Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 92
PubMed Score 767.78
PubTator Score 119.09

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease Sources (5)

Disease Target Count P-value
non-small cell lung cancer 2798 1.5775937099691E-23
lung adenocarcinoma 2714 1.3264360958023E-14
malignant mesothelioma 3163 7.44623420745261E-10
lung carcinoma 2844 1.49989116102922E-6
glioblastoma multiforme 347 3.1872590831369E-6
pilocytic astrocytoma 3086 5.93798988525337E-6
lung cancer 4473 1.81962963225456E-5
interstitial cystitis 2299 4.07372489887833E-5
medulloblastoma, large-cell 6234 1.33381844901887E-4
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (IPMA) 2956 1.65728726110949E-4
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma (IPMC) 2988 4.51000004867852E-4
group 3 medulloblastoma 2254 4.98820059445574E-4
Atopic dermatitis 944 6.1471706259114E-4
primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 1271 7.81024403737435E-4
nasopharyngeal carcinoma 1056 8.32740759702067E-4
Down syndrome 548 9.35523558275915E-4
pediatric high grade glioma 2712 0.00145508335364335
ulcerative colitis 2087 0.00189317567171573
pancreatic cancer 2300 0.00293784322191546
astrocytic glioma 2241 0.00297678077091077
oligodendroglioma 2849 0.00524552331769148
ependymoma 2514 0.00690968005336209
Pick disease 1893 0.00743247855697601
progressive supranuclear palsy 674 0.00779295031554966
primitive neuroectodermal tumor 3031 0.00882241744651518
cystic fibrosis 1670 0.00950375990699891
ductal carcinoma in situ 1745 0.0210833974940674
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 2287 0.0217275359451201
gastric carcinoma 832 0.0263965740549842
invasive ductal carcinoma 2950 0.0387355185250973
psoriasis 6685 0.0404575694980392
Breast cancer 3099 0.0492415602862206



Accession O60565 Q52LV3 Q8N914 Q8N936
Symbols DRM




  Ortholog (7)

Species Source
Macaque OMA Inparanoid
Mouse OMA Inparanoid
Rat OMA Inparanoid
Dog OMA Inparanoid
Cow OMA Inparanoid
Chicken OMA Inparanoid
Xenopus OMA Inparanoid

 CSPA Cell Line (2)

Gene RIF (74)

26968009 our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts entity
26872252 The critical element of the Gremlin-1 molecule for regulating MIF-induced chemotactic activity lies at the C-terminal region. A single amino acid exchange of an arginine to an alanine residue is sufficient to abolish the antagonistic effect of Gremlin-1 on MIF. The Gremlin-1 mutant R172A failed to reduce MIF-induced monocyte differentiation into macrophages.
26530461 Results found that high mRNA expression level of Gremlin 1 was an independent poor prognostic factor for cervical neoplasm. it is suggested that Gremlin 1 may have a role in clinical recurrence and maintaining cancer stem cell-like properties.
26493165 Study identified a high penetrant duplication in the regulatory region of GREM1, predisposing to colorectal cancer (CRC) in a family with attenuated/ atypical polyposis. A POLE variant was also identified in a patient with early onset CRC.
26311241 Gremlin1 and chronic pancreatitis: a new clinical target and biomarker
26155842 transgenic mice overexpressing Gremlin in renal tubules develop greater glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in response to diabetic-mediated damage
26141517 Gremlin is a key pro-fibrogenic factor in chronic pancreatitis
26043427 results might suggest that variants influencing GREM1 expression levels, rather than variants affecting the function of the encoded protein, are significant factors in NSCL/P etiology.
25992589 Data suggest that the hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) 40 kb duplication upstream of the gremlin 1 protein (GREM1) gene is present at low rates in Jewish Ashkenazi individuals of a familial predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC).
25810250 Gremlin/VEGFR2 axis participates in renal inflammation and could be a novel target for kidney disease.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (92)

PMID Year Title
26968009 2016 Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for Nonsyndromic Clefting of Both the Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene.
26872252 2016 Gremlin-1 C-Terminus Regulates Function of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF).
26530461 2016 Clinical significance of Gremlin 1 in cervical cancer and its effects on cancer stem cell maintenance.
26493165 2016 GREM1 and POLE variants in hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.
26311241 2015 Gremlin1 and chronic pancreatitis: a new clinical target and biomarker?
26155842 2015 Tubular overexpression of Gremlin in transgenic mice aggravates renal damage in diabetic nephropathy.
26141517 2015 Gremlin is a key pro-fibrogenic factor in chronic pancreatitis.
26043427 2015 Association between polymorphisms at the GREM1 locus and the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in the Polish population.
25992589 2015 GREM1 germline mutation screening in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with familial colorectal cancer.
25810250 2015 Gremlin regulates renal inflammation via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 pathway.