Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 102
PubMed Score 73.60
PubTator Score 255.64

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (24)

Disease log2 FC p
gastric cancer -1.700 3.9e-02
pancreatic cancer -1.900 3.0e-02
Waldenstrons macroglobulinemia 1.036 1.8e-03
Multiple myeloma 1.147 2.5e-04
astrocytic glioma 1.400 1.2e-02
ependymoma 2.900 1.4e-08
oligodendroglioma 1.700 6.2e-03
psoriasis 1.200 1.8e-03
glioblastoma 3.100 4.5e-04
osteosarcoma 1.837 2.6e-06
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor 3.700 1.5e-07
medulloblastoma 1.700 5.5e-03
medulloblastoma, large-cell 2.000 5.1e-04
primitive neuroectodermal tumor 1.400 4.5e-04
acute quadriplegic myopathy 1.035 9.6e-05
primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 1.033 1.6e-02
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma... 1.100 1.1e-02
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.500 1.5e-02
pediatric high grade glioma 2.300 6.2e-04
pilocytic astrocytoma 1.700 1.3e-03
pancreatic carcinoma -1.900 3.0e-02
invasive ductal carcinoma -1.106 3.9e-02
ovarian cancer 2.200 4.8e-05
dermatomyositis 1.100 1.1e-03

Gene RIF (58)

27273957 Progressive loss of e-cadherin/alpha-catenin expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype (low differentiation, increased metastatic activity/advanced stage) in thyroid carcinomas.
26691986 study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, indicates that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity
26261181 Actin-dependent CTNNA1 clustering is a unique molecular mechanism mediating both integrity and reassembly of the cell-cell adhesive interface formed through weak cis- and trans-intercadherin interactions.
26192076 This work identified alpha-catenin as another molecule in addition to E- and P-cadherin that were targeted to inactivate homotypic cell-in-cell structures formation in human tumor cells.
25894537 The results demonstrate a Fas-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway that is enhanced by the age-dependent loss of alpha(E)-catenin in renal tubule epithelial cells.
25544608 alpha-catenin is a reversible, stretch-activatable sensor that mechanically links cadherin complexes and actin and is an indispensable player in cadherin-specific mechanotransduction at intercellular junctions.
25483184 alpha-catenin functions as a tumor suppressor in E-cadherin-negative basal like breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling.
25153418 CTNNA1 hypermethylation was detected in three out of four with isolated del(5q), one with trisomy 11, one with monosomy 7, one out of four with del(20q), and one out of seven with complex abnormalities, but in none with trisomy 8.
24685333 CTNNA1 methylation is a recurrent event but has no influence on prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia
24509793 CTNNA1 expression is specifically downregulated in basal-like breast cancer subtype, correlates with clinical outcome and inversely correlates with TNF and RELB expression.
23208944 A germline truncating allele of alpha-E-catenin (CTNNA1) was identified that was present in two family members with invasive diffuse gastric cancer and four in which intramucosal signet ring cells were detected as part of endoscopic surveillance.
23077317 HIV-1 gp41 and alpha-catenin co-localize in gp160 and GST-alpha-catenin expressing cells; the leucine zipper-like domain (gp160 residues 791-824) of gp41 interacts strongly with the carboxy terminus (residues 795-906) of alpha-catenin
22774602 The expressions of E-cd and alpha-cat are significantly lower in prostate cancer than in benign prostatic hyperplasia, and they are not associated with cancerous metastasis, but negatively correlated with the PSA level in PCa patients.
22571452 alpha- and beta-catenins may be important in the early stages of phyllodes tumours development, while E-cadherin may be required for malignant development
22493458 binding studies suggest that vinculin must be in an activated state to bind to alpha-catenin and that this interaction is stabilized by the formation of a ternary alpha-catenin-vinculin-F-actin complex, which can be formed via the F-actin binding domain
22469663 A discrete trimeric complex of beta-catenin, alpha-catenin and the tumor suppressor APC, forms in the cytoplasm in response to Wnt signaling.
22381337 Data demonstrate that the expression of alpha-E-catenin is increased by Sec6 siRNAs, and E-cadherin and beta-catenin localize mainly at the cell-cell contact region in HSC3 cells, which were transfected with Sec6 siRNA.
22080244 Report loss of CTNNA1 as lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast progresses to more invasive lesions.
21937720 study presents evidence that in the cadherin-catenin complex alpha-catenin contributes to the binding strength of another catenin, p120, to the same complex; data suggest alpha-catenin-p120 contact within the cadherin-catenin complex can regulate cadherin trafficking
21030692 These results suggest that JNK affects the association of alpha-catenin with the adherens junction complex and regulates adherens junctions.
20933443 Data show that E-cadherin and alpha-catenin were predominantly expressed in the cell membranes, whereas beta- and gamma-catenin were found both in the cell membrane and cytoplasm.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20529828 The study objective was to assess changes in the expressions of E-cadherin and alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin proteins in pancreatic duct carcinoma in correlation with clinicopathological parameters, lymph node involvement and distant metastases.
20529814 The E-cadherin-catenin complex is the factor indicative of metastasis and disease progression in gastric cancer.
20371743 An evolutionarily conserved PTEN-C/EBPalpha-CTNNA1 axis controls myeloid development and transformation.
20032304 Data show that actin bundle formation and subsequent linkage between actin bundles and VE-cadherin through alpha- and beta-catenins are important for the stabilization of VE-cadherin at the cell-cell contacts in cAMP-Epac-Rap1 signal-activated cells.
19941816 The EGFR-ERK-CK2-mediated phosphorylation of alpha-catenin promotes beta-catenin transactivation and tumor cell invasion.
19918298 results show that the association of alpha-catenin with the cadherin-catenin complex is required for efficient leukocyte transendothelial migration
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19826047 Methylation and inactivation of CTNNA1 is associated with advanced myeloid malignancies.
19773761 an interaction of CAR and alpha-catenin mediates the impact of CAR on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and morphology.
19763817 4 biallelic inactivating alpha-catenin mutations were found among 55 human breast cancer cell lines. All caused premature termination. Loss of alpha-catenin protein expression was associated with the lobular subtype in primary breast cancers.
19745064 Loss of alpha-catenin resulted in increased in vitro tumorigenic characteristics (increased soft agarose colony formation, clonogenic survival after suspension, and survival in suspension).
19726720 This study identifies the E-cadherin/catenin complex as a discriminative, partly polyamine-regulated feature of IL-4/IL-13-exposed alternatively activated macrophages
19656157 increased E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expression and reduced Wnt signaling might be involved in the mechanisms of tumor suppressor function of BCSC-1.
19458087 loss of alpha-catenin alone drastically reduces the adhesive force between individual cadherin pairs on adjoining cells, explain the global loss of cell adhesion in human breast cancer cells
19124205 The mean values of the percentage of positive cells for the tested proteins between E-AD vs. AD did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference except for alpha-catenin.
18566211 This study reveals for the first time that alpha-catenin is a key regulator of beta-catenin transcriptional activity and that the status of alpha-catenin expression in tumor tissues might have prognostic value for Src targeted therapy
18418437 Rsults suggest that the lower epithelial alpha-catenin, E-cadherin and (or) ZO-1 expression in patients with atopic asthma contributes to a defective airway epithelial barrier and a higher influx of eosinophils in the epithelium.
18078809 These results suggest induction of SRF-mediated transcription by alpha(E)-catenin either downstream of RhoA or via a parallel pathway.
17979184 removal of N-glycans on E-cadherin resulted in elevated tyrosine phosphorylation level of beta-catenin and reduced beta- and alpha-catenins at adherens junctions
17760743 prognostic and chemosensitivity marker for invasive bladder cancer
17668349 The previously reported characteristics of this mutation, E-cadherin (V832M) do not apply to human epithelial cells expressing this mutant protein.
17576040 we explored the implication of three proteins (E-cadherin, a- and b-catenins) that form the cadherin-catenin complex, a receptorial structure strictly involved in tumoral vascular invasion and embolization in this biologic event
16927799 The expression of alpha-catenin was significantly lower in the invasive group than in the non-invasive group of pituitary adenoma.
16798615 Direct attachment of alpha-catenin to F-actin is required to promote cadherin-mediated contact formation and strong cell-cell adhesive states.
16322481 Cdc42 regulates AJ permeability by controlling the binding of alpha-catenin with beta-catenin and the consequent interaction of the VE-cadherin/catenin complex with the actin cytoskeleton.
16273278 These results indicate that the interaction of alpha-catenin and actin functions in the assembly of desmosomes in epithelial cells.
15948257 Downregulation of alpha-catenin expression is common in gastric carcinoma
15916880 Loss of expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth correlated significantly with poor prognosis
15695815 ubiquitin-independent degradation of alpha-catenin regulates beta-catenin signaling and maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of articular chondrocytes
15541354 Our results suggest that alpha-catenin links CCR5 and CXCR4 to the cytoskeleton and is involved in the organization of these receptors at the membrane, thereby possibly affecting HIV-1 infection.
15297182 Allelic imbalance occurs at two distinct regions of which one includes the CTNNA1 gene in ovarian cancer.
14755240 alpha-catenin has a role in cell growth control in three-dimensional culture
14599963 Pancreatic cancer likely occurs in case of the inactivation of E-cadherin and alpha-catenin genes and abnormal expression of proteins
12532469 Abnormal E-cadherin and alpha-catenin and beta-catenin in pancreatic carcinoma tissues. Abnormal E-cadherin and alpha-catenin with differentiation, lymph node and liver metastases. Aberrant beta-catenin with lymph node and liver metastases.
11883950 HIV-1 gp41 and alpha-catenin co-localize in gp160 and GST-alpha-catenin expressing cells; the leucine zipper-like domain (gp160 residues 791-824) of gp41 interacts strongly with the carboxy terminus (residues 795-906) of alpha-catenin
10420987 HIV-1 gp41 and alpha-catenin co-localize in gp160 and GST-alpha-catenin expressing cells; the leucine zipper-like domain (gp160 residues 791-824) of gp41 interacts strongly with the carboxy terminus (residues 795-906) of alpha-catenin

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (123)

PMID Year Title
27273957 E-cadherin/?-catenin deregulated co-expression in thyroid carcinoma based on tissue microarray digital image analysis.
26691986 2016 Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity.
26496610 2015 A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances.
26261181 2015 ?-Catenin-mediated cadherin clustering couples cadherin and actin dynamics.
26192076 2015 Impaired formation of homotypic cell-in-cell structures in human tumor cells lacking alpha-catenin expression.
25894537 2015 Loss of ?(E)-catenin promotes Fas mediated apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells.
25544608 2015 Dynamic visualization of ?-catenin reveals rapid, reversible conformation switching between tension states.
25483184 2014 ?-catenin. A tumor suppressor beyond adherens junctions.
25468996 2014 E-cadherin interactome complexity and robustness resolved by quantitative proteomics.
25241761 2014 Using an in situ proximity ligation assay to systematically profile endogenous protein-protein interactions in a pathway network.
25153418 2014 Aberrant hypermethylation of CTNNA1 gene is associated with higher IPSS risk in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
25056061 2014 Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci.
24685333 2014 Methylation of CTNNA1 promoter: frequent but not an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia.
24509793 2014 ?-catenin acts as a tumour suppressor in E-cadherin-negative basal-like breast cancer by inhibiting NF-?B signalling.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24189400 2013 Perturbation of the mutated EGFR interactome identifies vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms.
23208944 2013 An ?-E-catenin (CTNNA1) mutation in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
22774602 2012 [Expressions of E-cadherin and alpha-catenin in benign, malignant and metastatic prostate tumors].
22658674 2012 Insights into RNA biology from an atlas of mammalian mRNA-binding proteins.
22571452 2012 Involvement of ?- and ?-catenins and E-cadherin in the development of mammary phyllodes tumours.
22493458 2012 The cytoskeletal protein ?-catenin unfurls upon binding to vinculin.
22469663 2012 Identification of a Wnt-induced protein complex by affinity proteomics using an antibody that recognizes a sub-population of ?-catenin.
22381337 2012 Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing ?-E-catenin in oral cancer cells.
22080244 2012 Cadherin-catenin complex dissociation in lobular neoplasia of the breast.
21937720 2011 ?-Catenin contributes to the strength of E-cadherin-p120 interactions.
21708131 2011 Bidirectional transcription from human LRRTM2/CTNNA1 and LRRTM1/CTNNA2 gene loci leads to expression of N-terminally truncated CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 isoforms.
21423176 2011 Analysis of the myosin-II-responsive focal adhesion proteome reveals a role for ?-Pix in negative regulation of focal adhesion maturation.
21406692 2011 System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21030692 2011 JNK regulates binding of alpha-catenin to adherens junctions and cell-cell adhesion.
20936779 2010 A human MAP kinase interactome.
20933443 2012 Altered expression of cell adhesion molecules leads to differential uptake of hypericin in urothelial cancer.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20529828 2010 Expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
20529814 2010 The expression of E-cadherin-catenin complex in patients with advanced gastric cancer: role in formation of metastasis.
20371743 2010 An evolutionarily conserved PTEN-C/EBPalpha-CTNNA1 axis controls myeloid development and transformation.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
20032304 2010 Vascular endothelial-cadherin stabilizes at cell-cell junctions by anchoring to circumferential actin bundles through alpha- and beta-catenins in cyclic AMP-Epac-Rap1 signal-activated endothelial cells.
19941816 2009 EGF-induced ERK activation promotes CK2-mediated disassociation of alpha-Catenin from beta-Catenin and transactivation of beta-Catenin.
19918298 2009 The presence of alpha-catenin in the VE-cadherin complex is required for efficient transendothelial migration of leukocytes.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19826047 2009 Progressive chromatin repression and promoter methylation of CTNNA1 associated with advanced myeloid malignancies.
19773761 2009 Loss of Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor downregulates alpha-catenin expression.
19763817 2010 Four human breast cancer cell lines with biallelic inactivating alpha-catenin gene mutations.
19745064 2009 Modulation of the tumor suppressor protein alpha-catenin by ischemic microenvironment.
19726720 2009 Alternatively activated macrophages engage in homotypic and heterotypic interactions through IL-4 and polyamine-induced E-cadherin/catenin complexes.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19656157 2009 Tumor suppressor function of BCSC-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
19458087 2009 Loss of alpha-catenin decreases the strength of single E-cadherin bonds between human cancer cells.
19413330 2009 Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach.
19369195 2009 Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome.
19124205 2009 Analysis of APC, alpha-, beta-catenins, and N-cadherin protein expression in aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor).
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18566211 2008 alpha-Catenin overrides Src-dependent activation of beta-catenin oncogenic signaling.
18418437 2008 Altered expression of epithelial junctional proteins in atopic asthma: possible role in inflammation.
18318008 2008 Large-scale phosphoproteome analysis of human liver tissue by enrichment and fractionation of phosphopeptides with strong anion exchange chromatography.
18220336 2008 Combining protein-based IMAC, peptide-based IMAC, and MudPIT for efficient phosphoproteomic analysis.
18093941 2008 EPLIN mediates linkage of the cadherin catenin complex to F-actin and stabilizes the circumferential actin belt.
18078809 2008 Alpha(E)-Catenin induces SRF-dependent transcriptional activity through its C-terminal region and is partly RhoA/ROCK-dependent.
17979184 2008 N-glycosylation affects the adhesive function of E-Cadherin through modifying the composition of adherens junctions (AJs) in human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435.
17760743 2007 The prognostic value of E-cadherin, alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy.
17668349 Evidence that the V832M E-cadherin germ-line missense mutation does not influence the affinity of alpha -catenin for the cadherin/catenin complex.
17620599 2007 Functional specialization of beta-arrestin interactions revealed by proteomic analysis.
17576040 2007 Expression of the E-cadherin-catenins complex in sentinel node is related to tumor morphology but not to spread to nonsentinel nodes.
17487921 2007 Toward a global characterization of the phosphoproteome in prostate cancer cells: identification of phosphoproteins in the LNCaP cell line.
17081983 2006 Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.
16964243 2006 A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.
16927799 2006 [Expression of E-cadherin catenin complex and invasiveness of pituitary adenoma].
16807684 2006 Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary.
16798615 Direct interaction of the C-terminal domain of alpha-catenin and F-actin is necessary for stabilized cell-cell adhesion.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
16322481 2006 Cdc42 regulates adherens junction stability and endothelial permeability by inducing alpha-catenin interaction with the vascular endothelial cadherin complex.
16273278 2005 Identification of regions of alpha-catenin required for desmosome organization in epithelial cells.
16184169 2005 ARHGAP10 is necessary for alpha-catenin recruitment at adherens junctions and for Listeria invasion.
15948257 2005 Alpha-catenin expression is decreased in patients with gastric carcinoma.
15923648 2005 Close encounters: regulation of vertebrate skeletal myogenesis by cell-cell contact.
15916880 2005 Catenin expression in T1/2 carcinomas of the floor of the mouth.
15695815 2005 Regulation of beta-catenin signaling and maintenance of chondrocyte differentiation by ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation of alpha-catenin.
15657067 2005 Phosphotyrosine signaling networks in epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressing squamous carcinoma cells.
15561718 2005 Systematic identification and analysis of mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifier substrates.
15541354 2004 The HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 binds to alpha-catenin, a component of the cellular cytoskeleton.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15372022 2004 The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5.
15302935 2004 Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.
15297182 2004 Marked allelic imbalance on chromosome 5q31 does not explain alpha-catenin expression in epithelial ovarian cancer.
14755240 2004 Expression of alpha-catenin in alpha-catenin-deficient cells results in a reduced proliferation in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids but not in two-dimensional monolayer cultures.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14599963 2003 Relationship between expressions of E-cadherin and alpha-catenin and biological behaviors of human pancreatic cancer.
12734196 2003 Characterization of cadherin-24, a novel alternatively spliced type II cadherin.
12640114 2003 p120 Catenin-associated Fer and Fyn tyrosine kinases regulate beta-catenin Tyr-142 phosphorylation and beta-catenin-alpha-catenin Interaction.
12532469 2003 Relationship between expression of E-cadherin-catenin complex and clinicopathologic characteristics of pancreatic cancer.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12477722 2003 Comprehensive proteomic analysis of breast cancer cell membranes reveals unique proteins with potential roles in clinical cancer.
12417594 2003 The LIM protein Ajuba is recruited to cadherin-dependent cell junctions through an association with alpha-catenin.
12003790 2002 Histamine stimulates phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and alters their link to vimentin.
11907041 2002 Biochemical and structural definition of the l-afadin- and actin-binding sites of alpha-catenin.
11447106 2001 Crystal structure of the M-fragment of alpha-catenin: implications for modulation of cell adhesion.
11179419 2001 Characterization of syntenin, a syndecan-binding PDZ protein, as a component of cell adhesion sites and microfilaments.
11069925 2001 alpha -Catenin binds directly to spectrin and facilitates spectrin-membrane assembly in vivo.
10868478 2000 Suppression of breast cancer invasion and migration by indole-3-carbinol: associated with up-regulation of BRCA1 and E-cadherin/catenin complexes.
10635315 1999 Presenilin-1 forms complexes with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion system and is recruited to intercellular and synaptic contacts.
10508479 1999 Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma.
10460003 1999 Cadherin and catenin expression in normal human bronchial epithelium and non-small cell lung cancer.
10026224 1999 Characterization of ZO-2 as a MAGUK family member associated with tight as well as adherens junctions with a binding affinity to occludin and alpha catenin.
9700171 1998 alpha-Catenin-vinculin interaction functions to organize the apical junctional complex in epithelial cells.
9512503 1998 E-cadherin mediated cell adhesion recruits SAP97 into the cortical cytoskeleton.
9341178 1997 Alpha-catenin can form asymmetric homodimeric complexes and/or heterodimeric complexes with beta-catenin.
9266853 1997 Molecular cloning of an alternative human alphaE-catenin cDNA.
9152027 1997 Characterization of the interactions of alpha-catenin with alpha-actinin and beta-catenin/plakoglobin.
9110993 1997 Identification of the domain of alpha-catenin involved in its association with beta-catenin and plakoglobin (gamma-catenin).
8404069 1994 Structure, expression and chromosome assignment of the human catenin (cadherin-associated protein) alpha 1 gene (CTNNA1).
8323564 1993 Cloning of the human alpha-catenin cDNA and its aberrant mRNA in a human cancer cell line.
8188230 1994 Assignment of the human alpha-catenin gene (CTNNA1) to chromosome 5q21-q22.
7982500 1994 Distinct cadherin-catenin complexes in Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion.
7945318 1994 Molecular cloning reveals alternative splice forms of human alpha(E)-catenin.
7890674 1995 The APC protein and E-cadherin form similar but independent complexes with alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and plakoglobin.
7806582 1994 E-cadherin and APC compete for the interaction with beta-catenin and the cytoskeleton.
7790378 1995 Interaction of alpha-actinin with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex via alpha-catenin.
7706414 1994 Assembly of the cadherin-catenin complex in vitro with recombinant proteins.
7650039 1995 Identification of plakoglobin domains required for association with N-cadherin and alpha-catenin.
1924379 1991 The uvomorulin-anchorage protein alpha catenin is a vinculin homologue.
1904011 1991 The 102 kd cadherin-associated protein: similarity to vinculin and posttranscriptional regulation of expression.