possesses differential conformational features of subdomains revealed by rapid H-D exchange mass spectrometry.
21810780 2012 Cortical opioid markers in schizophrenia and across postnatal development.
20734064 2010 A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause.
20628265 2010 Preproenkephalin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of acutely underweight and recovered patients with anorexia nervosa.
20546612 2010 The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
20207019 2010 Midregional Proenkephalin A and N-terminal Protachykinin A are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia disorders and acute neuroinflammation.
19874574 2009 Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans.
19086053 2009 Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.
18577758 2008 Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.
18391951 2008 Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.
18240029 2008 Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.
18184800 2008 Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression.
18082911 2008 Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues.
17599100 2007 Proenkephalin assists stress-activated apoptosis through transcriptional repression of NF-kappaB- and p53-regulated gene targets.
17503481 2007 The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study.
17198183 2007 K-ras mutation and p16 and preproenkephalin promoter hypermethylation in plasma DNA of pancreatic cancer patients: in relation to cigarette smoking.
17074347 2006 Proenkephalin A and the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor pi subunit: expression, localization, and dynamic changes in human secretory endometrium.
16621157 2006 Proenkephalin A 119-159, a stable proenkephalin A precursor fragment identified in human circulation.
16406203 2006 Proenkephalin peptide F immunoreactivity in different circulatory biocompartments after exercise.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12000709 2002 Aberrant methylation of preproenkephalin and p16 genes in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
11140838 2000 A multivariate analysis of 59 candidate genes in personality traits: the temperament and character inventory.
9357452 1997 T helper 2 cytokines induce preproenkephalin mRNA expression and proenkephalin A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
9126357 1997 The structure of synenkephalin (pro-enkephalin 1-73) is dictated by three disulfide bridges.
8858927 1996 Initial processing of human proenkephalin in bovine chromaffin cells.
8206338 1994 Expression of PC2 and PC1/PC3 in human pheochromocytomas.
7829101 1994 Isolation of novel and known genes from a human fetal cochlear cDNA library using subtractive hybridization and differential screening.
7759618 1995 Opioid precursor gene expression in the human hypothalamus.
7704301 1994 Evidence for two neurochemical divisions in the human nucleus accumbens.
7560016 1995 Antibodies against the amino-terminal portion of pro-enkephalin inhibit DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear cells.
7559749 1995 Proenkephalin is a nuclear protein responsive to growth arrest and differentiation signals.
7057924 1982 Primary structure of the human Met- and Leu-enkephalin precursor and its mRNA.
6761648 1982 The structure and expression of the preproenkephalin gene.
6281660 1982 Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene.
2893547 1988 Chromosomal localization of the human proenkephalin and prodynorphin genes.
1729392 1992 Posttranslational processing of proenkephalin in SK-N-MC cells: evidence for phosphorylation.