Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 69
Grant Count 217
R01 Count 109
Funding $42,343,632.51
PubMed Score 846.45
PubTator Score 511.55

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

TINX Plot

  Disease Relevance (140)

Disease Z-score Confidence
hepatocellular carcinoma 532 4.322 2.2
Toxic encephalopathy 131 3.956 2.0
Adenoma 165 3.932 2.0
Eye disease 55 3.707 1.9
Hepatic encephalopathy 25 3.642 1.8
Epilepsy 346 3.344 1.7
Acquired thrombocytopenia 7
Acute lymphoid leukemia 25
Adrenal cortical hypofunction 7
Adrenogenital disorder 6
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 4
Allergic conjunctivitis 25
Allergic rhinitis 91
Angioedema 36
Ankylosing spondylitis 138
Articular gout 11
Aspiration pneumonitis 6
Asthma 349
Atopic dermatitis 944
Autoimmune disease 5
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia 17
Bacterial conjunctivitis 10
Bacterial keratitis 5
Berylliosis 16
Blepharoconjunctivitis 5
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn 4
Breast cancer 3,094
Bursitis 10
Cerebral edema 5
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 74
Congenital hypoplastic anemia 8
Contact Dermatitis 80
Corneal abrasion 6
Corneal ulcer 9
Crohn's disease 304
Cyclitis 6
Dacryocystitis 7
Dermatitis herpetiformis 11
Diagnostic Test for Cushing's Syndrome 5
Discoid lupus erythematosus 7
Disorder of eye 7
Disorder of musculoskeletal system 5
Disorder of skin 5
Down syndrome 548
Edema of larynx 5
Eosinophilic asthma 5
Epicondylitis 19
Eruption of skin 5
Erythema multiforme 15
Erythroblastic Anemia 5
Erythroderma 5
Exacerbation of asthma 11
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis 6
Fibrosis of lung 4
Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 17
Gaucher disease type 1 171
Giant cell arteritis 5
Glutamine deficiency, congenital 1
Granuloma annulare 5
Herpes zoster keratitis 6
Hodgkin's disease 18
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy 6
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 5
Infective blepharitis 5
Inflammatory bowel disease 142
Iridocyclitis 12
Iritis 9
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 104
Keratitis 42
Lichen simplex chronicus 7
Liver Neoplasms, Experimental 48
Liver carcinoma 217
Löffler's syndrome 5
Meibomianitis 4
Miliary tuberculosis 5
Multiple Sclerosis 498
Multiple myeloma 1,327
Mycosis fungoides 28
Nephrotic Syndrome 48
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 22
Obesity 616
Ocular rosacea 4
Pemphigus 18
Plaque psoriasis 14
Pneumocystosis jiroveci pneumonia 7
Polymyalgia rheumatica 10
Post traumatic osteoarthritis 5
Post-Op Ocular Inflammation 10
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency 6
Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma 24
Progressive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphom... 4 
Pruritus ani 14
Pruritus of genital organs 5
Psoriasis with arthropathy 11
Punctate Epithelial Keratopathy 6
Rheumatic heart disease 8
Rheumatoid Arthritis 1,160
Rosacea 18
Scalp psoriasis 6
Seborrheic dermatitis 19
Severe Ocular Inflammation 4
Severe adrenal insufficiency 5
Sjögren's syndrome 5
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 78
Superficial Ocular Infection 6
Sympathetic uveitis 4
Synovitis 38
Synovitis due to Osteoarthritis 5
Systemic Dermatomyositis 5
Tendinitis 13
Tenosynovitis 15
Thyroiditis 25
Transfusion Reaction Urticaria 5
Transfusion reaction due to serum protei... 5 
Transplanted organ rejection 10
Uveitis 103
active Crohn's disease 918
adrenocortical carcinoma 1,427
adult high grade glioma 2,148
astrocytic glioma 2,241
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor 1,095
chronic rhinosinusitis 512
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 1,056
dermatomyositis 933
ependymoma 2,514
esophageal adenocarcinoma 737
gastric carcinoma 832
glioblastoma 5,572
lung adenocarcinoma 2,713
lung carcinoma 2,844
medulloblastoma 1,524
medulloblastoma, large-cell 6,234
osteosarcoma 7,933
ovarian cancer 8,484
pilocytic astrocytoma 3,086
primitive neuroectodermal tumor 3,031
psoriasis 6,685
sarcoidosis 358
systemic lupus erythematosus 156
ulcerative colitis 2,087

Expression

  Differential Expression (26)

Disease log2 FC p
gastric carcinoma -1.800 0.035
Multiple myeloma 1.946 0.039
astrocytic glioma -1.400 0.020
esophageal adenocarcinoma -1.900 0.020
psoriasis 3.200 0.000
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 1.600 0.004
osteosarcoma -1.310 0.004
ependymoma -2.400 0.000
glioblastoma -1.800 0.008
medulloblastoma -2.500 0.000
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor -3.200 0.000
medulloblastoma, large-cell -3.100 0.000
primitive neuroectodermal tumor -3.000 0.000
adrenocortical carcinoma -1.103 0.006
active Crohn's disease 1.350 0.008
adult high grade glioma -1.900 0.003
pilocytic astrocytoma -1.500 0.002
lung adenocarcinoma -1.100 0.000
lung carcinoma -1.300 0.000
Breast cancer 1.600 0.000
ulcerative colitis 1.100 0.007
ovarian cancer -1.700 0.000
Gaucher disease type 1 -1.800 0.021
Down syndrome 2.000 0.002
chronic rhinosinusitis -1.316 0.049
dermatomyositis 1.200 0.005

Synonym

Accession P15104 Q499Y9 Q5T9Z1 Q7Z3W4 Q8IZ17 GS
Symbols GS
GLNS
PIG43
PIG59

Gene

PANTHER Protein Class (1)

PDB

2OJW   2QC8  

Gene RIF (39)

PMID Text
26990986 GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome.
26836257 Studied molecular mechanisms of glutamine synthetase mutations that lead to clinically relevant pathologies.
26599579 This study demonstrated that Influence of glutamine synthetase gene polymorphisms on the development of hyperammonemia during valproic acid-based therapy.
26595383 Data show that glutamine synthetase (GS) produces glutamine (Gln) from tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle-derived carbons.
26395743 GLUL rs10911021 is associated prospectively with adjudicated cardiovascular composite end points among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.
25822763 Data indicate that the triple stain of reticulin, glypican-3, and glutamine synthetae is useful in the differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and focal nodular hyperplasia.
25677913 findings point to SNP rs10911021 of GLULas an independent modulator of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes
23982368 through a 3-stage genome-wide association study in 4188 type 2 diabetic patients, identified a novel susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease in the region of the GLUL gene
23807780 Results highlight the diagnostic errors that can be caused by variant patterns of staining with glutamine synthetase and serum amyloid-associated protein in inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia.
23410662 High Glutamine synthetase expression is associated with epilepsy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme.
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AA Sequence

MTTSASSHLNKGIKQVYMSLPQGEKVQAMYIWIDGTGEGLRCKTRTLDSEPKCVEELPEWNFDGSSTLQS      1 - 70
EGSNSDMYLVPAAMFRDPFRKDPNKLVLCEVFKYNRRPAETNLRHTCKRIMDMVSNQHPWFGMEQEYTLM     71 - 140
GTDGHPFGWPSNGFPGPQGPYYCGVGADRAYGRDIVEAHYRACLYAGVKIAGTNAEVMPAQWEFQIGPCE    141 - 210
GISMGDHLWVARFILHRVCEDFGVIATFDPKPIPGNWNGAGCHTNFSTKAMREENGLKYIEEAIEKLSKR    211 - 280
HQYHIRAYDPKGGLDNARRLTGFHETSNINDFSAGVANRSASIRIPRTVGQEKKGYFEDRRPSANCDPFS    281 - 350
VTEALIRTCLLNETGDEPFQYKN                                                   351 - 373
//

Text Mined References (74)

PMID Year Title
26990986 2016 Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.
26836257 2016 Molecular Mechanisms of Glutamine Synthetase Mutations that Lead to Clinically Relevant Pathologies.
26599579 2015 Influence of glutamine synthetase gene polymorphisms on the development of hyperammonemia during valproic acid-based therapy.
26595383 2015 Glutamine synthetase activity fuels nucleotide biosynthesis and supports growth of glutamine-restricted glioblastoma.
26395743 2016 Prospective Association of GLUL rs10911021 With Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: The Look AHEAD Study.
25822763 2015 A triple stain of reticulin, glypican-3, and glutamine synthetase: a useful aid in the diagnosis of liver lesions.
25677913 2015 Genetic Variant at the GLUL Locus Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
23982368 2013 Association between a genetic variant related to glutamic acid metabolism and coronary heart disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
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