Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 151
PubMed Score 384.47
PubTator Score 245.43

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (7)

Disease log2 FC p
osteosarcoma 1.429 6.7e-04
lung cancer 5.700 3.1e-07
lung carcinoma 1.600 1.6e-18
spina bifida -1.979 2.3e-02
ovarian cancer 1.300 1.1e-09
pituitary cancer -2.300 2.3e-02
psoriasis -1.300 6.3e-06


Accession P01215
Symbols HCG



PANTHER Protein Class (2)


1HCN   1HRP   1QFW   1XUL   1FL7   1XWD   4AY9   4MQW   1DZ7   1E9J   1HD4  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (102)

26505791 TBP attenuates Msx1-mediated glycoprotein hormone alpha transcriptional repression.
26279419 The present results have for the first time shown protective effects exerted by hCG on vascular endothelial function.
26191157 Human chorionic gonadotropin provides a mechanism to bridge embryo to endometrium through beta1,4-GalT.
25933205 the 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced activation of AMPK directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-2 and HMGCR and HMGCS, and suppressed the TSH-stimulated up-regulation of SREBP-2 in HepG2 cells.
25529346 Limitations in the process of transcription and translation inhibit recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin expression in CHO cells.
25403028 thyroid-stimulating hormone elevations can obviously be the initial finding in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib patients.
25185682 Serum TSH was associated with pulse wave velocity on population level when adjusted with age and sex.
25064170 This study showed a link between low maternal serum hCG levels and cryptorchidism in boys from uncomplicated pregnancy.
24753159 A protective effect of hCG against breast cancer may be associated with its growth inhibitory and differentiation induction function in breast cancer cells.
24723381 A single low TSH at baseline was associated with increased risk of hip fractures (adj HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.26, p < 0.001) but not major osteoporotic fractures (MOF, adj HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.12, p = 0.058) over a median follow-up of 7.5 years.
24661543 New information about TSH signaling in human differentiated adipocytes, and add to the evidence that TSH is a pro-inflammatory stimulus of adipocytes.
24559445 Elevated total hCG and free beta-hCG concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with nonstatistically significant reductions in maternal risk of breast cancer.
24466091 The purpose of these studies was to determine if CTNNB1's contribution to FSH-mediated steroidogenesis in primary rat granulosa cells was due in part to extracellular stimulation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway.
24297486 LH, progesterone, and TSH can stimulate aldosterone.
24291635 Hypo-glycosylated human follicle-stimulating hormone is much more active in vitro than its fully-glycosylated counterpart.
23717664 data further identified a complex interaction between IL1 and hCG, which, despite a synergistic action on several significant endometrial target genes, may encompass a tight control of endogenous IL1 and extends to other IL1 family members
23684886 Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone stimulates trophoblast invasion independently of the hCG receptor.
23525871 In our multi-ethnic cohort of euthyroid obese children and adolescents increasing TSH was associated with impaired glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia.
23423746 Data indicate that neither serum inhibin B nor follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a suitable surrogate for determination of sperm concentration in a semen sample.
23380184 Ser680 genotype for FSHR is a factor of relative resistance to FSH stimulation resulting in slightly higher FSH serum levels, thus leading to a prolonged duration of the menstrual cycle.
23371388 Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific alphaGSU and GnRHR genes.
23345094 The use of these age-specific reference intervals for TSH, especially in those over 70 years old, would result in the reclassification of many TSH results from "abnormal" to "normal" and avoid unnecessary treatment.
23267835 BK(Ca) is a crucial part of the signaling cascade of LH/hCG in Leydig cells.
23153859 chromogranin A
22811570 hCG coordinates embryonic signal interaction with the maternal endometrium and may promote embryonic growth.
22446105 Data suggest that in embryonic stem cells [which express proto-oncogene c-ETS-2 (ETS2) but not CGA], ETS2 does not occupy its binding site on CGA promoter but is found instead as soluble complex with POU5F1 (Oct3 transcription factor).
22391642 second-trimester maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol may have a role in bronchopulmonary dysplasia
22386126 low urinary level of hyperglycosylated hCG is associated with pregnancy failure
22354444 N-acetyl-L-cysteine modulates multiple signaling pathways to rescue male germ cells from apoptosis induced by chorionic gonadotropin.
22278420 Data suggest that likelihood of papillary thyroid carcinoma is reduced when serum TSH is lower, as in thyroid autonomy, and increased when serum TSH is higher, as in thyroid autoimmunity. [Meta-Analysis; REVIEW]
22128326 TSH-TSHR interaction through cAMP signaling (using thyrogen/rTSHalpha) is involved in differentiation/gene expression regulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; first evidence of expression of TSHR in stem cell plasma membrane.
22061337 TSH showed significant positive correlation with creatinine and uric acid values and, thyroid function test had a negative correlation with uric acid in overt hypothyroidism.
21981142 Data suggest that a progressive increase in TSH are predictive factors for thyroid failure in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients.
21838882 investigation of hCG in seminal plasma: Level of free hCGa is reduced in infertility with abnormal semen analysis. In oligospermia, holo-hCG is low; hCGa is present as highly glycosylated large free subunit with a unique glycosylation pattern.
21763112 TSH is a novel neuroendocrine regulator of selected keratins in the human hair follicle
21705042 The results indicate that gal-3 might be regulated by Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)in preparing the endometrium for embryonic implantation.
21623995 Serum IL-6, IL-1beta and hCG levels were significantly increased in women with pre-eclampsia compared to controls.
21159522 Increasing concentrations of FSH caused a biphasic dose-response, with a maximal (1.5-fold) increase in RANK(high) cells.
21149714 Findings demonstrate that FSH has dose-dependent anabolic effects on bone via an ovary-dependent mechanism.
21114382 In euthyroid children without a history of hypo- or hyperthyroidism, increasing levels of TSH and decreasing levels of free T4 are associated with higher triglyceride levels and elevated markers of insulin resistance.
20826269 The association of rs10917469 with serum TSH was replicated (p = 2.0 x 10(-4)) in an independent community-based.
20734064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20718770 Women with high TSH at end term are at risk for breech presentation. Substantial evidence for a relation between breech presentation and neurodevelopmental delay exists.
20660299 The present studies show a novel intracellular signaling pathway for theca-interstitial cell proliferation involving leutinizing hormone/hCG-mediated activation of the AKT/mTORC1 signaling cascade.
20634197 Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20600586 The HIF1alpha protein response to hCG was measured in ovarian granulosa cell cultures.
20575467 Validation of two commercial immunoassays for hCG measurements in urine was performed for preventing doping in sports.
20455884 Results suggest that a serum TSH concentration at the lower end of the reference range may be associated with low BMD in men.
20400076 The role of GnRH-GnRHR signaling at the maternal-fetal interface therefore appears to be limited to the regulation of trophoblast hCG production.
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20352046 histone-specific modifications mediate positive versus negative transcriptional regulation of TSHalpha promoter
19929279 Reference intervals were calculated for male testosterone, SHBG, FSH and LH in serum from 599 individuals.
19880179 hCG is an important paracrine or autocrine hormone maintaining 11beta-HSD2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts. Up-regulation of 11beta-HSD2 expression by cortisol may be mediated in part by hCG.
19846218 hCG gene expression is differentially regulated in villous and invasive extravillous trophoblasts during their in vitro differentiation and modulated in an opposite way by PPARgamma.
19730683 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19692168 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19667278 Results show that patients with elevated NT-proBNP in addition to elevated CgA levels showed worse overall survival than patients with elevated CgA alone.
19625176 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19598235 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19574343 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19383238 The utility of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carbohydrate antigen 15-3, alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin for the diagnosis solitary pulmonary nodules, was investigated.
19344190 Follitropin alfa FbM, a technologically modified formulation of r-hFSH, is as safe as follitropin alfa FbIU but requires a smaller dose over a shorter period to produce more oocytes and final embryos.(Review/Meta-analysis)
19196802 The mannose receptor and hCG were colocalized on the surface of uterine natural killer cells.
19170196 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19136570 FSH acts directly and indirectly to induce rapid changes in Sertoli cell and Leydig cell transcript levels in the hpg mouse but that effects on germ cell development must occur over a longer time-span.
19131506 GnRH regulation of Jun transcription and its targets such as Cga, requires a functional interaction between TCF/LEF and beta-catenin.
19054012 Ghrelin suppresses the secretion of FSH in humans.
18676680 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18313839 Data show that mutations of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor that do not activate the phosphoinositide cascade allow hCG to induce aromatase expression in immature rat granulosa cells.
18206295 PI3-kinase may be involved in the negative regulation of alpha- and FSHbeta-subunit gene expression as well as cell proliferation.
18079192 Gq- or G(s)-coupled receptors other than the classical GnRH receptor may play a role in the regulation of nonpituitary, nonplacental GPHalpha secretion under physiological and pathological conditions.
18068163 Follitropin beta and, more precisely, follitropin alfa suppress the spectral components and power of the myoelectrical signals, which provides uterine quiescence.
18063683 Chorionic gonadotropin promotes trophoblast invasion and migration through activation of ERK and AKT signaling involving their downstream effector MMP-2.
18022169 Endometrial IGF-I and -II are differentially regulated during decidualization and by human chorionic gonadotropin.
17761764 Data shows that the GPHalpha in the hCG alphabeta-heterodimers decelerates the maturation of the hCGbeta portion in the heterodimer complex.
17690166 Recombinant hCG overcomes in vitro the Trisomy 21 phenotype, allowing cytotrophoblasts to fuse and form a large syncytiotrophoblast.
17609437 The studies demonstrate the formation, in vivo dynamics of GPHalpha alpha homodimers, and the pathways of the cellular metabolism of variants of GPHalpha, monoglycosylated GPHalpha and large free GPHalpha.
17261286 characterization of the hourly secretion profile of hCG in early pregnancy after donor artificial insemination
17143726 The approach of fusing the alpha and beta subunits of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) to produce a single chain hormone (phCGalphabeta) was used to investigate roles of critical residues of the alpha subunit in hormone receptor interaction.
17112680 Chorionic gonadotropin produced during pregnancy could induce the biosynthesis of VEGF and by this means stimulate the development of breast cancer cells during pregnancy.
17097221 hCGalpha is not derived from heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones suggesting hCG-independent functions of hCGalpha and hCGbeta in male and female fertility.
17045735 The strategy to produce a soluble FSH-FSHR complex that involves the co-secretion of a truncated FSHR ectodomain (FSHR(HB)) and a covalently linked FSHalphabeta heterodimer, is described.
16950818 The present findings indicate that the concentration of human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG) mRNA is significantly higher in the cellular component of maternal blood samples than in the plasma component.
16543672 the Gly residue at site X(3) (G(3)) in the CXGXC motif of hCG is essential for heterodimer formation of glycoprotein hormones
16461985 There were no day/night differences in mean free alpha-subunit in younger or older post-menopausal women or in free alpha-subunit pulse frequency or amplitude
16311298 The HCG profile is indicative of viable pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization.
16007123 Overexpression of HCG alpha is associated with adenoma formation
15637148 hCGalpha subunit gene activity is regulated by cAMP, which involves the binding of CREB and Ets-2 to discrete elements in the promoter as well as a physical interaction between the two proteins.
15304512 contacts between the small seatbelt loop of alpha-human choriogonadotropin and the lutropin receptor involve its backbone atoms and possibly the side chain of residue betaAsp-99
15004409 Decrease in molecular weight of dimeric chimeras digested with endoglycosidase-F was greater in Calpha than that in alphaC after treatment with neuraminidase, revealing that both chimeras have different numbers of sialic acids on O-linked carbohydrates.
14726442 LH and FSH have a dual effect on the cultured rat preovulatory follicle: an antiapoptotic effect on granulosa cells and a proapoptotic effect on theca-interstitial cells.
14607569 Human chorionic gonadotropin does not induce HOXA10 in Ishikawa cells.
14585810 pituitary exit of LH and FSH occur via different secretion pathways, and are released spatially from the pituitary via different circulatory routes.
12963710 x-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the FSH beta subunit is close to the N-terminal region and the alpha subunit is projected toward exoloop 3 in the endodomain
12960071 Exposure of male mice to chronically elevated levels of hCG severely affects their urogenital tract function at multiple sites and causes infertility, but, unlike in LH/hCG overexpressing female mice, it is not tumorigenic.
12920232 induction of alphaGSU gene expression by peptide hormone signaling is coupled directly to the posttranslational status of SF-1
12615827 Degree of alterations in maternal serum hCG and alpha-fetoprotein levels varied between fresh and frozen-thawed embryos and also between mode of fertilization.
12569177 Expressed in human decidual tissue in patients during tubal pregnancy
12237895 Serum HCG beta, CA 72-4 and CEA are independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer.
12164786 Transcriptional regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone common alpha subunit gene by cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and p53.
11900895 Review. The Asn52 and Asn78 glycosylation variants of human pituitary FSHA exhibit differential and divergent effects at the target cell level and that less sialylated, short-lived variants may exert significant effects in in vivo conditions.
11893904 The ISOBM TD-7 Workshop on hCG and related molecules. Towards user-oriented standardization of pregnancy and tumor diagnosis

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (151)

PMID Year Title
26505791 2015 Msx1 homeodomain transcription factor and TATA-binding protein interact to repress the expression of the glycoprotein hormone ? subunit gene.
26279419 2015 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Oxidative Stress by Apoptosis Inhibition, Cell Survival Signalling Activation and Mitochondrial Function Protection.
26191157 2015 HCG induces ?1,4-GalT I expression and promotes embryo implantation.
25933205 2015 AICAR-Induced Activation of AMPK Inhibits TSH/SREBP-2/HMGCR Pathway in Liver.
25529346 2015 Limitations in the process of transcription and translation inhibit recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin expression in CHO cells.
25403028 2015 TSH elevations as the first laboratory evidence for pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib).
25185682 2014 Association of thyrotropin with arterial pulse wave velocity in young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
25064170 2014 Association between altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) production and the occurrence of cryptorchidism: a retrospective study.
24753159 2014 Human chorionic gonadotropin decreases human breast cancer cell proliferation and promotes differentiation.
24723381 2014 Low serum thyrotropin level and duration of suppression as a predictor of major osteoporotic fractures-the OPENTHYRO register cohort.
24661543 2014 TSH signaling pathways that regulate MCP-1 in human differentiated adipocytes.
24559445 2014 Free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin, total human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal risk of breast cancer.
24466091 2014 Canonical WNT signaling inhibits follicle stimulating hormone mediated steroidogenesis in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells.
24297486 2014 LH, progesterone, and TSH can stimulate aldosterone in vitro: a study on normal adrenal cortex and aldosterone producing adenoma.
24291635 2014 Hypo-glycosylated human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH(21/18)) is much more active in vitro than fully-glycosylated hFSH (hFSH(24)).
23717664 2013 Transcriptome analysis reveals new insights into the modulation of endometrial stromal cell receptive phenotype by embryo-derived signals interleukin-1 and human chorionic gonadotropin: possible involvement in early embryo implantation.
23684886 2013 Human chorionic gonadotropin and its free ?-subunit stimulate trophoblast invasion independent of LH/hCG receptor.
23525871 2013 Increasing thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in euthyroid obese children and adolescents.
23423746 2013 Lack of specificity of plasma concentrations of inhibin B and follicle-stimulating hormone for identification of azoospermic survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the St Jude lifetime cohort study.
23380184 2013 Polymorphisms in gonadotropin and gonadotropin receptor genes as markers of ovarian reserve and response in in vitro fertilization.
23371388 2013 Msx1 homeodomain protein represses the ?GSU and GnRH receptor genes during gonadotrope development.
23345094 2013 Age- and gender-specific TSH reference intervals in people with no obvious thyroid disease in Tayside, Scotland: the Thyroid Epidemiology, Audit, and Research Study (TEARS).
23267835 2013 The Ca2+-activated, large conductance K+-channel (BKCa) is a player in the LH/hCG signaling cascade in testicular Leydig cells.
23153859 2014 Serum levels of chromogranin A are not predictive of high-grade, poorly differentiated prostate cancer: results from an Italian biopsy cohort.
22811570 2012 Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation.
22446105 2012 Squelching of ETS2 transactivation by POU5F1 silences the human chorionic gonadotropin CGA subunit gene in human choriocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells.
22391642 2012 Risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia by second-trimester maternal serum levels of ?-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol.
22386126 2012 Hyperglycosylated hCG and pregnancy failures.
22354444 2012 N-acetyl-L-cysteine modulates multiple signaling pathways to rescue male germ cells from apoptosis induced by chronic hCG administration to rats.
22278420 2012 Serum TSH and risk of papillary thyroid cancer in nodular thyroid disease.
22128326 2012 TSH-induced gene expression involves regulation of self-renewal and differentiation-related genes in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
22061337 2012 Correlation of creatinine with TSH levels in overt hypothyroidism - a requirement for monitoring of renal function in hypothyroid patients?
21981142 2012 The natural history of the normal/mild elevated TSH serum levels in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and isolated hyperthyrotropinaemia: a 3-year follow-up.
21838882 2011 Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis.
21763112 2011 TSH is a novel neuroendocrine regulator of selected keratins in the human hair follicle.
21705042 2013 Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regulation of galectin-3 expression in endometrial epithelial cells and endometrial stromal cells.
21623995 2011 Elevated serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1? and human chorionic gonadotropin in pre-eclampsia.
21159522 2011 Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes RANK expression on human monocytes.
21149714 2010 Follicle-stimulating hormone increases bone mass in female mice.
21114382 2010 Relationships between thyroid function and lipid status or insulin resistance in a pediatric population.
20826269 2010 A locus on chromosome 1p36 is associated with thyrotropin and thyroid function as identified by genome-wide association study.
20734064 2010 A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause.
20718770 2010 High thyrotrophin levels at end term increase the risk of breech presentation.
20660299 2010 Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates theca-interstitial cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins by a cAMP-dependent activation of AKT/mTORC1 signaling pathway.
20634197 2010 Comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in 61 genes related to steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I metabolism and breast cancer risk in the NCI breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium.
20613903 2010 Follicular stimulating hormone enhances Notch 1 expression in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells.
20600586 2010 Hormonally regulated follicle differentiation and luteinization in the mouse is associated with hypoxia inducible factor activity.
20575467 2010 Evaluation of two immunoassays for the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin in urine for anti-doping purposes.
20455884 2010 The association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels and bone mineral density in healthy euthyroid men.
20400076 2010 Role of GnRH-GnRH receptor signaling at the maternal-fetal interface.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
20352046 2010 Distinct and histone-specific modifications mediate positive versus negative transcriptional regulation of TSHalpha promoter.
19929279 2009 Reference intervals for serum testosterone, SHBG, LH and FSH in males from the NORIP project.
19880179 2009 Role of human chorionic gonadotropin in maintaining 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts.
19846218 2009 Expression and regulation by PPARgamma of hCG alpha- and beta-subunits: comparison between villous and invasive extravillous trophoblastic cells.
19730683 2009 The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.
19692168 2010 Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes.
19667278 2009 Chromogranin-A and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide: an excellent pair of biomarkers for diagnostics in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
19625176 2009 PTEN identified as important risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
19598235 2009 Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome.
19574343 2009 Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
19383238 The efficacy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in determining the malignancy of solitary pulmonary nodules.
19344190 2009 Outcomes of new quality standards of follitropin alfa on ovarian stimulation: meta-analysis of previous studies.
19196802 2009 Proliferation of uterine natural killer cells is induced by human chorionic gonadotropin and mediated via the mannose receptor.
19170196 2009 Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China.
19136570 2009 Effects of FSH on testicular mRNA transcript levels in the hypogonadal mouse.
19131506 2009 GnRH-regulated expression of Jun and JUN target genes in gonadotropes requires a functional interaction between TCF/LEF family members and beta-catenin.
19054012 2009 Ghrelin suppresses secretion of FSH in males.
18676680 2008 Pathway-based evaluation of 380 candidate genes and lung cancer susceptibility suggests the importance of the cell cycle pathway.
18313839 2008 Mutations of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor that do not activate the phosphoinositide cascade allow hCG to induce aromatase expression in immature rat granulosa cells.
18240029 2008 Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.
18206295 2008 The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced gonadotropin alpha- and FSHbeta-subunit genes expression in clonal gonadotroph LbetaT2 cells.
18079192 2008 Non-gonadotropin-releasing hormone-mediated transcription and secretion of large human glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit in human embryonic kidney-293 cells.
18068163 2008 Spectrotemporal changes in electrical activity of myometrium due to recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone preparations follitropin alfa and beta.
18063683 2008 Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates trophoblast invasion through extracellularly regulated kinase and AKT signaling.
18022169 2008 Differential effects of human chorionic gonadotropin and decidualization on insulin-like growth factors-I and -II in human endometrial stromal cells.
17761764 2007 Nonassembled human chorionic gonadotropin subunits and alphaalpha-homodimers use fast-track processing in the secretory pathway in contrast to alphabeta-heterodimers.
17690166 2007 Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies.
17609437 2007 Rapid maturation of glycoprotein hormone free alpha-subunit (GPHalpha) and GPHalpha alpha homodimers.
17261286 2007 Hourly human chorionic gonadotropin secretion profiles during the peri-implantation period of successful pregnancies.
17207965 2007 hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes.
17143726 2007 Single chain human chorionic gonadotropin, hCGalphabeta: effects of mutations in the alpha subunit on structure and bioactivity.
17112680 2007 Human chorionic gonadotropin as an angiogenic factor in breast cancer during pregnancy.
17097221 2007 Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the male reproductive tract.
17045735 2007 Assembly and structural characterization of an authentic complex between human follicle stimulating hormone and a hormone-binding ectodomain of its receptor.
16950818 2006 Measurement of mRNA of trophoblast-specific genes in cellular and plasma components of maternal blood.
16543672 2006 Analysis of the three dimensional structure of the CXGXC motif in the CMGCC and CAGYC regions of alpha-and beta-subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin: importance of glycine residue (G) in the motif.
16461985 2006 Absence of apparent circadian rhythms of gonadotropins and free alpha-subunit in postmenopausal women: evidence for distinct regulation relative to other hormonal rhythms.
16311298 2006 Defining the rise of serum HCG in viable pregnancies achieved through use of IVF.
16007123 2005 Fetal but not adult Leydig cells are susceptible to adenoma formation in response to persistently high hCG level: a study on hCG overexpressing transgenic mice.
15662415 2005 Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor.
15637148 2005 Coordinate regulation of basal and cyclic 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-activated expression of human chorionic gonadotropin-alpha by Ets-2 and cAMP-responsive element binding protein.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15304512 2004 Only a portion of the small seatbelt loop in human choriogonadotropin appears capable of contacting the lutropin receptor.
15231748 2004 Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.
15004409 2004 Processing of O-linked glycosylation in the chimera consisting of alpha-subunit and carboxyl-terminal peptide of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit is affected by dimer formation with follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit.
14726442 2004 Gonadotropins enhance caspase-3 and -7 activity and apoptosis in the theca-interstitial cells of rat preovulatory follicles in culture.
14607569 2003 A soluble molecule secreted by human blastocysts modulates regulation of HOXA10 expression in an epithelial endometrial cell line.
14585810 2004 Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone exhibit different secretion patterns from cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
12963710 2003 Orientation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) subunits complexed with the FSH receptor. Beta subunit toward the N terminus of exodomain and alpha subunit to exoloop 3.
12960071 2003 Elevated steroidogenesis, defective reproductive organs, and infertility in transgenic male mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin.
12920232 2003 Steroidogenic factor-1 and the gonadotrope-specific element enhance basal and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-stimulated transcription of the human glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene in gonadotropes.
12615827 2003 Maternal serum hCG and alpha-fetoprotein levels in pregnancies conceived after IVF or ICSI with fresh and frozen-thawed embryos.
12569177 2003 Expression of beta hCG and alpha CG mRNA and hCG hormone in human decidual tissue in patients during tubal pregnancy.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12237895 2002 Serum HCG beta, CA 72-4 and CEA are independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer.
12164786 2002 Transcriptional regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone common alpha subunit gene by cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and p53.
11900895 2002 Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones.
11893904 The ISOBM TD-7 Workshop on hCG and related molecules. Towards user-oriented standardization of pregnancy and tumor diagnosis: assignment of epitopes to the three-dimensional structure of diagnostically and commercially relevant monoclonal antibodies directed against human chorionic gonadotropin and derivatives.
11775891 2000 [A study on the relationship between serum free alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy induced hypertension].
11266609 2001 Threading of a glycosylated protein loop through a protein hole: implications for combination of human chorionic gonadotropin subunits.
11261589 2000 Trophoblastic cells expressing human chorionic gonadotropin genes in peripheral blood of patients with trophoblastic disease.
11222739 2001 Three-dimensional structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone.
11207219 2001 Molecular biology of channel catfish gonadotropin receptors: 1. Cloning of a functional luteinizing hormone receptor and preovulatory induction of gene expression.
10821673 2000 Effects of the N-linked glycans on the 3D structure of the free alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
10563789 1999 Synthesis of multi-subunit domain gonadotropin complexes: a model for alpha/beta heterodimer formation.
10373373 1999 Crystal structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two Fv fragments specific for the alpha and beta-subunits.
10342833 1999 The alpha-subunit of human choriogonadotropin interacts with the exodomain of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor.
9578495 1998 Partially deglycosylated human choriogonadotropin, stabilized by intersubunit disulfide bonds, shows full bioactivity.
8898911 1996 NMR studies of the free alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. Structural influences of N-glycosylation and the beta subunit on the conformation of the alpha subunit.
8202136 1994 Crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin.
8196184 1994 [Structure and regulation of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) gene].
7922031 1994 Structure of human chorionic gonadotropin at 2.6 A resolution from MAD analysis of the selenomethionyl protein.
7679977 1993 A subunit interaction site in human luteinizing hormone: identification by photoaffinity cross-linking.
7544284 1995 Site-specific and complete enzymic deglycosylation of the native human chorionic gonadotropin alpha-subunit.
7462224 1981 The amino acid sequences of the prepeptides contained in the alpha and beta subunits of human choriogonadotropin.
7410374 1980 Assignment of disulfide bonds in the alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
6774759 1980 Studies on the disulfide bonds in human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone.
6581542 1983 Chromosome assignment of genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of glycoprotein hormones in man and mouse.
6286817 1981 The gene encoding the common alpha subunit of the four human glycoprotein hormones.
6207569 1984 The regulation and organization of thyroid stimulating hormone genes.
6189397 1983 Stability of human chorionic gonadotropin and its alpha subunit in human blood.
5065401 1972 Human pituitary interstitial cell stimulating hormone: primary structure of the subunit.
5002675 1971 Eli Lilly lecture. The subunits of pituitary thyrotropin--their relationship to other glycoprotein hormones.
4835135 1974 Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH): first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit (hFSHa) and first demonstration of its identity with the alpha-subunit of human luteinizing hormone (hLHa).
4745444 1973 Human chorionic gonadotropin. Linear amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit.
4368999 1974 Peptide hormones.
3839756 1985 Molecular cloning of the human thyrotropin-beta subunit gene.
2708337 1989 Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin.
2611225 1989 Crystallization and characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin in chemically deglycosylated and enzymatically desialylated states.
2536708 1989 Site specificity of the chorionic gonadotropin N-linked oligosaccharides in signal transduction.
2481154 1989 [Free alpha-subunit glycoprotein hormones: physiological and pathological data].
2449427 1987 Subcellular localization of intracellular forms of human chorionic gonadotropin in first trimester placenta.
1991473 1991 NMR investigations of the N-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of human lutropin.
1688430 1990 Role of disulfide bond formation in the folding of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit into an alpha beta dimer assembly-competent form.
1191677 1975 Human pituitary lutropin. Isolation, properties, and the complete amino acid sequence of the beta-subunit.
1158880 1975 Primary amino acid sequence of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary glands. I. alpha subunit.
1150658 1975 The amino acid sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The alpha subunit and beta subunit.
890569 1977 Human pituitary thyrotropin. The primary structure of the alpha and beta subunits.
481597 1979 Isolation, cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.
172504 1975 Role of carbohydrate of human chorionic gonadotropin in the mechanism of hormone action.