Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 59
PubMed Score 21.54
PubTator Score 86.98

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (30)

Disease log2 FC p
nephrosclerosis -1.119 4.8e-02
astrocytic glioma -3.000 9.6e-03
ependymoma -3.400 8.5e-03
oligodendroglioma -2.400 1.3e-10
esophageal adenocarcinoma -5.100 1.8e-02
psoriasis -2.100 3.2e-11
glioblastoma -2.400 1.3e-05
osteosarcoma -2.665 4.1e-03
group 3 medulloblastoma -4.900 5.0e-07
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor -3.800 8.9e-13
medulloblastoma, large-cell -3.200 3.2e-05
primitive neuroectodermal tumor -3.200 3.4e-05
tuberculosis and treatment for 3 months 1.200 6.3e-04
non-small cell lung cancer -1.522 6.7e-10
Common variable immunodeficiency -1.200 3.6e-02
colon cancer -2.400 1.6e-06
lung cancer -3.200 4.8e-06
cystic fibrosis 1.900 1.4e-03
pediatric high grade glioma -2.900 3.4e-07
pilocytic astrocytoma -2.300 2.4e-05
sarcoidosis -1.100 6.1e-04
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma -4.434 3.6e-03
lung adenocarcinoma -1.800 5.7e-09
nasopharyngeal carcinoma -3.000 4.4e-06
lung carcinoma -1.100 4.5e-16
spina bifida -1.550 4.0e-02
Pick disease -1.300 3.7e-04
gastric carcinoma -2.600 1.7e-02
ovarian cancer 3.300 5.3e-04
Down syndrome 1.200 4.0e-03


Accession P21145 Q6FH77



PANTHER Protein Class (1)

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (43)

26772392 This study revealed that Merkel cell polyomavirus -negative Merkel cell carcinomas significantly expressed higher CADM1 and lower MAL than Merkel cell polyomavirus -positive Merkel cell carcinomas
26482433 Hypermethylation of the selected markers (MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1) can result in reduced gene expression and may contribute to the formation of colorectal cancer.
26473640 The use of CADM1, MAL, and MIR124-2 as biomarkers for full molecular screening in HIV infected women who are also positive for human papillomavirus.
26219541 CADM1/MAL methylation increases with severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
26109641 MAL is a critical element of the machinery for exosome secretion and may constitute a target for modulating exosome secretion by human T cells.
26109641 HIV-1 Nef interacts with MAL-dependent pathway to enhance exosome release
25993478 Data suggest that expression of MAL in cells confers both ETX (Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin) binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death; cells expressing rat MAL are 100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing human MAL.
25667975 Cytology and bi-marker CADM1/MAL-methylation analysis perform complementary for CIN2+/CIN3+ detection when used as triage tool on cervical scrapes of HPV positive women.
25281766 DNA methylation analysis of CADM1, MAL and miR124-2 in cervical scrapes consistently detects cervical cancer
24840642 Docking and physicochemical studies indicated that BTK was involved in close contact with Tyr86 and Tyr106 of MAL, whereas PKCdelta may phosphorylate Tyr106 only.
24511665 The MAL gene repression related with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric cancer, suggesting that the MAL may be a new candidate node metastasis-suppressor gene for gastric cancer.
24265315 Data indicate that TcpB (Q8YF5, BtpA/Btp1) interacts with MAL, MyD88, and TLR4 but interferes only with the MAL-TLR4 interaction.
24088706 MAL hypermethylation is associated with esophageal carcinoma progression.
23983209 MAL is multifunctional and integral for the molecular control of bacterial infections as well as inflammatory diseases. [Review]
23940119 The data identify the GEF Bcr as a regulator of RhoA/MAL signaling in keratinocytes, which in turn promotes differentiation through the desmosomal cadherin Dsg1.
23456988 CADM1 and MAL methylation levels increased proportional to severity of the underlying lesion
23381221 hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7 were frequently detected in NSCLCs and associated with various clinical features.
23224601 MAL protein plays an important role during oral carcinogenesis, MAL gene expression was significantly decreased in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal epithelium.
23176198 Data indicate that DNA methylation status of multiple genes CADM1, MAL and hsa-miR-124-2 was analyzed in human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-positive cervical scrape.
22485159 The Mal-Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains AB loop is capable of mediating direct binding to the TIR domains of TLR4 and MyD88 simultaneously.
21508261 Data show that MAL regulates membrane order and the distribution of microtubule and transport vesicle docking machinery at the IS and, by doing so, ensures correct protein sorting of Lck and LAT to the cSMAC.
21389098 Data show that a combination of CADM1 and MAL methylation could represent a promising candidate triage tool for hrHPV-positive women.
21190187 the methylation marker panel CADM1-M18 and MAL-M1 may serve as an alternative molecular triage tool for hrHPV-positive women.
21092172 Data suggest that the epigenetic inactivation of MAL, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelial cell carcinoma and may be served as a biomarker in HNSCC.
20822478 This study supports roles for tyrosines 86 and 106 in signaling pathways involving MAL.
20448286 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20438785 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20406964 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20400509 Mal is a substrate for IRAK1 and IRAK4 with phosphorylation promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Mal, which may serve to negatively regulate signaling by TLR2 and TLR4
20048342 The caspase-1 cleavage site in Mal is part of a TIR-domain interaction site.
19670627 MAL is normally expressed in laryngeal epithelial cells and its expression changes at early stages of carcinoma development.
19642140 Data show that MAL transcript levels were higher in the resistant ovarian cell lines.
19445022 suggesting the MAL gene as a new metastasis-suppressor candidate for head and neck cancer
19423540 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19208741 Inactivation of the MAL gene in breast cancer is a common event that predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
19064572 Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19002170 MAL has a putative tumour-suppressor gene function in gastric cancer, and detection of promoter hypermethylation may be useful as a prognostic marker.
18346269 promoter hypermethylation of MAL was present in the vast majority of benign and malignant colorectal tumors, and only rarely in normal mucosa
17408629 Promoter hypermethylation of MAL, shown to be present in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas and only rarely in normal mucosa.
17151798 Loss of MAL expression is aasociated with precancerous lesions of the esophagus
16785208 Quantitative analysis carried out using pixel intensity variance demonstrated that the MAL protein is capable of modifying the plasma membrane, thereby increasing its resistance to detergent-induced pore formation.
15466889 Caveolin-1 and MAL are located on prostasomes secreted by prostate cancer cells
15188492 The mal gene which is switched-off in all esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples can be considered as a tumor suppressor gene

AA Sequence

VHAVFSLIRWKSS                                                             141 - 153

Text Mined References (61)

PMID Year Title
26772392 2016 Lower expression of CADM1 and higher expression of MAL in Merkel cell carcinomas are associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and better prognosis.
26482433 2015 DNA hypermethylation and decreased mRNA expression of MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1 in colorectal adenoma and cancer.
26473640 2015 Methylation Levels of CADM1, MAL, and MIR124-2 in Cervical Scrapes for Triage of HIV-Infected, High-Risk HPV-Positive Women in Kenya.
26219541 2016 CADM1 and MAL methylation status in cervical scrapes is representative of the most severe underlying lesion in women with multiple cervical biopsies.
26109641 2015 Cutting Edge: Regulation of Exosome Secretion by the Integral MAL Protein in T Cells.
25993478 2015 The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ?-Toxin.
25667975 2015 Follow-up of high-risk HPV positive women by combined cytology and bi-marker CADM1/MAL methylation analysis on cervical scrapes.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25281766 2014 CADM1, MAL and miR124-2 methylation analysis in cervical scrapes to detect cervical and endometrial cancer.
24840642 2014 Structural evaluation of BTK and PKC? mediated phosphorylation of MAL at positions Tyr86 and Tyr106.
24511665 2013 Suppression of MAL gene expression in gastric cancer correlates with metastasis and mortality.
24265315 2014 Mechanism of bacterial interference with TLR4 signaling by Brucella Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing protein TcpB.
24088706 2013 MAL hypermethylation is a tissue-specific event that correlates with MAL mRNA expression in esophageal carcinoma.
23983209 2013 Mal, more than a bridge to MyD88.
23940119 2013 The GEF Bcr activates RhoA/MAL signaling to promote keratinocyte differentiation via desmoglein-1.
23456988 2013 CADM1 and MAL promoter methylation levels in hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes increase proportional to degree and duration of underlying cervical disease.
23381221 2013 Aberrant methylation of LINE-1, SLIT2, MAL and IGFBP7 in non-small cell lung cancer.
23264465 2013 MYADM controls endothelial barrier function through ERM-dependent regulation of ICAM-1 expression.
23224601 2012 Expression of myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) in oral carcinogenesis.
23176198 2012 Development of a multiplex methylation-specific PCR as candidate triage test for women with an HPV-positive cervical scrape.
22485159 2012 Structural insights into TIR domain specificity of the bridging adaptor Mal in TLR4 signaling.
22366891 2012 The kinase Btk negatively regulates the production of reactive oxygen species and stimulation-induced apoptosis in human neutrophils.
21988832 2011 Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver.
21508261 2011 MAL protein controls protein sorting at the supramolecular activation cluster of human T lymphocytes.
21389098 2011 Combined promoter methylation analysis of CADM1 and MAL: an objective triage tool for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA-positive women.
21190187 2011 Combined CADM1 and MAL promoter methylation analysis to detect (pre-)malignant cervical lesions in high-risk HPV-positive women.
21092172 2010 Epigenetic silencing of MAL, a putative tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelium cell carcinoma.
20438785 2010 Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of childhood leukemia.
20406964 2010 Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity.
19670627 2009 [Expression pattern of MAL in normal epithelial cells, benign tumor, and squamous cell carcinoma of larynx].
19642140 2010 Elevated MAL expression is accompanied by promoter hypomethylation and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.
19445022 2009 T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein gene as a candidate metastasis suppressor for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
19423540 2009 Common variation in genes related to innate immunity and risk of adult glioma.
19208741 2009 Inactivation of the MAL gene in breast cancer is a common event that predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
19064572 2008 Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women.
19002170 2008 MAL promoter hypermethylation as a novel prognostic marker in gastric cancer.
18346269 2008 Hypermethylated MAL gene - a silent marker of early colon tumorigenesis.
17408629 2007 DNA hypermethylation of MAL: a promising diagnostic biomarker for colorectal tumors.
17213182 2006 Identification of genes related to Parkinson's disease using expressed sequence tags.
17151798 2007 Loss of MAL expression in precancerous lesions of the esophagus.
16785208 The MAL proteolipid restricts detergent-mediated membrane pore expansion and percolation.
15815621 2005 Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15466889 2004 Caveolin-1 and MAL are located on prostasomes secreted by the prostate cancer PC-3 cell line.
15188492 2004 Differential gene expression between squamous cell carcinoma of esophageus and its normal epithelium; altered pattern of mal, akr1c2, and rab11a expression.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12776198 2003 MAL gene expression in esophageal cancer suppresses motility, invasion and tumorigenicity and enhances apoptosis through the Fas pathway.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12429796 2002 MAL expression in lymphoid cells: further evidence for MAL as a distinct molecular marker of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas.
12153479 2002 Rafts in adult peripheral nerve myelin contain major structural myelin proteins and myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) and CD59 as specific markers.
12072368 2002 Toll-like receptor signal transduction and the tailoring of innate immunity: a role for Mal?
10739088 2000 MAL, a proteolipid in glycosphingolipid enriched domains: functional implications in myelin and beyond.
10512878 1999 MAL, an integral element of the apical sorting machinery, is an itinerant protein that cycles between the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane.
10428054 1999 Developmental expression pattern of the myelin proteolipid MAL indicates different functions of MAL for immature Schwann cells and in a late step of CNS myelinogenesis.
9528996 1998 Expression of the MAL gene in the thyroid: the MAL proteolipid, a component of glycolipid-enriched membranes, is apically distributed in thyroid follicles.
9168919 1997 Caveolin and MAL, two protein components of internal detergent-insoluble membranes, are in distinct lipid microenvironments in MDCK cells.
9003426 1997 The MAL proteolipid is a component of the detergent-insoluble membrane subdomains of human T-lymphocytes.
8132541 1994 Genomic structure and subcellular localization of MAL, a human T-cell-specific proteolipid protein.
8088843 1994 Alternative splicing of human T-cell-specific MAL mRNA and its correlation with the exon/intron organization of the gene.
3494249 1987 cDNA cloning and sequence of MAL, a hydrophobic protein associated with human T-cell differentiation.
3257199 1988 Assignment of the T-cell differentiation gene MAL to human chromosome 2, region cen----q13.