Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 73
PubMed Score 77.88
PubTator Score 25.50

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (14)

Disease log2 FC p
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 2.400 1.0e-03
osteosarcoma -4.885 8.9e-06
non-small cell lung cancer -1.440 1.4e-13
lung cancer -2.900 4.1e-05
breast carcinoma 1.200 1.1e-02
interstitial cystitis 2.100 7.3e-05
invasive ductal carcinoma 1.013 1.2e-02
lung adenocarcinoma -1.851 1.9e-10
inflammatory breast cancer 1.100 3.2e-02
lung carcinoma -1.900 3.6e-20
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lympho... 1.681 1.1e-02
ulcerative colitis 2.500 1.6e-04
ovarian cancer -1.100 3.5e-05
head and neck cancer and chronic obstruc... 1.800 6.1e-04

Gene RIF (42)

27057555 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, observed an inhibitory effect of ILT4 on the immunogenic capability of Dendritic cells (DC); ILT4 was shown not to have a crucial role in regulating maturation and function of DC from healthy controls but is partially involved in maturation process and immunogenic capability of DC from SLE patients
26678451 Data indicate Ig-like transcript 4 (ILT4) as a cellular receptor for complement split products (CSPs) complement component 4d (C4d).
26311318 High MicroRNA-10b promotes migration and invasion in gastric cancer.
26149216 Data show that immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) increases the expression of the co-inhibitory molecule B7-H3 through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling.
26056041 signaling involving ANGPTL2 and LILRB2 is important for lung cancer development
25948790 Findings suggest that ILT4 drives NSCLC development in part on activation of ERK signaling which in turn upregulates VEGF-C.
25551576 involvement of ILT3 and ILT4 in the modulation of immune responsiveness in multiple sclerosis by both interferon and vitamin D
25075127 PIRB and LILRB2 were expressed in mouse and human platelets, respectively.
24899623 A novel motif in the first and fourth Ig domains of LILRB2 was identified that is necessary for the receptor to be bound and activated by Angptl2.
24762057 ILT4 was found to be highly expressed in primary human ductal and lobular breast cancer cells, and its expression was significantly correlated with more IL-10 expression.
24603468 we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement
24596420 These data support a bystander role for the miR-10 family in NPM1 mutated acute myeloid leukemia
24133137 Exocytosis acts as a modulator of the ILT4-mediated inhibition of neutrophil functions.
24052308 These findings imply that LilrB2 contributes to human Alzheimer's disease neuropathology and suggest therapeutic uses of blocking LilrB2 function.
23955630 we report the crystal structures of the D3D4 domains of both LILRB1 and LILRB2.
23911358 Upregulation of the inhibitory receptor ILT4 in monocytes from septic patients.
22888216 Data suggest that when CD1c is up-regulated, ILT4 is recruited to CD1c, thus reducing the inhibitory effect of immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) on CD1d recognition.
22802125 Data show that the leukocyte antigen G HLA-G alpha1-alpha3 structure, which constitutes the extracellular part of HLA-G2 and HLA-G6, binds the immunologic receptor LILRB2 but not LILRB1.
22664025 Cyclosporine up-regulated the expression of ILT3 and ILT4 on natural killer cells, which influenced their cytotoxicity against tumor cells.
22660330 study indicates an unexpected functional significance of classical immune-inhibitory receptors in maintenance of stemness of normal adult stem cells and in support of cancer development
22593621 B27 H chain dimers and multimers are stronger ligands for LILRB2 than HLA class I heterotrimers and H chains
21559424 LILRA3 binds both classical and non-classical HLA class I molecules but with reduced affinities compared to LILRB1/LILRB2
21270408 Inhibitory receptors LILRB1 and LILRB2 vary in their level of binding to different HLA alleles, correlating in some cases with specific amino acid motifs.
21063840 IL-10 up-regulates ILT4 expression on monocytes via increasing ILT4 gene promoter activity.
20702625 Soluble HLA-G inhibits myeloid dendritic cell function in HIV-1 infection by interacting with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2.
20448110 DC-10 represents a novel subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, which secrete high levels of IL-10, express ILT4 and HLA-G, and have the specific function to induce Tr1 cells
19860908 upregulated on antigen-presenting cells in response to Salmonella infection
19535644 Low-tryptophan-conditioned dendritic cells acquire strong tolerogenic capacity associated with a significant increase in inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 and favor induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells with suppressive function.
19356145 crystals of the LILRB2/HLA-G complex belong to space group P3(1)21 (a=b=81.4 A, c=186.7 A, gamma=120 degrees).
19124746 Membrane-associated ILT4 is a a novel receptor for CD1d antigen that inhibits CD1d-mediated immune responses by blocking the loading of lipid antigens such as alpha-galactosylceramide, consequently inhibiting natural killer (NK)T cell recognition.
19010139 A significant association is observed between ILT4 dendritic cells in kidney transplants and donor age.
18550825 Triggering of ILT4 in vitro and in vivo by certain isoforms of HLA-G phosphorylates ILT4 receptor, recruits SHP-1 and SHP-2, up-regulates the expression of IL-6, and down-regulates the differentiation of DCs via the IL-6-STAT3 pathway.
18538388 The presence of LILRB1 in placental stromal cells and LILRB2 in vascular smooth muscle strongly suggest that HLA-G has novel functions in regulation of placental immunity, development and function of the extraembryonic vasculature.
18439545 our results suggest that both the nonfunctional LILRA3 alleles and the low-expressing LILRB2 alleles identified in our study have increased in Northeast Asians because of natural selection.
17998301 Progenitor mast cells expressed cell surface inhibitory LILRB2. Mature cord-blood-derived mast cells had detectable mRNA encoding multiple LILRs, none were expressed on the cell surface.
17923119 Tolerogenicity of professional and non-professional human APC, such as dendritic cells and endothelial cells, respectively is due to the upregulation of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4.
17420263 constitutive cis binding between leukocyte immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor B2 or paired-Ig-like receptor B and major histocompatibility complex class I has an essential role in regulating allergic responses
17400057 Blocking HLA-G receptors ILT2 and ILT4 prevents HLA-G inhibitory effects, leading to the conclusion that that HLA-G acts mainly through these receptors.
17056715 subtle structural differences between LILRB family members cause the distinct binding specificities to various forms of HLA-G and other MHCIs, which may in turn regulate immune suppression
15670976 report that ILT2 receptor, ILT3 receptor, ILT4 receptor, and KIR2DL4 receptor expression is up-regulated by HLA-G histocompatibility antigen in antigen-presenting cells, natural killer cells, and T cells
15301858 Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of ILT4 were identified at positions 113 and 144 of domain 1, which is engaged in protein-protein interactions between APC and T cells.
12853576 inhibitory receptors Ig-like transcript 2 (ILT2) and ILT4 compete with CD8 for MHC class I binding and bind preferentially to HLA-G

AA Sequence

TYAQLHSLTLRRKATEPPPSQEREPPAEPSIYATLAIH                                    561 - 598

Text Mined References (74)

PMID Year Title
27057555 2016 Analysis of the Expression and Function of Immunoglobulin-Like Transcript 4 (ILT4, LILRB2) in Dendritic Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
26678451 2016 Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d.
26311318 2015 MicroRNA-10b promotes migration and invasion through Hoxd10 in human gastric cancer.
26149216 2015 ILT4 drives B7-H3 expression via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling and ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression correlates with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
26056041 2015 ANGPTL2/LILRB2 signaling promotes the propagation of lung cancer cells.
25948790 2015 Immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 promotes tumor progression and metastasis and up-regulates VEGF-C expression via ERK signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.
25714926 2015 Angiopoietin-like proteins stimulate HSPC development through interaction with notch receptor signaling.
25551576 2014 Interferon beta and vitamin D synergize to induce immunoregulatory receptors on peripheral blood monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients.
25075127 2014 Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B regulates platelet activation.
24899623 2014 A motif in LILRB2 critical for Angptl2 binding and activation.
24762057 2014 Inhibitory receptor immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 was highly expressed in primary ductal and lobular breast cancer and significantly correlated with IL-10.
24676037 2014 Downregulation of immunoglobulin-like transcript-4 (ILT4) in patients with psoriatic arthritis.
24603468 2014 LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection.
24596420 2014 Implications of the miR-10 family in chemotherapy response of NPM1-mutated AML.
24133137 2013 Exocytosis acts as a modulator of the ILT4-mediated inhibition of neutrophil functions.
24052308 2013 Human LilrB2 is a ?-amyloid receptor and its murine homolog PirB regulates synaptic plasticity in an Alzheimer's model.
23955630 2013 Crystal structures of the two membrane-proximal Ig-like domains (D3D4) of LILRB1/B2: alternative models for their involvement in peptide-HLA binding.
23911358 2013 Upregulation of the inhibitory receptor ILT4 in monocytes from septic patients.
23238214 2013 HLA-G expressing DC-10 and CD4(+) T cells accumulate in human decidua during pregnancy.
23112154 2012 Immunoglobulin-like transcript receptors on human dermal CD14+ dendritic cells act as a CD8-antagonist to control cytotoxic T cell priming.
23039892 2012 Dysregulated immunophenotypic attributes of plasmacytoid but not myeloid dendritic cells in HIV-1 infected individuals in the absence of highly active anti-retroviral therapy.
23018130 2012 Induction of antigen-specific human T suppressor cells by membrane and soluble ILT3.
22888216 2012 A novel role of CD1c in regulating CD1d-mediated NKT cell recognition by competitive binding to Ig-like transcript 4.
22802125 2012 Multimeric structures of HLA-G isoforms function through differential binding to LILRB receptors.
22767507 2012 Human mesenchymal stem cells shift CD8+ T cells towards a suppressive phenotype by inducing tolerogenic monocytes.
22664025 2012 Cyclosporine induces up-regulation of immunoglobulin-like transcripts 3 and 4 expression on and activity of NKL cells.
22660330 2012 Inhibitory receptors bind ANGPTLs and support blood stem cells and leukaemia development.
22593621 2012 HLA-B27 homodimers and free H chains are stronger ligands for leukocyte Ig-like receptor B2 than classical HLA class I.
21559424 2011 LILRA3 binds both classical and non-classical HLA class I molecules but with reduced affinities compared to LILRB1/LILRB2: structural evidence.
21270408 2011 HLA class I allelic sequence and conformation regulate leukocyte Ig-like receptor binding.
21063840 2010 IL-10 enhances promoter activity of ILT4 gene and up-regulates its expression in THP-1 cells.
20702625 2010 Soluble HLA-G inhibits myeloid dendritic cell function in HIV-1 infection by interacting with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2.
20686565 2010 Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids.
20448110 2010 Differentiation of type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1) by tolerogenic DC-10 requires the IL-10-dependent ILT4/HLA-G pathway.
20008523 2009 HLA-B*35-Px-mediated acceleration of HIV-1 infection by increased inhibitory immunoregulatory impulses.
19860908 2009 The inhibitory receptor LILRB4 (ILT3) modulates antigen presenting cell phenotype and, along with LILRB2 (ILT4), is upregulated in response to Salmonella infection.
19658091 2009 Alternative mRNA splicing creates transcripts encoding soluble proteins from most LILR genes.
19535644 2009 Tryptophan deprivation induces inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 on dendritic cells favoring the induction of human CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.
19356145 2009 Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the low-affinity complex between human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and leukocyte Ig-like receptor B2 (LILRB2).
19124746 2009 Ig-like transcript 4 inhibits lipid antigen presentation through direct CD1d interaction.
19010139 2008 Changes in the expression of the immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 receptors in renal allograft recipients: effect of donor and recipient aging.
18802077 2008 Inhibitory immunoglobulin-like receptors LILRB and PIR-B negatively regulate osteoclast development.
18550825 2008 Modulation of dendritic cell differentiation by HLA-G and ILT4 requires the IL-6--STAT3 signaling pathway.
18538388 2008 Novel HLA-G-binding leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) expression patterns in human placentas and umbilical cords.
18439545 2008 Evidence for natural selection on leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors for HLA class I in Northeast Asians.
17998301 2008 Differential expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors on cord-blood-derived human mast cell progenitors and mature mast cells.
17923119 2007 Central role of ILT3 in the T suppressor cell cascade.
17567994 2007 Prominent use of distal 5' transcription start sites and discovery of a large number of additional exons in ENCODE regions.
17420263 2007 Cis binding between inhibitory receptors and MHC class I can regulate mast cell activation.
17400057 2007 Soluble HLA-G and HLA-G1 expressing antigen-presenting cells inhibit T-cell alloproliferation through ILT-2/ILT-4/FasL-mediated pathways.
17056715 2006 Structural basis for recognition of the nonclassical MHC molecule HLA-G by the leukocyte Ig-like receptor B2 (LILRB2/LIR2/ILT4/CD85d).
16455647 2006 Efficient leukocyte Ig-like receptor signaling and crystal structure of disulfide-linked HLA-G dimer.
15670976 2005 HLA-G up-regulates ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and KIR2DL4 in antigen presenting cells, NK cells, and T cells.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15304001 2004 The LILR family: modulators of innate and adaptive immune pathways in health and disease.
15301858 2004 Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human immune inhibitory immunoglobulin-like T cell receptor type 4.
15057824 2004 The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19.
14971032 2004 Interleukin 10 regulates cell surface and soluble LIR-2 (CD85d) expression on dendritic cells resulting in T cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro.
14662864 2003 Transcriptional regulation of ILT family receptors.
12853576 2003 Human inhibitory receptors Ig-like transcript 2 (ILT2) and ILT4 compete with CD8 for MHC class I binding and bind preferentially to HLA-G.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12390682 2002 Crystal structure of LIR-2 (ILT4) at 1.8 A: differences from LIR-1 (ILT2) in regions implicated in the binding of the Human Cytomegalovirus class I MHC homolog UL18.
11875462 2002 Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4.
11491530 Conserved organization of the ILT/LIR gene family within the polymorphic human leukocyte receptor complex.
11169396 2000 Functional characterization of HLA-F and binding of HLA-F tetramers to ILT2 and ILT4 receptors.
10190906 1999 Tetrameric complexes of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G bind to peripheral blood myelomonocytic cells.
9842885 1998 The MHC class I binding proteins LIR-1 and LIR-2 inhibit Fc receptor-mediated signaling in monocytes.
9548455 1997 A family of human lymphoid and myeloid Ig-like receptors, some of which bind to MHC class I molecules.
9531263 1998 Human myelomonocytic cells express an inhibitory receptor for classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules.
9382880 1997 A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells.
9259559 1997 A new human gene complex encoding the killer cell inhibitory receptors and related monocyte/macrophage receptors.
9151699 1997 A novel inhibitory receptor (ILT3) expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing.
9079806 1997 Cloning of novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors expressed on human myeloid and lymphoid cells: structural evidence for new stimulatory and inhibitory pathways.
8125298 1994 Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.