Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 30
PubMed Score 67.36
PubTator Score 51.16

Knowledge Summary

Patent (21,876)


  Disease (2)

Disease Target Count P-value
psoriasis 6685 5.8e-15
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
Epilepsy 346 3.597 1.8
head and neck cancer 270 3.189 1.6


  Differential Expression (1)

Disease log2 FC p
psoriasis 1.300 5.8e-15

MLP Assay (1)

AID Type Active / Inconclusive / Inactive Description
652083 other 0 / 0 / 0 Late-stage results from the probe development effort to identify antagonists of OPRK1: CEREP radiometric-based biochemical counterscreen panel assay

Gene RIF (14)

26572146 GAL and its receptors, GALR1 and GALR2, play a role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenesis
24706871 Variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who experienced childhood adversity or recent negative life events.
24602615 Activation of GalR2 leads to elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) due to Ca(2+) efflux from endoplasmic reticulum through IP3R sequentially opening BK alpha channels.
24568968 The G protein-coupled receptor GALR2 promotes angiogenesis in head and neck cancer
24517231 Data from ligand-receptor interaction studies suggest that human spexin-1 and zebrafish spexin-2 activate galanin receptors GALR2/GALR3 (but not GALR1); thus spexins appear to be natural ligands for human/Xenopus/zebrafish GALR2/GALR3.
24168112 In HEp-2 cells, GALR2-mediated apoptosis was caspase-independent.
24122450 The expression of GALR2 mRNA is lost in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma as a consequence of DNA methylation.Silencing of the GALR2 gene by methylation may be a critical event in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
21345369 galanin receptor 2 promotes cell proliferation and survival, and promotes tumor growth, consistent with an oncogenic role for GALR2 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
19086053 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18272487 point to GalR2 as a possible target for therapeuthic interventions in pheochromocytoma
17083333 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
17083333 There was no effect of GALR2 on alcoholism risk.
14592962 study indicates that a high level of GalR2 galanin receptor expression is able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells
11867941 Elevated expression of galanin receptors in childhood neuroblastic tumors

AA Sequence

ALRPCPGASQPCILEPCPGPSWQGPKAGDSILTVDVA                                     351 - 387

Text Mined References (30)

PMID Year Title
26572146 2016 Epigenetic inactivation of galanin and GALR1/2 is associated with early recurrence in head and neck cancer.
25691535 2015 Galanin pathogenic mutations in temporal lobe epilepsy.
24706871 2014 Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes.
24602615 2014 Activation of galanin receptor 2 stimulates large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channels through the IP3 pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells.
24568968 2014 The G protein-coupled receptor GALR2 promotes angiogenesis in head and neck cancer.
24517231 2014 Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III.
24168112 2014 Novel anti-tumor mechanism of galanin receptor type 2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
24122450 2014 Tumor suppressor activity and inactivation of galanin receptor type 2 by aberrant promoter methylation in head and neck cancer.
23597562 2013 Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and growth by a small-molecule multi-FGF receptor blocker with allosteric properties.
23341594 2013 Distinct features of neurotransmitter systems in the human brain with focus on the galanin system in locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe.
23278944 2013 Galanin is a modulator of eccrine sweat gland secretion.
23237663 2013 Ligand binding properties of human galanin receptors.
22889491 2012 Galanin and its three receptors in human pituitary adenoma.
22329353 2012 The neuropeptide galanin is a novel inhibitor of human hair growth.
21894515 2011 Expression of galanin and galanin receptor mRNA in skin during the formation of granulation tissue.
21850381 2011 Genome-wide identification of possible methylation markers chemosensitive to targeted regimens in colorectal cancers.
21345369 2011 Rap1 mediates galanin receptor 2-induced proliferation and survival in squamous cell carcinoma.
19086053 2009 Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.
18577758 2008 Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.
18272487 2008 Galanin decreases proliferation of PC12 cells and induces apoptosis via its subtype 2 receptor (GalR2).
17083333 2007 Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14592962 2004 Galanin receptor subtype GalR2 mediates apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11867941 2002 Elevated expression of galanin receptors in childhood neuroblastic tumors.
9880084 1998 Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor.
9832121 1998 Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3.
9685625 1998 Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor.
9480833 1998 Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2.
2834384 1988 Presence of three distinct molecular species of Gi protein alpha subunit. Structure of rat cDNAs and human genomic DNAs.