Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 117
PubMed Score 490.68
PubTator Score 211.79

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

TINX Plot

  Disease (3)

Expression

  Differential Expression (31)

Disease log2 FC p
nephrosclerosis 1.323 1.4e-03
malignant mesothelioma 1.300 3.3e-06
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 2.000 1.3e-03
psoriasis -1.500 6.1e-03
glioblastoma 3.300 2.0e-03
cystic fibrosis 3.625 1.2e-07
non diabetic and post-ischemic heart fai... -1.600 2.4e-02
periodontitis 1.100 1.0e-21
medulloblastoma, large-cell -1.800 1.5e-03
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 1.464 5.2e-09
juvenile dermatomyositis 1.656 6.8e-08
tuberculosis 1.400 7.3e-07
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (... -2.100 4.8e-03
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma... -2.500 3.1e-04
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... -2.400 1.2e-03
lung cancer -2.400 1.3e-04
diabetes mellitus -1.100 3.3e-02
interstitial cystitis 2.400 2.0e-06
pediatric high grade glioma 2.000 2.6e-03
group 4 medulloblastoma -1.200 1.6e-02
pilocytic astrocytoma 2.100 8.5e-08
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 3.896 6.7e-03
invasive ductal carcinoma 1.632 3.7e-02
inflammatory breast cancer 1.200 7.6e-03
lung carcinoma -2.300 3.0e-19
gastric carcinoma 2.000 3.1e-02
ulcerative colitis 4.000 3.1e-08
ovarian cancer -2.700 1.7e-06
pituitary cancer -2.500 4.8e-07
chronic rhinosinusitis 1.228 4.2e-02
dermatomyositis 1.900 1.4e-02

Gene RIF (106)

PMID Text
26385043 In patients undergoing CABG surgery, we found genetic polymorphisms in LY96 associated with decreased risk of postoperative AF.
26320630 The study revealed the impact of specific residues and regions of MD-2 on the binding of lipolysaccharides and TLR4.
26160169 Aminoarabinose residues in lipid A contribute to Burkholderia lipid A binding to the TLR4.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 2 complex.
26068048 Results show that cigarette smoke may alter innate immune responses reducing the expression of the MD2, a molecule with an important role in TLR4 signaling.
25816011 Gene polymorphisms of MD2 and GM2A were associated with the occurrence or severity of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.
25803856 Predominantly hydrophobic interactions between MD-2 and TLR4 contribute to the stabilization of the TLR4/MD-2/metal ion complex in a conformation that enables activation.
25605324 The intensity of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response to bacteria or perhaps to other TLR4 ligands may be facilitated through synthesis and release of sMD2 by the amniochorion.
25576596 overexpression of MD-2s led to marked reduction in markers of tissue injury and inflammation in models of lung inflammation
25515751 TLR4 along with its accessory protein MD-2 builds a heterodimeric complex that specifically recognizes lipopolysaccharides, which are present on the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, activating the immune response. (Review)
25203747 Substitution of hMD-2 residue V82 with an amino acid residue with a bulkier hydrophobic side chain enables activation of TLR4/MD-2.
25124890 Three genes (LY96, IL8 DPR) were significantly downregulated over time. This finding was confirmed in a validation cohort of stroke patients (n=8).
25049357 Mechanistically, engagement of MD-2 by PTX3-opsonized Aspergillus conidia activated the TLR4/Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta-dependent signaling pathway converging on IL-10.
24954085 This study suggests that genetic variants of LY96 may modulate the effect of smoking on carotid plaque burden.
24902762 genetic polymorphism is associated with asthma exacerbations in children
24896325 Studies suggest that myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2) as a therapeutic target for sepsis.
24895101 Purified monomeric ligand.MD-2 complexes reveal molecular and structural requirements for activation and antagonism of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins.
24858600 In monocytes of sepsis, MD-2 expression was found to be regulated by STAT1.
24532584 Data suggest that zhankuic acid A (ZAA), which competes with LPS for binding to MD-2 as a TLR4/MD-2 antagonist, may be a potential therapeutic agent for gram-negative bacterial infections.
24165011 Collectively, these data showed for the first time that, HIV-1 Tat interacts physically with high affinity with TLR4-MD2 to promote proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha) and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 both.
24165011 HIV-1 Tat interacts physically with the TLR4-MD2 complex and the N-terminal region (residues 1-29) of Tat is involved in the interation with TLR4-MD2
24021278 Extracellular complex formation of TLR4 with secreted MD-2 was detectable using monoclonal antibodies.
23800176 these findings indicate that MD-2 is involved in IFN-gamma signalling and IFN-gamma-augmented MMP-1 up-regulation by LPS.
23437263 both oral and enteric C. concisus strains upregulated expression of TLR4 and MD-2 in HT-29 cells.
23333304 HIV-1 Tat interacts physically with the TLR4-MD2 complex and the N-terminal region (residues 1-29) of Tat is involved in the interation with TLR4-MD2
23059983 Consistently, soluble TLR4 expressed without MD2 inhibited metal- but not LPS-induced responses, opening new therapeutic perspe
22872782 Respiratory syncytial virus F protein requires MD-2 for the induction of the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.
22433852 In LOS.MD-2 complexes, one of the six fatty acyl chains of LOS is more susceptible to paramagnetic attenuation, suggesting protrusion of that fatty acyl chain from the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, independent of association with TLR4.
21948372 Lipopolysaccharide cytokine response was efficiently and equally abolished by MD-2 and CD14 neutralization; the response induced by whole E. coli bacteria was only modestly reduced by MD-2 neutralization, whereas CD14 neutralization was more efficient.
21924775 have identified specific structural and dynamic features of the MD-2-endotoxin complexes that may control dimerization of TLR4 molecules.
21918188 tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to lipopolysaccharide
21738462 Computational study of the interactions of the unmodified dendrimer, glucosamine, and of the partially glycosylated dendrimer with TLR4 and MD-2 using molecular docking and molecular dynamics techniques.
21572044 Interferon-gamma-induced MD-2 protein expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness in corneal epithelial cells is mediated by Janus tyrosine kinase-2 activation and direct binding of STAT1 protein to the MD-2 promoter.
21389010 The association between occupational endotoxin exposure and wheeze in agricultural workers was significantly modified by genetic variants in CD14 and MD2
21191086 Innate immune recognition of meningococcal capsular polysaccharides by macrophages can occur via TLR2- and TLR4-MD-2 pathways.
21130168 In this study, we produced variants of MD-1 and MD-2 in Pichia pastoris.
21048031 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
21037101 Neisserial lipooligosaccharides from different meningococcal and gonococcal strains have different potencies to activate NF-kappaappaB through the Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2 pathway in monocytes.
20848773 Cytokines can enhance TLR4 and MD-2 expressions and promote the reaction with LPS in intestinal epithelial cells.
20805788 Data demonstrate that during bacterial infection, newborns amplify the TLR2-MyD88 pathway in G+ bacterial infection and the TLR4/MD2/MyD88 pathway in G- bacterial infection, implicating the innate immune pathway in response to bacterial infection.
20730709 Data conclude that these gene variants in the MD-2 gene promoter region are not associated with tuberculosis, and apparently do not play a role in susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Chinese population.
20730709 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20699280 higher expression levels in tissue from patients with colorectal cancer
20592019 species-specific activation of lipid IV(A)
20435923 In this study, we have identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human MD-2, termed MD-2 short (MD-2s), which lacks the region encoded by exon 2 of the MD-2 gene.
20377740 sMD-2 and sCD14 inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
20092898 The CD14-dependent meconium-induced inflammatory reaction is mediated through the TLR4/MD2 complex.
20018893 MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation
19840833 These direct interactions between MBL and TLR4 or MD-2 suggest that MBL may modulate cellular responses by altering signals through TLRs.
19783674 These findings reveal novel roles of lysines 122, 125, and 58 in human MD-2 that contribute to the functional differences between human and murine MD-2 and, potentially, to differences in the sensitivity of humans and mice to endotoxin.
19710105 increased expression in intestinal epithelial cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
19632992 Data show that PU.1 participates in the regulation of MD-2 in nonmyeloid cells cooperatively with C/EBPbeta.
19584052 high affinity interactions between the palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and the Toll-like receptor 4-interacting proteins CD14 and MD-2.
19556306 MD-2 possesses potential ability to play a critical role in cell surface expression of TLR4.
19423540 Analyses restricted to glioblastoma (n = 254) yielded significant associations for the SELP, DEFB126/127, SERPINI1, and LY96 genetic regions.
19423540 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19321453 Hydrophobic residues at positions 82, 85, and 87 of MD-2 are essential both for transfer of endotoxin from CD14 to monomeric MD-2 and for TLR4 activation.
19254290 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19252480 The TLR4-MD-2-LPS structure illustrates the remarkable versatility of the ligand recognition mechanisms employed by the TLR family, which is essential for defence against diverse microbial infection
19209789 Polymorphisms of the promoter region of MD-2 gene at position - 1625 C/G is correlated with MODS and sepsis after severe trauma in Chinese Han population.
19201903 lactate boosts TLR4 activation and NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory gene expression via monocarboxylate transporters and MD-2 up-regulation.
19200604 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19064998 the leucine at position 815 is required for the normal maturation of TLR4 and for formation of the TLR4.MD-2 complex.
18991397 SP-D directly interacts with MD-2 through the CRD.
18845299 These results support a model in which sMD2 binds to TLR4 and increases TLR4 levels at the cell surface by preventing TLR4 turnover through the endocytic pathway.
18650420 The species-specific difference between human and murine MD-2 activation of TLR4 by PTX can be explained by alterations of surface charge distribution (i.e. electrostatic potential), binding pocket size, and the locus of PTX binding within the MD-2 pocket
18559343 Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4: roles for CD14, LPS-binding protein, and MD2 as targets for specificity of inhibition.
18519568 the monomeric form of sMD-2 is the active species both for reaction with endotoxin.CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), as needed for potent endotoxin-induced TLR4 activation
18424732 cells that express TLR4 without MD-2 and whose response to LPS depends on ectopically produced MD-2 were most affected by expression of the G56R variant of MD-2.
18384879 This study demonstrates the increase of both circulating polymeric and functional monomeric sMD-2 during endotoxemia and sepsis, and evidence is provided that the endothelium is involved in this process.
18325643 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18251133 MD-2 expression in human antral and corpus gastric mucosa is significantly increased during H. pylori infection
18215718 Results show that LPS responsiveness increased more than 100-fold when intestinal epithelial cells were transfected with MD-2 alone.
18181766 ERK and JNK pathways are involved in PMA-mediated MD-2 gene expression during HL-60 cell differentiation.
17977838 These findings strongly suggest that the structural properties of (endotoxin) E.MD-2, not E alone, determine agonist or antagonist effects on TLR4.
17956942 TLR4/MD-2 complex is responsible for recognition of Rhodococcus spheroides lipopolysaccharide as an agonist in human cells.
17934216 Transfer of endotoxin from MD-2 to extracellular soluble CD14 reduces activation of cells expressing TLR4 without MD-2.
17803912 Based on structural analysis and mutagenesis experiments on MD-2 and TLR4, we propose a model of TLR4-MD-2 dimerization induced by LPS.
17592304 The MD-2/-1625 polymorphism is an important functional variant.
17569869 crystal structures of MD-2 and its complex with tetra-acylated lipid A core of LPS were determined at 2.0 and 2.2 angstrom resolutions, respectively; these structures suggest that MD-2 plays a principal role in endotoxin recognition
17545685 MD-2 interacts with lipid A of endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS)] to activate human toll-like receptor (TLR) 4
17404865 Butyrate dowregulates TLR4 mRNA without affecting MD-2 mRNA level in HT-29 cells.
17093906 Human conjunctival epithelial cells lack LPS responsiveness due to deficient expression of MD2.
16940155 The structural pattern recognized by MD-2 is defined by the hydrophobic patch and a pair of separated negative charges.
16785528 New insights are provided into the importance of stoichiometry among the components of the TLR4/MD-2/CD14 complex; transfected MD-2 at high input levels often used in the literature suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling.
16754682 SP-A bound to sTLR4 and MD-2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and involved the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) in the binding. SP-A avidly bound to the deglycosylated forms of sTLR4 and MD-2, suggesting a protein/protein interaction.
16547263 endoplasmic reticulum-associated MD-2 expression in inflammatory bowel disease may be altered by ileal protease in inflammation, leading to impaired lipopolysaccharide recognition and hyporesponsiveness through MD-2 proteolysis in epithelial cell
16338228 A PRotein Associated with Tlr4 (PRAT4B), regulates cell surface expression of TLR4. PRAT4B has a signal peptide followed by a mature peptide. PRAT4B is associated with the hypoglycosylated, immature form of TLR4 but not with MD-2 or TLR2.
16275943 The lipopolysaccharide-binding function characteristic of MD-2 enables effective host responses to pathogens.
16177092 MD-2 is the primary molecular site of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-dependent antagonism of Escherichia coli LPS at the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling complex
15694388 These results clearly demonstrate that the amino-terminal TLR4 region of Glu(24)-Pro(34) is critical for MD-2 binding and LPS signaling.
15557191 The extracellular toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)domain-MD-2 complex is capable of binding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and attenuating LPS-induced NF-kappa B activation and IL-8 secretion in wild-type TLR4-expressing cells.
15337750 Results show that the N-terminal region of toll-like receptor 4 is essential for association with MD-2, which is required for the cell surface expression and hence the responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide.
15328161 MD-2 is an important mediator of organ inflammation during sepsis.
15121639 The regulation of MD-2 expression in airway epithelia and pulmonary macrophages may serve as a means to modify endotoxin responsiveness in the airway.
15111623 MD-2 basic amino acid clusters are involved in cellular lipopolysaccharide recognition
15057266 a rare A --> G substitution at position 103, Thr 35 to Ala, results in a reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling.
14607928 Two functional domains exist in MD-2, one responsible for Toll-like receptor 4-binding and another that mediates the interaction with the agonist (lipopolysaccharide).
12960171 MD-2 binds to lipopolysaccharide, leading to Toll-like receptor-4 aggregation and signal transduction
12754215 data support the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide binding protein can inhibit cell responses to lipopolysaccharide(LPS) by inhibiting LPS transfer from membrane CD14 to the Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2 signaling receptor
12738639 TLR4 is able to undergo multiple glycosylations without MD-2 but that the specific glycosylation essential for cell surface expression requires the presence of MD-2.
12642668 Disulfide bonds are involved in the assembly and fuction of this protein.
12594207 innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by Gram-positive pathogens. while TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved.
12324469 Lipopolysaccharide rapidly traffics to and from the Golgi apparatus with the toll-like receptor 4-MD-2-CD14 complex
11923281 expression regulated by immune-mediated signals in intestinal epithelial cells
11717200 MD-2 can confer on mouse Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) responsiveness to lipid A but not to lipid IVa, thus influencing the fine specificity of TLR4.
11466383 Expression of accessory molecule MD-2 is downregulated in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism which limits dysregulated immune signaling and activation of proinflammatory genes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

AA Sequence

MLPFLFFSTLFSSIFTEAQKQYWVCNSSDASISYTYCDKMQYPISINVNPCIELKRSKGLLHIFYIPRRD      1 - 70
LKQLYFNLYITVNTMNLPKRKEVICRGSDDDYSFCRALKGETVNTTISFSFKGIKFSKGKYKCVVEAISG     71 - 140
SPEEMLFCLEFVILHQPNSN                                                      141 - 160
//

Text Mined References (118)

PMID Year Title
26385043 2015 Genome-wide association study of new-onset atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
26320630 2015 Studies of the TLR4-associated protein MD-2 using yeast-display and mutational analyses.
26160169 2015 Activation of Human Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)·Myeloid Differentiation Factor 2 (MD-2) by Hypoacylated Lipopolysaccharide from a Clinical Isolate of Burkholderia cenocepacia.
26068048 2015 MD2 expression is reduced in large airways of smokers and COPD smokers.
25816011 2015 Association of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis with myeloid differentiation-2 and GM2 activator protein genetic polymorphisms.
25803856 2015 MD-2 determinants of nickel and cobalt-mediated activation of human TLR4.
25605324 2015 Amniotic Fluid Soluble Myeloid Differentiation-2 (sMD-2) as Regulator of Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Infection-induced Preterm Birth.
25576596 2015 Alternatively spliced myeloid differentiation protein-2 inhibits TLR4-mediated lung inflammation.
25515751 2014 Modulation of toll-like receptor 4. Insights from x-ray crystallography and molecular modeling.
25203747 2014 Species-specific activation of TLR4 by hypoacylated endotoxins governed by residues 82 and 122 of MD-2.
25124890 2015 A genomic profile of the immune response to stroke with implications for stroke recovery.
25049357 2014 PTX3 binds MD-2 and promotes TRIF-dependent immune protection in aspergillosis.
24954085 2014 Novel genetic variants modify the effect of smoking on carotid plaque burden in Hispanics.
24902762 2014 Genetic variants in endotoxin signalling pathway, domestic endotoxin exposure and asthma exacerbations.
24896325 2014 Targeting myeloid differentiation 2 for treatment of sepsis.
24895101 2014 Purified monomeric ligand.MD-2 complexes reveal molecular and structural requirements for activation and antagonism of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins.
24858600 2014 STAT1 regulates MD-2 expression in monocytes of sepsis via miR-30a.
24532584 2014 Zhankuic acid A isolated from Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a novel selective TLR4/MD-2 antagonist with anti-inflammatory properties.
24165011 2013 HIV-1 Tat protein binds to TLR4-MD2 and signals to induce TNF-? and IL-10.
24021278 2013 MD-2-dependent human Toll-like receptor 4 monoclonal antibodies detect extracellular association of Toll-like receptor 4 with extrinsic soluble MD-2 on the cell surface.
23800176 2013 MD-2 is involved in the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression by interferon-? and high glucose in mononuclear cells - a potential role of MD-2 in Toll-like receptor 4-independent signalling.
23437263 2013 The effects of oral and enteric Campylobacter concisus strains on expression of TLR4, MD-2, TLR2, TLR5 and COX-2 in HT-29 cells.
23059983 2012 Metal allergens nickel and cobalt facilitate TLR4 homodimerization independently of MD2.
22872782 2012 Respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is inhibited by the TLR4 antagonists Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipopolysaccharide and eritoran (E5564) and requires direct interaction with MD-2.
22433852 2012 NMR studies of hexaacylated endotoxin bound to wild-type and F126A mutant MD-2 and MD-2·TLR4 ectodomain complexes.
21948372 2012 Differential effect of inhibiting MD-2 and CD14 on LPS- versus whole E. coli bacteria-induced cytokine responses in human blood.
21924775 2011 From agonist to antagonist: structure and dynamics of innate immune glycoprotein MD-2 upon recognition of variably acylated bacterial endotoxins.
21918188 2011 Myeloid differentiation factor-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.
21738462 2011 Partially glycosylated dendrimers block MD-2 and prevent TLR4-MD-2-LPS complex mediated cytokine responses.
21572044 2011 Interferon-gamma-induced MD-2 protein expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness in corneal epithelial cells is mediated by Janus tyrosine kinase-2 activation and direct binding of STAT1 protein to the MD-2 promoter.
21389010 2011 Endotoxin exposure, CD14 and wheeze among farmers: a gene--environment interaction.
21191086 2011 Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharides induce inflammatory responses via TLR2 and TLR4-MD-2.
21130168 2011 LPS ligand and culture additives improve production of monomeric MD-1 and 2 in Pichia pastoris by decreasing aggregation and intermolecular disulfide bonding.
21048031 2011 Single nucleotide polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tumor protein 73 (TP73) interact with Epstein-Barr virus in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from the European case-control study EpiLymph.
21037101 2010 Phosphoryl moieties of lipid A from Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides play an important role in activation of both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLR4-MD-2 signaling pathways.
20848773 2010 [Study on the molecular expression and regulation of toll pathway in HT-29 cells].
20805788 2010 Human neonatal peripheral blood leukocytes demonstrate pathogen-specific coordinate expression of TLR2, TLR4/MD2, and MyD88 during bacterial infection in vivo.
20730709 2010 Lack of association between MD-2 promoter gene variants and tuberculosis.
20699280 2011 Regulation of colon cancer cell proliferation and migration by MD-2 activity.
20592019 2010 MD-2 residues tyrosine 42, arginine 69, aspartic acid 122, and leucine 125 provide species specificity for lipid IVA.
20547845 2010 A critical cysteine is required for HMGB1 binding to Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of macrophage cytokine release.
20435923 2010 Identification of a novel human MD-2 splice variant that negatively regulates Lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 signaling.
20377740 2010 Inhibitory effects of soluble MD-2 and soluble CD14 on bacterial growth.
20092898 2010 Meconium-induced release of cytokines is mediated by the TRL4/MD-2 complex in a CD14-dependent manner.
20018893 2010 MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation.
19840833 2009 Mannose binding lectin and lung collectins interact with Toll-like receptor 4 and MD-2 by different mechanisms.
19783674 2009 Novel roles of lysines 122, 125, and 58 in functional differences between human and murine MD-2.
19710105 2010 Regulation of Toll-like receptor 4-associated MD-2 in intestinal epithelial cells: a comprehensive analysis.
19632992 2009 Cooperation between PU.1 and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is necessary to induce the expression of the MD-2 gene.
19584052 2009 Anionic pulmonary surfactant phospholipids inhibit inflammatory responses from alveolar macrophages and U937 cells by binding the lipopolysaccharide-interacting proteins CD14 and MD-2.
19556306 2009 Mutational analysis of Cys(88) of Toll-like receptor 4 highlights the critical role of MD-2 in cell surface receptor expression.
19423540 2009 Common variation in genes related to innate immunity and risk of adult glioma.
19321453 2009 Essential roles of hydrophobic residues in both MD-2 and toll-like receptor 4 in activation by endotoxin.
19254290 2009 Polymorphisms in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 are associated with total serum IgE.
19252480 2009 The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex.
19209789 2007 [Relationship of myeloid differentiation-2 gene promoter polymorphisms with susceptivity of complications after severe trauma in Chinese Han population].
19201903 2009 Lactate boosts TLR4 signaling and NF-kappaB pathway-mediated gene transcription in macrophages via monocarboxylate transporters and MD-2 up-regulation.
19200604 2009 Gene polymorphisms of Toll-like and related recognition receptors in relation to the vaginal carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae.
19064998 2009 A single amino acid of toll-like receptor 4 that is pivotal for its signal transduction and subcellular localization.
18991397 2008 Pulmonary surfactant protein D binds MD-2 through the carbohydrate recognition domain.
18845299 2009 Soluble MD2 increases TLR4 levels on the epithelial cell surface.
18810425 2008 Natural selection in the TLR-related genes in the course of primate evolution.
18650420 2008 Paclitaxel binding to human and murine MD-2.
18559343 2008 Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4: roles for CD14, LPS-binding protein, and MD2 as targets for specificity of inhibition.
18519568 2008 Isolation of monomeric and dimeric secreted MD-2. Endotoxin.sCD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 ectodomain selectively react with the monomeric form of secreted MD-2.
18424732 2008 Functional activity of MD-2 polymorphic variant is significantly different in soluble and TLR4-bound forms: decreased endotoxin binding by G56R MD-2 and its rescue by TLR4 ectodomain.
18384879 2008 Increased release of sMD-2 during human endotoxemia and sepsis: a role for endothelial cells.
18325643 2008 Associations between SNPs in toll-like receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules and immune responses to measles vaccine: preliminary results.
18251133 Helicobacter pylori infection affects Toll-like receptor 4 expression in human gastric mucosa.
18215718 2008 MD-2 controls bacterial lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness in human intestinal epithelial cells.
18181766 2008 Both ERK and JNK are required for enhancement of MD-2 gene expression during differentiation of HL-60 cells.
17977838 2008 Novel roles in human MD-2 of phenylalanines 121 and 126 and tyrosine 131 in activation of Toll-like receptor 4 by endotoxin.
17956942 2007 The equine TLR4/MD-2 complex mediates recognition of lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides as an agonist.
17934216 2007 Transfer of monomeric endotoxin from MD-2 to CD14: characterization and functional consequences.
17803912 2007 Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran.
17592304 2007 Functional significance of gene polymorphisms in the promoter of myeloid differentiation-2.
17569869 2007 Crystal structures of human MD-2 and its complex with antiendotoxic lipid IVa.
17545685 2007 Human MD-2 discrimination of meningococcal lipid A structures and activation of TLR4.
17404865 2007 Clostridium butyricum TO-A culture supernatant downregulates TLR4 in human colonic epithelial cells.
17093906 2005 Human conjunctival epithelial cells lack lipopolysaccharide responsiveness due to deficient expression of MD2 but respond after interferon-gamma priming or soluble MD2 supplementation.
16940155 2006 Structural similarity between the hydrophobic fluorescent probe and lipid A as a ligand of MD-2.
16785528 2006 Analysis of TLR4 polymorphic variants: new insights into TLR4/MD-2/CD14 stoichiometry, structure, and signaling.
16754682 2006 Surfactant protein A directly interacts with TLR4 and MD-2 and regulates inflammatory cellular response. Importance of supratrimeric oligomerization.
16547263 2006 Trypsin-sensitive modulation of intestinal epithelial MD-2 as mechanism of lipopolysaccharide tolerance.
16421571 2006 DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8.
16338228 2006 A molecule that is associated with Toll-like receptor 4 and regulates its cell surface expression.
16275943 2005 Comparison of lipopolysaccharide-binding functions of CD14 and MD-2.
16177092 2005 MD-2 mediates the ability of tetra-acylated and penta-acylated lipopolysaccharides to antagonize Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide at the TLR4 signaling complex.
16024789 2005 A novel splice variant of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase 1 plays a negative regulatory role in Toll/IL-1R-induced inflammatory signaling.
15694388 2005 The Toll-like receptor 4 region Glu24-Pro34 is critical for interaction with MD-2.
15557191 2004 Interaction of soluble form of recombinant extracellular TLR4 domain with MD-2 enables lipopolysaccharide binding and attenuates TLR4-mediated signaling.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15337750 2004 The amino-terminal region of toll-like receptor 4 is essential for binding to MD-2 and receptor translocation to the cell surface.
15328161 2004 Soluble MD-2 activity in plasma from patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.
15276183 2004 MD-2: the Toll 'gatekeeper' in endotoxin signalling.
15121639 2004 Endotoxin responsiveness of human airway epithelia is limited by low expression of MD-2.
15111623 2004 Structural model of MD-2 and functional role of its basic amino acid clusters involved in cellular lipopolysaccharide recognition.
15057266 2004 A coding mutation within the first exon of the human MD-2 gene results in decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling.
14625308 2004 Sequential autophosphorylation steps in the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 regulate its availability as an adapter in interleukin-1 signaling.
14607928 2003 Separate functional domains of human MD-2 mediate Toll-like receptor 4-binding and lipopolysaccharide responsiveness.
14556004 2003 TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway.
12960171 2003 Lysines 128 and 132 enable lipopolysaccharide binding to MD-2, leading to Toll-like receptor-4 aggregation and signal transduction.
12754215 2003 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein inhibits responses to cell-bound LPS.
12738639 2003 MD-2 is necessary for the toll-like receptor 4 protein to undergo glycosylation essential for its translocation to the cell surface.
12642668 2003 The role of disulfide bonds in the assembly and function of MD-2.
12594207 2003 Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12447442 2002 The adaptor molecule TIRAP provides signalling specificity for Toll-like receptors.
12324469 2002 Lipopolysaccharide rapidly traffics to and from the Golgi apparatus with the toll-like receptor 4-MD-2-CD14 complex in a process that is distinct from the initiation of signal transduction.
11976338 2002 Monomeric recombinant MD-2 binds toll-like receptor 4 tightly and confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness.
11923281 2002 TLR4 and MD-2 expression is regulated by immune-mediated signals in human intestinal epithelial cells.
11593030 2001 Secreted MD-2 is a large polymeric protein that efficiently confers lipopolysaccharide sensitivity to Toll-like receptor 4.
11466383 2001 Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and MD-2 correlates with intestinal epithelial cell protection against dysregulated proinflammatory gene expression in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
11435474 2001 Molecular genetic analysis of an endotoxin nonresponder mutant cell line: a point mutation in a conserved region of MD-2 abolishes endotoxin-induced signaling.
11274165 2001 Lipopolysaccharide is in close proximity to each of the proteins in its membrane receptor complex. transfer from CD14 to TLR4 and MD-2.
11160242 2001 MD-2 enables Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated responses to lipopolysaccharide and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall components.
10891475 2000 ESOP-1, a secreted protein expressed in the hematopoietic, nervous, and reproductive systems of embryonic and adult mice.
10359581 1999 MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4.