Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 101
PubMed Score 259.22
PubTator Score 733.86

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (20)

Disease log2 FC p
malignant mesothelioma -1.200 4.9e-06
osteosarcoma 1.375 1.4e-04
group 3 medulloblastoma -2.100 1.4e-05
cystic fibrosis 1.213 1.1e-04
glioblastoma 1.200 2.4e-02
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor -1.600 7.7e-05
medulloblastoma, large-cell -2.400 3.1e-05
acute quadriplegic myopathy 1.812 3.5e-08
non-small cell lung cancer -1.376 8.5e-11
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (... -1.900 3.1e-03
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma... -1.900 3.5e-02
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... -3.000 2.4e-03
lung cancer -2.900 8.3e-07
colon cancer -1.300 1.4e-03
interstitial cystitis 1.500 4.1e-04
lung adenocarcinoma -1.200 2.1e-04
Endometriosis -1.908 2.1e-02
ulcerative colitis -1.900 4.5e-04
ovarian cancer 1.900 5.8e-06
dermatomyositis 1.200 5.2e-03

Gene RIF (78)

26594907 Polymorphism of Metallothionein 2A modifies Lead Body Burden in workers chronically exposed to the metal.
26456220 HMBOX1 regulates intracellular free zinc level by interacting with MT2A to inhibit apoptosis and promote autophagy in vascular endothelial cells.
26093198 Data suggest that blood metallothionein-2A (MT-2A) expression and serum MT-2A levels could be important prognostic indices of less differentiated, more aggressive breast cancer phenotype.
26036762 The findings suggest that MT2A gene variation rs28366003 may be implicated in the etiology of sinonasal inverted papilloma in a Polish population
25900616 MT2A mRNA expression has a significant inverse correlation with Cd and Cu levels in dry inverted papilloma tissue. Inverted papilloma cases with lower average cadmium and copper content were observed to be the most frequent positive MT2A mRNA expression.
25808318 Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.
25555862 In the Han population of China, the gene polymorphism of MT2A-838G/C is correlated to coronary heart disease.
25505242 The interaction of HIV-1 CA with human cellular metallothionein 2A protein (MT2A) is identified by yeast two-hybrid screen
25157674 -5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer.
24952512 A genetic variation of MT2A may be a risk factor in laryngeal cancer in a Polish population and the presence of -5 A/G (rs28366003) MT2A gene polymorphism could be considered as a new potential biomarker of the invasive phenotype of laryngeal cancer.
24918957 Electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulations reveal new insights into metal-induced conformational changes and the mechanism for metalation of human metallothionein-2A.
24662736 MT2A was down-regulated in renal cell carcinogenesis.
24157868 MT2A contributes to chemotherapy resistance in osteosarcoma, an effect partially mediated by zinc chelation.
23994556 Cotreatment with aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist and dexamethasone enhances human MT2A gene expression.
23986211 Suggest a potential role of MT-I/II in the proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells and disease progression.
23947958 Low MT2A expression is associateed with lung carcinogenesis.
23870553 MT2A might play a tumor suppressive activity through inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling
23620539 Data suggest that up-regulation of MT2A expression in hepatic stellate cells down-regulates expression of specific biological markers (alpha-smooth muscle actin; collagen-I; collagenases) and up-regulates others (matrix metalloproteinases 1, 8, 13).
23553990 MiR-23a in amplified 19p13.13 loci targets metallothionein 2A and promotes growth in gastric cancer cells.
23466427 A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level is found in prostate cancer patients.
23381845 Metallothionein overexpression in cardiac myocytes is capable of abolishing an otherwise expected significant diabetic capillary basement membrane thickening.
23148893 suggest that Mt2a might be involved in insulin resistance through the up-regulation of Mt gene expression, which may lead to the modulation of insulin action in fat cells
23064051 findings show 5 MT isoforms were overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer and overexpression of MT-1F and MT-2A predicted poor outcome; both isoforms may be involved in progression of this cancer type
23053628 These data suggest that the rs28366003 single nucleotide polymorphism in MT2A is associated with risk of breast cancer in Polish population.
23042264 A positive correlation between MT and Ki-67 expression was observed for all the studied cases but was even stronger in the metatypic subtype of basal cell carcinoma.
23028585 MT-I/II expression was increased in hippocampi from temporal lobe epilepsy.
22824183 Investigated whether MT2A gene polymorphisms are associated with a risk of prostate cancer. Three MT2A SNPs were genotyped in 358 prostate cancer cases and 406 population controls; one SNP showed a positive association with prostate cancer.
22248277 High MT2A is associated with prostate cancer.
22090273 Possible role of MT as a marker of cell stress and homeostasis restoration in Graves'disease.
22005883 pregnant women with AG genotype for MT2A polymorphism might have high blood lead levels and their newborns may be at risk of low-level cord blood lead variation
21868554 MT-I/II may play a key role in IDC proliferation, but is not a useful prognostic factor of this disease
21767559 Highly statistically significant associations are detected between the -5 adenine/guanine core promoter region single nucleotide polymorphism in the MT2A gene and cadmium, lead, and zinc (but not copper) blood levels.
21328412 MT2A -5A/G core promoter region single nucleotide polymorphism has an effect in accumulating placental Cd and transferring maternal to fetal essential micronutrients.
21277639 these data support that the IL-6 -174 C+ carriers and MT2A -5 G- carriers may be more advantageous for longevity.
21187089 MT-2A promotes breast cancer cell invasion by upregulating MMP-9 via AP-1 and NF-kappaB activation.
20812968 MT-1A, -1F, -1G, -1X and -2A isoforms are significantly down-regulated in proliferating keloid fibroblasts.
20711930 Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)
20711450 metallothioneins represented by MT-2A capable of protecting against Abeta aggregation and toxicity
20646067 MT2 diminishes Transthyretin-Abeta binding, whereas MT3 has the opposite effect
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20303360 The core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.
20303360 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20127519 Data suggest that increase in cell size, intracellular granulation and megakaryocytic specific antigen expression such as CD41 and CD42, and arresting cell proliferation validate the role of metallothioneins in cell differentiation.
20038220 Data show that MT-I + II and megalin are significantly altered in CNS lymphoma relative to controls.
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19881214 It plays a role in the detoxification of heavy metals and reactive oxygen species. (review)
19572214 A --> G single-nucleotide polymorphism was deteceted in metallothionein 2A core promoter region of Turkish population.
19572214 Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)
19515364 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-gene interaction, and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19433272 Stable overexpression of human metallothionein-IIA in a heart-derived cell line confers oxidative protection.
19097988 Nickel mobilizes intracellular zinc to induce MT2A in human airway epithelial cells.
19062161 MT-2A could plausibly modulate cell cycle progression from G1- to S-phase via the ATM/Chk2/cdc25A pathway
18996371 Inhibition of MT2A expression by siRNA in the HIPK2 knockdown cells restored p53 transcription activity.
18854154 Knockdown of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) by siRNA inhibits the early stages of HIV-1 replication in 293T cells infected with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1
18601746 Lupus nephritis is associated with significant alterations in renal MT-I+II expression. Important prognostic information can be deduced from the renal MT-I+II expression profile in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with nephritis.
18349110 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18208603 The goals of this study were to define the expression of the isoforms of MT 1, 2, 3 at both mRNA and protein levels, in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and malignant PC-3 cells.
17914565 MT was up-regulated under hypoxia in prostate cancer cells and overexpressed in prostate cancer tissue and residual cancer cells after androgen ablation therapy
17622311 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17622311 The +838 C/G MT2A polymorphism seems to influence inflammatory markers, zinc availability, NK cell cytotoxicity, and trace element status, all of which may promote carotid artery stenosis development.
17224279 High-yield expression in Escherichia coli of soluble MT2A with native functions was studied.
16927099 the A --> G single-nucleotide polymorphism reduces the efficiency of those aspects of the transcription of the gene for MT-IIA that are controlled by general transcription factors
16546755 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16518702 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
16402917 MT2A expression may be a beneficial downstream adaptive response in complex I-deficient cells.
16243847 MT2a has a role in oxidative stress, and the formation of MT disulfide bonds is involved in the regulation of zinc homeostasis
16215939 Findings suggest that EOLA1 is a novel gene and the interaction of EOLA1 and MT2A may play an important role in cell protection in inflammation reaction.
16166738 MT1 and MT2 deficient mice are susceptible to acute lung injury
16087360 The Overexpressed MT2 with added zinc showed a greater inhibitory effect on cell viability and protected cells against low concentrations of cadmium ions (10 microM), but increased cell death in response to high concentrations (20-50 microM).
15747776 Eight MT genes were up-regulated after treatment of T-ALL cells with 0.15 and 1.5 microg/mL of metal ores. Heavy metal binding activity.
15541360 EOLA1 and MT2A may have an important role of cell protection in inflammation reaction.
15041247 liver and perhaps other cells, Zn(7)-MT is probably important in the cytosolic trafficking of zinc to the mitochondria for the uptake of zinc into the mitochondrial matrix by the putative zinc uptake transporter
14550308 Metallothionein 2A interacts with the kinase domain of PKCmu and may have a role in prostate cancer
14530512 metallothionein plays a significant role in erythropoietin-induced proliferation, but not in the erythroid-specific differentiation of progenitor cells
12714254 zinc ion bioavailability by zinc-bound MTs homeostasis is pivotal to reach health longevity and successful ageing.
12646258 Data suggest that the physical interaction of esophageal cancer related gene 2 (ECRG2) and metallothionein 2A (MT2A) may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer.
12539042 The interaction of HIV-1 CA with human cellular metallothionein 2A protein (MT2A) is identified by yeast two-hybrid screen
12192109 Transgenic mice overexpressing human metallothionein 2A from a cardiac-specific promoter were protected from doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. MT can protect the heart from oxidative injury only if it is present prior to induction of oxidative stress.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (103)

PMID Year Title
26594907 2016 Polymorphism of Metallothionein 2A Modifies Lead Body Burden in Workers Chronically Exposed to the Metal.
26456220 2015 HMBOX1 interacts with MT2A to regulate autophagy and apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.
26093198 2015 Metallothionein 2A expression and its relation to different clinical stages and grades of breast cancer in Egyptian patients.
26036762 2015 Metallothionein 2A core promoter region genetic polymorphism and its impact on the risk, tumor behavior, and recurrences of sinonasal inverted papilloma (Schneiderian papilloma).
25900616 2015 The effect of metallothionein 2A core promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphism on accumulation of toxic metals in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissues.
25808318 2015 Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.
25555862 2014 Metallothionein 2A genetic polymorphism and its correlation to coronary heart disease.
25157674 2014 The -5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer.
24952512 2014 Genetic polymorphism of metallothionein 2A and risk of laryngeal cancer in a Polish population.
24918957 2014 Metal-induced conformational changes of human metallothionein-2A: a combined theoretical and experimental study of metal-free and partially metalated intermediates.
24662736 2015 An epigenetic screen unmasks metallothioneins as putative contributors to renal cell carcinogenesis.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24157868 2013 Zinc chelation: a metallothionein 2A's mechanism of action involved in osteosarcoma cell death and chemotherapy resistance.
23994556 2013 The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A.
23986211 Expression of metallothionein and Ki-67 antigen in GISTs of different grade of malignancy.
23947958 2013 Expression of metallothionein and Nrf2 pathway genes in lung cancer and cancer-surrounding tissues.
23870553 2013 Metallothionein 2A inhibits NF-?B pathway activation and predicts clinical outcome segregated with TNM stage in gastric cancer patients following radical resection.
23620539 2013 Metallothionein gene transfection reverses the phenotype of activated human hepatic stellate cells.
23553990 2013 MiR-23a in amplified 19p13.13 loci targets metallothionein 2A and promotes growth in gastric cancer cells.
23466427 2013 Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer.
23381845 2013 Diabetic basement membrane thickening does not occur in myocardial capillaries of transgenic mice when metallothionein is overexpressed in cardiac myocytes.
23148893 2013 Metallothionein 2a gene expression is increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic patients.
23064051 2013 Metallothionein 1F and 2A overexpression predicts poor outcome of non-small cell lung cancer patients.
23053628 2014 Metallothionein 2A genetic polymorphisms and risk of ductal breast cancer.
23042264 2012 Expression of metallothionein I/II and Ki-67 antigen in various histological types of basal cell carcinoma.
23028585 2012 Increased metallothionein I/II expression in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
22824183 2012 Metallothionein 2A genetic polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer in a Polish population.
22248277 2012 Evaluation of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, metallothionein and prostate specific antigen as prostate cancer prognostic markers.
22090273 2012 Overexpression of metallothionein I/II: a new feature of thyroid follicular cells in Graves' disease.
22005883 2012 The effects of metallothionein 2A polymorphism on lead metabolism: are pregnant women with a heterozygote genotype for metallothionein 2A polymorphism and their newborns at risk of having higher blood lead levels?
21868554 2011 Correlation of intensity of MT-I/II expression with Ki-67 and MCM-2 proteins in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
21767559 2011 The potential effect of metallothionein 2A -5A/G single nucleotide polymorphism on blood cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels.
21328412 2012 The effects of metallothionein 2A polymorphism on placental cadmium accumulation: Is metallothionein a modifiying factor in transfer of micronutrients to the fetus?
21277639 Distributions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter and metallothionein 2A (MT2A) core promoter region gene polymorphisms and their associations with aging in Turkish population.
21187089 2011 Metallothionein-2A overexpression increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasion of breast cancer cells.
20812968 2010 Modulation of metallothionein isoforms is associated with collagen deposition in proliferating keloid fibroblasts in vitro.
20711930 2010 Genetic variation at a metallothionein 2A promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism in white and black females in Midwestern United States.
20711450 2010 The native copper- and zinc-binding protein metallothionein blocks copper-mediated Abeta aggregation and toxicity in rat cortical neurons.
20646067 2010 Human metallothioneins 2 and 3 differentially affect amyloid-beta binding by transthyretin.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20303360 2010 Effect of metallothionein core promoter region polymorphism on cadmium, zinc and copper levels in autopsy kidney tissues from a Turkish population.
20127519 2011 Role of metallothionein in differentiation of leukemia cells.
20038220 2010 Metallothionein-I + II and receptor megalin are altered in relation to oxidative stress in cerebral lymphomas.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19881214 2009 [Cilostazol induces metallothionein expression in vascular cells].
19572214 2010 The polymorphism of core promoter region on metallothionein 2A-metal binding protein in Turkish population.
19536566 2009 Reaction of human metallothionein-3 with cisplatin and transplatin.
19515364 2009 Genetic background of lead and mercury metabolism in a group of medical students in Austria.
19433272 2009 Stable overexpression of human metallothionein-IIA in a heart-derived cell line confers oxidative protection.
19413330 2009 Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach.
19097988 2009 Nickel mobilizes intracellular zinc to induce metallothionein in human airway epithelial cells.
19062161 2009 Silencing the Metallothionein-2A gene inhibits cell cycle progression from G1- to S-phase involving ATM and cdc25A signaling in breast cancer cells.
18996371 2009 Restoring wtp53 activity in HIPK2 depleted MCF7 cells by modulating metallothionein and zinc.
18601746 2008 The renal metallothionein expression profile is altered in human lupus nephritis.
18349110 2008 Polymorphisms in metallothionein-1 and -2 genes associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.
18208603 2008 Differential expression of metallothioneins (MTs) 1, 2, and 3 in response to zinc treatment in human prostate normal and malignant cells and tissues.
17914565 2007 Metallothionein is up-regulated under hypoxia and promotes the survival of human prostate cancer cells.
17622311 The +838 C/G MT2A polymorphism, metals, and the inflammatory/immune response in carotid artery stenosis in elderly people.
17244347 2007 Pathways and genes differentially expressed in the motor cortex of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
17224279 2007 High-yield expression in Escherichia coli of soluble human MT2A with native functions.
16927099 2006 Potential effect on cellular response to cadmium of a single-nucleotide A --> G polymorphism in the promoter of the human gene for metallothionein IIA.
16916647 2006 Substrate and functional diversity of lysine acetylation revealed by a proteomics survey.
16778767 2006 The orphan GPR50 receptor specifically inhibits MT1 melatonin receptor function through heterodimerization.
16546755 2006 Association between metallothionein genes polymorphisms and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a Japanese population.
16518702 2005 Novel -209A/G MT2A polymorphism in old patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis: relationship with inflammation (IL-6) and zinc.
16402917 2006 Metallothionein isoform 2A expression is inducible and protects against ROS-mediated cell death in rotenone-treated HeLa cells.
16341674 2005 Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.
16243847 2006 Metallothionein disulfides are present in metallothionein-overexpressing transgenic mouse heart and increase under conditions of oxidative stress.
16215939 2005 [Identification and characterization of a novel gene EOLA1 stimulating ECV304 cell proliferation].
16166738 2006 The role of metallothionein in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.
16087360 2005 Effect of metallothionein on cell viability and its interactions with cadmium and zinc in HEK293 cells.
15862967 2005 Yeast two-hybrid identification of prostatic proteins interacting with human sex hormone-binding globulin.
15747776 2003 Dose-dependent transcriptome changes by metal ores on a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
15541360 2004 Identification and characterization of a novel gene EOLA1 stimulating ECV304 cell proliferation.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15041247 2004 Metallothionein can function as a chaperone for zinc uptake transport into prostate and liver mitochondria.
14550308 2003 Metallothionein 2A interacts with the kinase domain of PKCmu in prostate cancer.
14530512 2003 Erythropoietin-induced metallothionein gene expression: role in proliferation of K562 cells.
12970870 2003 Using yeast two-hybrid system to identify ECRG2 associated proteins and their possible interactions with ECRG2 gene.
12714254 2003 Metallothioneins/PARP-1/IL-6 interplay on natural killer cell activity in elderly: parallelism with nonagenarians and old infected humans. Effect of zinc supply.
12646258 2003 ECRG2, a novel candidate of tumor suppressor gene in the esophageal carcinoma, interacts directly with metallothionein 2A and links to apoptosis.
12539042 2003 HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12192109 2002 Prior increase in metallothionein levels is required to prevent doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.
12153718 2002 Interactions of arsenic with human metallothionein-2.
11168427 2001 Metallothionein isogene transcription in red blood cell precursors from human cord blood.
10766190 2000 Expression of metallothionein II in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer.
10754528 2000 Metallothionein isoform 1 and 2 gene expression in the human prostate: downregulation of MT-1X in advanced prostate cancer.
10716985 2000 Zinc transfer potentials of the alpha - and beta-clusters of metallothionein are affected by domain interactions in the whole molecule.
10567918 2000 Energy-dependent nuclear binding dictates metallothionein localization.
8766831 1996 Cloning and sequencing a novel metallothionein I isoform expressed in human reticulocytes.
7821789 1994 Construction of a human full-length cDNA bank.
7133118 1982 Human metallothionein genes--primary structure of the metallothionein-II gene and a related processed gene.
6896577 1982 Human metallothionein genes: molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the mRNA.
6719135 1984 Chromosomal location of human metallothionein genes: implications for Menkes' disease.
6323998 1984 Characterization of DNA sequences through which cadmium and glucocorticoid hormones induce human metallothionein-IIA gene.
3821726 1987 Metal-responsive elements act as positive modulators of human metallothionein-IIA enhancer activity.
2780570 1989 Changes in brain gene expression shared by scrapie and Alzheimer disease.
2388267 1990 Three-dimensional structure of human [113Cd7]metallothionein-2 in solution determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
1633872 1992 Expression of c-fos, c-jun, jun-B, metallothionein and metalloproteinase genes in human chondrocyte.
1593628 1992 Comparison of the solution conformations of human [Zn7]-metallothionein-2 and [Cd7]-metallothionein-2 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
1339282 1992 Expression of human metallothionein-II fusion protein in Escherichia coli.
913597 1977 Primary structure of human hepatic metallothionein.