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NCBI Gene PubMed Count 160
PubMed Score 1088.30
PubTator Score 603.59

Knowledge Summary


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 OMIM Phenotype (1)

Gene RIF (118)

26814963 Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4
26800705 C4A and C4B gene copy numbers are stronger risk factors for juvenile-onset than for adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus
26678451 Data indicate Ig-like transcript 4 (ILT4) as a cellular receptor for complement split products (CSPs) complement component 4d (C4d).
26517116 The interaction between C4BP and Leptospira interrogans LcpA, LigA and LigB is sensitive to ionic strength and inhibited by heparin.
26305533 Carrying no copies of C4B significantly increases the risk of cCSC, whereas carrying three C4B copies is protective.
26151608 Isolated C4d deposition and isolated interstitial inflammation appear to be benign lesions, but C4d deposition in association with interstitial inflammation in the biopsy is strongly associated with the development of chronic graft dysfunction.
26071493 Suggest a prominent prognostic value of C4d staining as a rejection marker in ABO compatible kidney transplantation.
26031580 C4d-negative acute antibody-mediated graft rejection resembles C4d-positive aAMR in terms of clinical and pathological features. C4d positivity has no influence on short-term outcome.
25894167 Late antibody/C4d-mediated rejection can emerge soon after the modification of immunosuppressive drug dosages and may be responsible for graft dysfunction or loss.
25799154 Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids is associated with lung cancer.
25778989 C4d immunostaining was a significant predictor of coronary allograft vasculopathy and death but not subsequent episodes of cell-mediated rejection. There was also a trend toward increased graft failure.
25706274 There was a significant association between C4d deposition on allograft endothelial cells and presence of class II DSA I chronic liver allograft failure.
25420802 Kidney transplantation graft rejection time in patients with positive C4d was 15 months in average versus 8 months with negative C4d.
25082343 no statistically significant difference in C4d expression in liver biopsies from acute graft rejection patients as compared with HCV infection recurrence
25073036 Transplant glomerulopathy is associated with poor prognosis, independently of C4d detection.
24638111 our study indicates that Finnish NTM patients had significantly more often C4 deficiencies than the healthy control subjects.
24551304 C4d deposition in liver allografts is independent of the crossmatch results and occurs with a variety of pathologic abnormalities and underlying liver diseases.
24484408 Serum C4b, FN, and PEPD are associated with the pathological changes of pulmonary tuberculosis.
24166212 C4d can be an appropriate marker of antibody response and complement activation in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.
24030736 Report clinical/genomic significance of donor-specific antibody-positive/C4d-negative and donor-specific antibody-negative/C4d-negative transplant glomerulopathy.
23981509 Complement activation products C3d and C4d binding to lymphocytes can reflect the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus and can be used as biomarkers for SLE.
23979690 The active site in monomeric C4b for suppressing Th1 cytokine production was determined.
23918728 Copy number variations of C4 isotypes (C4A and C4B) were detected by real-time PCR in 905 patients with Behcet disease.
23911397 Studies indicate that initiation of lectin compleme pathway leads to activation of the serine proteases MASP-1 and MASP-2 resulting in deposition of C4 on the activator and assembly of the C3 convertase.
23715124 Low C4 gene copy numbers are associated with superior graft survival in patients transplanted with a deceased donor kidney.
23698598 Arteriolar C4d deposition may be a pathologic marker of transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy implicating localized complement fixation in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with kidney disease secondary to small vessel injury.
23447068 C4d staining in post-reperfusion biopsies and an early rise in donor specific antibodies after transplantation are risk factors for rejection in moderately sensitized patients.
23274969 Minimal peritubular capillary C4d+ staining is associated with antibody-mediated rejection, circulating donor specific antibodies and immune-response-related gene activation in kidney transplantation.
23199209 Data indicate that the increasing intensity of C4d staining was associated with worsened outcome.
23026593 Results suggest that detection of C4d staining in acute "cell-mediated" rejection does not imply a worse renal prognosis.
23006730 Data show that in preeclamptic women, diffuse placental C4d was associated with a significantly lower gestational age at delivery, and the mRNA expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59 was significantly upregulated.
22878256 Systemic lupus erythematosus patients have elevated complement C4d deposition on platelets.
22841245 Graft loss was significantly associated with late humoral rejection and C4d positivity in kidney transplant recipients.
22785613 The precise order and size of all C4 genes were determined in RCCX, a multiallelic copy number variation locus.
22737222 analysis of gene copy number of complement C4A, C4B and C4A silencing mutation by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction
22393059 all analyzed cofactors form similar trimolecular complexes with FI and C3b/C4b, and the accessibility of FIMAC and SP domains is crucial for the function of FI
22387014 Although complete homozygous deficiency of complement C4 is one of the strongest genetic risk factors for SLE, partial C4 deficiency states do not independently predispose to the disease.
22169613 There is a connection between elevated concentrations of both complement C4b and TTR and the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
22151770 C4B is correlated with the end of disease remission at 9-month post diagnosis in new onset type 1 diabetes.
22132894 Purified C4b inhibited IFN-beta-induced CXCL10 production & STAT1 phosphorylation.
22076784 Our findings indicate a relationship between C4B copy number variation and rheumatoid arthritis.
21967755 The C4B*Q0 genotype may be associated with hyperreactivity of the HPA axis (manifested as an increased responsiveness to ACTH-stimulation), probably through enhanced function of steroid 21-hydroxylase.
21857912 Data show that in the UK cohort, total C4 GCN ranged from 2 to 6, with copy numbers from 0 to 4 observed for both C4A and C4B, while in the Spanish cohort, C4A GCN from 0 to 6 and C4B GCN from 0 to 5.
21642539 Flavivirus soluble nonstructural protein NS1 recruits human complement 4b-binding protein (C4BP) to the surface of cells in order to inactivate C4b on the plasma membrane.
21620080 Findings suggest that significant allograft dysfunction is not related to C4d positivity in heart transplant recipients.
21345967 C4 mRNA levels of the two isoforms (C4A and C4B) were significantly reduced in hepatocytes transfected with RNA from HCV genotype 1a or 2a.
21085669 Data indicate that the deposition of both C4 and C3 showed a significant positive correlation with the serum concentration of Ficolin-3.
20795316 The physiology and molecular basis of the Chido blood-group system is discussed. Review.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20580617 Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a female patient with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits.
20506482 Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)
20452682 C4B null allele has a significant risk for association with autism and may indicate its possible contributing role to autoimmunity in autism.
20452682 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20139276 Data show that C1q, C4, C3, and C9 bind to thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets in lepirudin-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood.
20022265 Increased erythrocyte C4D is associated with known alloantibody and autoantibody markers of antibody-mediated rejection in human lung transplant recipients.
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19900552 deposits are associated with plasma cells and donor-specific antibodies in renal transplants developing chronic rejection
19505723 Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)
19167759 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19150565 improved survival is seen in patients with C4A or C4B deficiency and renal cell carcinoma treated with cytokine therapy with or without surgery
19137635 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19135723 demonstration of diversity associated with gene copy-number variation of complement C4, CYP21 & tenascin; also offers an explanation for low prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus but high incidence of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Asian-Indians
19062096 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18929826 Measurement of the E-C4d/erythrocyte complement receptor 1 ratio may be a noninvasive method for detecting acute rejection after cardiac transplantation.
18927458 platelet C4d is associated with severe acute ischemic stroke; platelet C4d may be a biomarker as well as pathogenic clue that links cerebrovascular inflammation and thrombosis
18682851 C4BP binds to jeopardized cardiomyocytes early after acute myocardial infarct and co-localizes to other well known markers such as complemenb 3b.
18645500 HLA-specific antibodies are associated with vascular C4d deposition and soluble C4d in broncho-alveolar lavage of lung allografts
18365397 Complement 4d in renal transplant biopsy is indicative of chronic graft rejection.
18360261 The finding of diffuse C4d on follow-up biopsy is significantly associated with kidney graft loss at 1 year, regardless of index biopsy C4d results. [C4d, complement 4d]
18347532 omplement C4d region staining in peritubular capillaries in kidney allograft biopsies is a hallmark of antibody-mediated rejection.
18315707 Confirmed the independent prognostic value of peritubular capillary C4d staining on renal allograft survival in Chinese.
18179706 In 2,250 genetic typings of autistic subjects, only one individual carried a chromosome containing both C4B null allele and CYP21A2 mutations.
18091514 C4d positive chronic rejection is very common, associated with proteinuria, and has a poor outcome.
18085389 Establish reproducible procedure for C4d detection with a polyclonal antibody.
18065805 C4d immunostaining for the diagnosis of acute antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplant recipients
18032375 This observation indicates that low C4B copy number is a strong risk factor for short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in smoking Icelandic patients.
17984207 The binding of complement components C4b and C3b to the proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis is reported.
17971360 electron dense C4d (complement 4d) deposition in peritubular capillaries was observed in most Lupus Nephritis patients
17921792 partial or complete C4b deficiencies were found in oligoarthritis and polyarthritis patients
17915330 the binding of Factor H and C4bp to Aspergillus spp. appears to be even stronger than to Candida spp. and different, albeit possibly nearby, binding moieties mediate this surface attachment.
17728371 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17728371 C4B*Q0 was present in two out of the 130 SLE patients; overall, our results do not demonstrate a significant association to these known C4 mutations in the Malaysian scenario
17503323 Gene dosage variation and associated polymorphisms of C4B in systemic lupus erythematosus were studied.
17425651 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
17425651 findings indicate that the C4B*Q0 genotype can be considered as a major covariate of smoking in precipitating the risk for acute myocardial infarction and associated deaths
17318071 demonstrated a significant association between diffuse C4d staining, production of donor-specific antibodies, and graft failure
17257223 C4 gene deficiencies are associated with predisposition to chronic periodontitis.
17212707 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17202363 suggest a direct role of lgtC expression in the inhibition of C4b deposition and consequent serum resistance of R2866
17015733 Both galactose-specific and mannose-specific mannose-binding lectins isolated from common carp were found to associate with a serine protease that cleaves native human C4 into C4b but not C4i
16980082 C4d could be used as a marker for rejection following hepatic transplantation.
16908004 47% of the C4 genes adjacent to the RP2 gene were the short gene and 53% were the long gene
16893076 Results describe three distinct profiles of serum complement C4 proteins in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and show tight associations of complement C4 and C3 protein levels in SLE but not in healthy subjects.
16889542 C3d was somewhat more predictive of margination than C4d in ABO-incompatible renal allografts
16504674 C4d peritubular capillary expression did not differentiate patients after kidney transplantation immunosuppression , but it predisposes to progression of chronic morphological findings during 1-year observation.
16386506 C4d is a possibe marker for the identification of humoral rejection in any clinical setting after kidney transplantation.
16098595 The tertiary structures of C4A and C4B were compared using near and far-UV circular dichroism, ANS fluorescence, site-specific monoclonal antibodies and isoelectric focusing.
15998580 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15816885 multicenter analysis of C4d staining in protocol biopsies from renal allografts
15787745 C4 null alleles were significantly more common in Henoch-Schonlein purpura patients than in controls
15665772 Acute rejection of kidney transpl with C4d expression was diffuse and showed a higher proportionate elevation of serum creatinine at biopsy and 4 weeks after diagnosis.
15456488 Plasma-derived PROS-C4BP complex has direct anticoagulant activity; enhanced direct activity of PROS-Heerlen-C4BP may compensate for low free protein S levels and low cofactor activity in individuals with protein S-Heerlen.
15096498 C4b-binding protein-protein S complex inhibits the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells
15033778 Observational study of genotype prevalence and gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15033778 negative effect of C4B(*)Q0 on health or survival
12907438 complex of C4b and protein S could act as a bridge between coagulation and inflammation due to the involvement of C4BP in regulating complement activation.
12893820 C4b and C3b do not undergo the same conformational changes upon binding to the C4BP mutants as during the interaction with the wild type C4BP, which then results in an observed loss of the cofactor activity
12480675 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12226794 Genetic sophistication of human complement components C4A and C4B and RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) modules in the major histocompatibility complex.
12224044 C4A and C4B gene-dosage variations play in infectious and autoimmune diseases.
11803045 Allelic distribution of complement components BF, C4A, C4B, and C3 in Psoriasis vulgaris.
11168010 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
11062289 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
8630395 Preincubation of HIV-1 gp41 with either factor H or properdin, and of HIV-1 gp120 with C3b or C4b affect the interaction between HIV-1 gp41 and gp120
7911492 Preincubation of HIV-1 gp41 with either factor H or properdin, and of HIV-1 gp120 with C3b or C4b affect the interaction between HIV-1 gp41 and gp120
7893437 Preincubation of HIV-1 gp41 with either factor H or properdin, and of HIV-1 gp120 with C3b or C4b affect the interaction between HIV-1 gp41 and gp120
7642209 Preincubation of HIV-1 gp41 with either factor H or properdin, and of HIV-1 gp120 with C3b or C4b affect the interaction between HIV-1 gp41 and gp120
7590866 Preincubation of HIV-1 gp41 with either factor H or properdin, and of HIV-1 gp120 with C3b or C4b affect the interaction between HIV-1 gp41 and gp120

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (177)

PMID Year Title
26814963 2016 Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4.
26800705 2016 Low C4, C4A and C4B gene copy numbers are stronger risk factors for juvenile-onset than for adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.
26678451 2016 Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d.
26517116 2015 Fine Mapping of the Interaction between C4b-Binding Protein and Outer Membrane Proteins LigA and LigB of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans.
26305533 2015 Genomic Copy Number Variations of the Complement Component C4B Gene Are Associated With Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.
26151608 2015 Incidence and Outcome of C4d Staining With Tubulointerstitial Inflammation in Blood Group-incompatible Kidney Transplantation.
26091039 2015 A Single Kinase Generates the Majority of the Secreted Phosphoproteome.
26071493 2015 Capillary C4d and Kidney Allograft Outcome in Relation to Morphologic Lesions Suggestive of Antibody-Mediated Rejection.
26031580 2015 The impact of C4d-negative acute antibody-mediated rejection on short-term prognosis among kidney transplant recipients.
25894167 2015 Evaluation of late antibody-mediated rejection (C4d-mediated rejection): a single-center experience.
25799154 2015 Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.
25778989 2015 C4d immunostaining is an independent predictor of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and death in heart transplant recipients.
25706274 2015 Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies and Endothelial C4d Deposition-Association With Chronic Liver Allograft Failure.
25420802 2014 Positive C4d in kidney transplantation biopsy: clinical impact.
25082343 2014 C4d in acute rejection after liver transplantation and its usefulness in differential diagnosis between acute liver rejection and hepatitis C recurrence.
25073036 2015 Donor-specific antibodies, C4d and their relationship with the prognosis of transplant glomerulopathy.
24638111 2014 Complement C4 deficiency--a plausible risk factor for non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection in apparently immunocompetent patients.
24551304 2014 Re-examination of sinusoidal deposition of complement 4d in liver allografts: experience from a single institution.
24484408 2014 Serum complement C4b, fibronectin, and prolidase are associated with the pathological changes of pulmonary tuberculosis.
24166212 2014 Could the complement component C4 or its fragment C4d be a marker of the more severe conditions in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome?
24030736 2013 The clinical and genomic significance of donor-specific antibody-positive/C4d-negative and donor-specific antibody-negative/C4d-negative transplant glomerulopathy.
23981509 Usefulness of complement activation products in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
23979690 2013 Suppression of Th1 cytokine production by a peptide derived from C4b.
23918728 2013 Copy number variations of complement component C4 are associated with Behçet's disease but not with ankylosing spondylitis associated with acute anterior uveitis.
23911397 2013 Toward a structure-based comprehension of the lectin pathway of complement.
23715124 2013 Low C4 gene copy numbers are associated with superior graft survival in patients transplanted with a deceased donor kidney.
23698598 2013 Renal arteriolar C4d deposition: a novel characteristic of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy.
23535732 2013 Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array.
23533145 2013 In-depth proteomic analyses of exosomes isolated from expressed prostatic secretions in urine.
23447068 2013 Increased C4d in post-reperfusion biopsies and increased donor specific antibodies at one-week post transplant are risk factors for acute rejection in mild to moderately sensitized kidney transplant recipients.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
23274969 2013 The clinical and molecular significance of C4d staining patterns in renal allografts.
23234360 2013 LC-MS/MS characterization of O-glycosylation sites and glycan structures of human cerebrospinal fluid glycoproteins.
23199209 2012 Complement activation in astrocytomas: deposition of C4d and patient outcome.
23026593 2012 C4d deposits in acute "cell-mediated" rejection: a marker for renal prognosis?
23006730 2012 Preeclampsia is characterized by placental complement dysregulation.
22878256 2012 Increased C1q, C4 and C3 deposition on platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus--a possible link to venous thrombosis?
22841245 The impact of C4d staining as a humoral injury marker.
22785613 2012 Fine-tuned characterization of RCCX copy number variants and their relationship with extended MHC haplotypes.
22737222 2012 Copy number analysis of complement C4A, C4B and C4A silencing mutation by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
22516433 2012 Proteomic analysis of microvesicles from plasma of healthy donors reveals high individual variability.
22393059 2012 Analysis of binding sites on complement factor I using artificial N-linked glycosylation.
22387014 2012 Genetically determined partial complement C4 deficiency states are not independent risk factors for SLE in UK and Spanish populations.
22333221 2012 Complement regulator C4BP binds to Staphylococcus aureus and decreases opsonization.
22169613 2011 [Differential expression and significance of complement C4b and transthyretin in proliferative vitreoretinopathy].
22151770 2012 Gene CNVs and protein levels of complement C4A and C4B as novel biomarkers for partial disease remissions in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients.
22132894 2012 Inhibition of CXCL10 release by monomeric C3bi and C4b.
22076784 2012 Increased frequency of complement C4B deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis.
21967755 2012 ACTH-induced cortisol release is related to the copy number of the C4B gene encoding the fourth component of complement in patients with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma.
21857912 2011 Determination of the loss of function complement C4 exon 29 CT insertion using a novel paralog-specific assay in healthy UK and Spanish populations.
21642539 2011 Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation.
21620080 2011 C4d analysis in endomyocardial biopsies of heart transplant patients: is there a correlation with hemodynamic data?
21345967 2011 Transcriptional repression of C4 complement by hepatitis C virus proteins.
21085669 2010 Functional analysis of Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation.
20795316 2010 A review of the Chido/Rodgers blood group.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20580617 2010 Familial C4B deficiency and immune complex glomerulonephritis.
20506482 2010 Assessment of complement C4 gene copy number using the paralog ratio test.
20452682 2010 The link of C4B null allele to autism and to a family history of autoimmunity in Egyptian autistic children.
20139276 2010 Complement component C3 binds to activated normal platelets without preceding proteolytic activation and promotes binding to complement receptor 1.
20022265 2010 Increased erythrocyte C4D is associated with known alloantibody and autoantibody markers of antibody-mediated rejection in human lung transplant recipients.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19900552 2010 Detection of plasma cells, C4d deposits and donor-specific antibodies on sequential graft biopsies of renal transplant recipients with chronic dysfunction.
19838169 2009 Enrichment of glycopeptides for glycan structure and attachment site identification.
19505723 2009 Linkage analysis of the C4A/C4B copy number variation and polymorphisms of the adjacent steroid 21-hydroxylase gene in a healthy population.
19302245 2009 Complement classical pathway components are all important in clearance of apoptotic and secondary necrotic cells.
19167759 2009 HLA-association of serum levels of natural antibodies.
19159218 2009 Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry.
19150565 2009 Genetic deficiency of complement isoforms C4A or C4B predicts improved survival of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
19139490 2009 A strategy for precise and large scale identification of core fucosylated glycoproteins.
19137635 2009 Complement 4 phenotypes and genotypes in Brazilian patients with classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
19135723 2009 Great genotypic and phenotypic diversities associated with copy-number variations of complement C4 and RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) modules: a comparison of Asian-Indian and European American populations.
19062096 2009 High-throughput analysis of the C4 polymorphism by a combination of MLPA and isotype-specific ELISA's.
18929826 2008 Measurement of human erythrocyte C4d to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 ratio in cardiac transplant recipients with acute symptomatic allograft failure.
18927458 2008 Platelet C4d is associated with acute ischemic stroke and stroke severity.
18780401 2008 Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
18682851 2008 C4b-binding protein is present in affected areas of myocardial infarction during the acute inflammatory phase and covers a larger area than C3.
18645500 2008 Anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies, vascular C4d deposition and increased soluble c4d in broncho-alveolar lavage of lung allografts.
18365397 2006 C4d-positive renal transplants: single-center clinical outcomes.
18360261 2008 Acute renal allograft rejection: diagnostic significance of focal peritubular capillary C4d.
18347532 2008 Urinary C4d does not correlate with C4d-staining in peritubular capillaries but reflects nonspecific glomerular injury.
18315707 2008 Renal allograft C4d deposition in Chinese: Hong Kong perspective.
18179706 2008 C4B null alleles are not associated with genetic polymorphisms in the adjacent gene CYP21A2 in autism.
18091514 2007 C4d-positive chronic rejection: a frequent entity with a poor outcome.
18085389 2007 C4d Immunohistochemistry in glomerulonephritis with different antibodies.
18065805 2008 The role of C4d immunostaining in the evaluation of the causes of renal allograft dysfunction.
18032375 2008 Low complement C4B gene copy number predicts short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction.
17984207 2008 Defining targets for complement components C4b and C3b on the pathogenic neisseriae.
17971360 2007 Peritubular capillary C4d deposition in lupus nephritis different from antibody-mediated renal rejection.
17921792 2007 Partial C4 deficiency in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.
17915330 2008 Immune evasion by acquisition of complement inhibitors: the mould Aspergillus binds both factor H and C4b binding protein.
17728371 2007 A study of association of the complement C4 mutations with systemic lupus erythematosus in the Malaysian population.
17503323 2007 Gene copy-number variation and associated polymorphisms of complement component C4 in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): low copy number is a risk factor for and high copy number is a protective factor against SLE susceptibility in European Americans.
17425651 2007 Smoking and a complement gene polymorphism interact in promoting cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.
17318071 2007 Association between C4d staining in renal transplant biopsies, production of donor-specific HLA antibodies, and graft outcome.
17257223 2007 Complement and c4 null alleles in severe chronic adult periodontitis.
17212707 2007 Human MHC region harbors both susceptibility and protective haplotypes for coronary artery disease.
17202363 2007 lgtC expression modulates resistance to C4b deposition on an invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
17015733 2006 Lectin pathway of bony fish complement: identification of two homologs of the mannose-binding lectin associated with MASP2 in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
16980082 2006 C4d: a marker for hepatic transplant rejection.
16908004 2006 Identification of the size and antigenic determinants of the human C4 gene by a polymerase chain-reaction-based amplification method.
16893076 2006 Three distinct profiles of serum complement C4 proteins in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: tight associations of complement C4 and C3 protein levels in SLE but not in healthy subjects.
16889542 2006 C4d and C3d staining in biopsies of ABO- and HLA-incompatible renal allografts: correlation with histologic findings.
16740002 2006 Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human saliva by glycoprotein capture and mass spectrometry.
16504674 C4d complement split product in diagnosis of immunological activity of chronic allograft nephropathy.
16502470 2006 Human colostrum: identification of minor proteins in the aqueous phase by proteomics.
16386506 2005 Diagnostic value of C4d in renal allograft biopsies in different clinical settings: absence of C4d in grafts from non-heart-beating donors.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
16335952 Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry.
16098595 2006 Structural comparison of human C4A3 and C4B1 after proteolytic activation by C1s.
15998580 2005 Complete deficiencies of complement C4A and C4B including 2-bp insertion in codon 1213 are genetic risk factors of systemic lupus erythematosus in Thai populations.
15816885 2005 Incidence of C4d stain in protocol biopsies from renal allografts: results from a multicenter trial.
15787745 2005 Increased frequency of C4B*Q0 alleles in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
15665772 2005 Implications of immunohistochemical detection of C4d along peritubular capillaries in late acute renal allograft rejection.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15456488 2004 Direct anticoagulant activity of protein S-C4b binding protein complex in Heerlen heterozygotes and normals.
15203218 2004 Circular rapid amplification of cDNA ends for high-throughput extension cloning of partial genes.
15096498 2004 The C4b-binding protein-protein S complex inhibits the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
15033778 2003 An age-associated decrease in the frequency of C4B*Q0 indicates that null alleles of complement may affect health or survival.
14989716 2004 C4d DNA sequence of complement C4B93 and recombination mechanisms for its generation.
14760718 2004 Screening for N-glycosylated proteins by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
14574404 2003 The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.
12907438 2004 Coagulation, inflammation, and apoptosis: different roles for protein S and the protein S-C4b binding protein complex.
12893820 2003 Mutations in alpha-chain of C4BP that selectively affect its factor I cofactor function.
12878586 2003 Formation of high affinity C5 convertase of the classical pathway of complement.
12754519 2003 Identification and quantification of N-linked glycoproteins using hydrazide chemistry, stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry.
12480675 2003 Polymerase chain reaction based C4AQ0 and C4BQ0 genotyping: association with systemic lupus erythematosus in southwest Han Chinese.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12367531 2002 X-ray crystal structure of the C4d fragment of human complement component C4.
12226794 2002 Genetic sophistication of human complement components C4A and C4B and RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) modules in the major histocompatibility complex.
12224044 2002 Determining the one, two, three, or four long and short loci of human complement C4 in a major histocompatibility complex haplotype encoding C4A or C4B proteins.
11803045 2002 Allelic distribution of complement components BF, C4A, C4B, and C3 in Psoriasis vulgaris.
11367523 2001 Genetic, structural and functional diversities of human complement components C4A and C4B and their mouse homologues, Slp and C4.
11341920 2001 Complement C4bC2 complex formation: an investigation by surface plasmon resonance.
11168010 2001 Lack of evidence of a specific role for C4A gene deficiency in determining disease susceptibility among C4-deficient patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
11062289 2000 Frequencies of certain complement protein alleles and serum levels of anti-heat-shock protein antibodies in cerebrovascular diseases.
10946278 2000 Two clusters of acidic amino acids near the NH2 terminus of complement component C4 alpha'-chain are important for C2 binding.
10851272 2000 Elongation factor-1alpha as a homologous complement activator of Jurkat cells.
10528211 1999 C1q and C4b bind simultaneously to CR1 and additively support erythrocyte adhesion.
10383431 1999 A cluster of positively charged amino acids in the C4BP alpha-chain is crucial for C4b binding and factor I cofactor function.
10207042 1999 Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations.
10092831 1999 Deficiency of human complement protein C4 due to identical frameshift mutations in the C4A and C4B genes.
10072631 1998 Molecular genetics of the human MHC complement gene cluster.
9759862 1998 C4d DNA sequences of two infrequent human allotypes (C4A13 and C4B12) and the presence of signal sequences enhancing recombination.
8889548 1996 Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.
8660986 1996 Visual demonstration of the organization of the human complement C4 and 21-hydroxylase genes by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization.
8575831 1996 Complete sequence of the complement C4 gene from the HLA-A1, B8, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3 haplotype.
8538770 1996 The reaction mechanism of the internal thioester in the human complement component C4.
8473511 1993 Genetic basis of human complement C4A deficiency. Detection of a point mutation leading to nonexpression.
8132574 1994 Structure and genetics of the partially duplicated gene RP located immediately upstream of the complement C4A and the C4B genes in the HLA class III region. Molecular cloning, exon-intron structure, composite retroposon, and breakpoint of gene duplication.
8012361 1994 Characterisation of the novel gene G11 lying adjacent to the complement C4A gene in the human major histocompatibility complex.
7545960 1994 The dichotomous size variation of human complement C4 genes is mediated by a novel family of endogenous retroviruses, which also establishes species-specific genomic patterns among Old World primates.
7525470 1994 C4 gene polymorphism in primates: evolution, generation, and Chido and Rodgers antigenicity.
7391573 1980 Interaction between the labile binding sites of the fourth (C4) and fifth (C5) human complement proteins and erythrocyte cell membranes.
6978711 1981 Amino acid sequence around the thiol and reactive acyl groups of human complement component C4.
6950384 1981 Sequence determination of the thiolester site of the fourth component of human complement.
6881182 1983 Genetic deficiency of C4 presenting with recurrent infections and a SLE-like disease. Genetic and immunologic studies.
6832377 1983 Amino acid sequence of a polymorphic segment from fragment C4d of human complement component C4.
6577433 1983 Use of a cDNA clone for the fourth component of human complement (C4) for analysis of a genetic deficiency of C4 in guinea pig.
6572000 1983 Cloning of a human complement component C4 gene.
6559257 1984 A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III region linking complement genes C4, C2 and factor B.
6546707 1984 The structural basis of the multiple forms of human complement component C4.
6167582 1981 Complete primary structure of human C4a anaphylatoxin.
3944109 1986 Identification of the site of sulfation of the fourth component of human complement.
3840370 1985 Molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA coding for C4b-binding protein, a regulatory protein of the classical pathway of the human complement system.
3838531 1985 Polymorphism of human complement component C4.
3696167 1987 The chemical structure of the C4d fragment of the human complement component C4.
3542363 1986 Biochemistry and biology of anaphylatoxins.
2883116 1987 Heterogeneity of human C4 gene size. A large intron (6.5 kb) is present in all C4A genes and some C4B genes.
2431902 1986 Structural basis of the polymorphism of human complement components C4A and C4B: gene size, reactivity and antigenicity.
2395880 1990 Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A.
2295627 1990 Duplication and divergence of the amino-terminal coding region of the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene. An example of concerted (horizontal) evolution within a gene.
1988494 1991 The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement component C4A gene. DNA sequences, polymorphism, and linkage to the 21-hydroxylase gene.
1717583 1991 Contribution of the repeating domains of membrane cofactor protein (CD46) of the complement system to ligand binding and cofactor activity.
1699796 1990 Importance of the alpha 3-fragment of complement C4 for the binding with C4b-binding protein.
1573268 1992 The coding sequence of the hemolytically inactive C4A6 allotype of human complement component C4 reveals that a single arginine to tryptophan substitution at beta-chain residue 458 is the likely cause of the defect.
1088823 1976 Genetic polymorphism of C4 in man and localisation of a structural C4 locus to the HLA gene complex of chromosome 6.