Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 109
PubMed Score 173.35
PubTator Score 166.98

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

TINX Plot

Expression

  Differential Expression (10)

Disease log2 FC p
Rheumatoid Arthritis -1.500 2.4e-02
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 2.700 3.3e-05
osteosarcoma -1.256 5.8e-03
astrocytoma 1.100 4.2e-02
glioblastoma 1.200 3.8e-03
tuberculosis 1.200 5.6e-05
primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 1.045 1.1e-02
interstitial cystitis 1.200 1.9e-03
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 1.641 3.3e-03
pancreatic cancer 1.100 4.6e-03

Gene RIF (100)

PMID Text
27028892 Galectin-9 stimulated migration in human NK-92 cells by affecting F-actin polarization through the Rho/ROCK1 signaling pathway.
26891020 The integrative analysis of galectins(Gal-1, -3, -4, -9) discriminated IBD from other intestinal inflammatory conditions and could be used as potential mucosal biomarker.
26823850 The expression of Galectin-9 mRNA has a close relationship with pathological differentiation, tumor staging, and recurrence metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma
26797414 Gal-9 suppresses the growth of GBC, possibly by inducing apoptosis and altering miRNA expression
26663989 Gal-9 suppressed T-helper 17 (Th17) and expanded regulatory T cells (Tregs), resulting in decreased IL-17 production and increased secretion of TGF-beta1
26582205 These results indicate the possibility that cooperative binding of oligosaccharide and neighboring polypeptide structures of monoclonal IgE to galectin-9 affects the overall affinity and specificity of the IgE-lectin interaction.
26475932 may contribute to elevated galectin-9 and adaptive immune inhibition in hepatitis C virus infection
26342682 an abnormal Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway was able to facilitate the development of preeclampsia.
26279267 TIM-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), constitute an autocrine loop critical for leukemic stem cells self-renewal and development of human acute myeloid leukemia.
26260906 These findings suggest that Gal-9 can be a candidate of therapeutic target in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma
26239725 We also observed that the Gal-9/miR-22 axis may influence lymphocyte apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation. These studies contribute to a further understanding of the microRNAmediated regulation of the Gal-9 pathway .
26239720 Study found that LGALS9 was expressed in 68.4% of the human gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and Tim-3 in the infiltrated NK cells of 68.4% of GISTs and suggest that Tim-3/LGALS9 pathway may be involved in the immune checkpoint mechanism of GISTs.
26086204 LGALS9/galectin-9 induces fatal frustrated autophagy in KRAS mutant colon carcinoma that depends on elevated basal autophagic flux
25956455 the increased expression may be helpful to differentiate of oral squamous cell carcinoma from oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus
25947381 T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and the Lck kinase were required for Ca(2+) mobilization but not for apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells.
25880730 Galectin-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease.Graves' disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells.
25823465 Results show that galectin-9 inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest. Its antitumor effect is mediated by miR1246.
25784621 Participation of TIM-3 and its ligand (galectin-9) in the pathogenesis of active generalized vitiligo
25754930 Data show that dengue virus (DV) infection specifically increased mRNA and protein levels of galectin-9 (Gal-9).
25716202 Gal-9 expression is a potential independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma
25578313 The Gal-9/Tim-3 signal is important for the regulation of decidua NK cells function, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy.
25259711 current study confirms the prognostic value of galectin-1 and identifies galectin-9Delta5 as novel potential prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC.
25135732 It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA.
25091272 Tim-3/Gal-9 interaction favors apoptosis of MBP-specific T lymphocytes in benign multiple sclerosis; this process is reduced in PPMS by the up-regulation of Bat3
25008927 Human cytomegalovirus upregulates expression of the lectin galectin 9 via induction of beta interferon.
24976296 PPARG inhibits cell invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through upregulation of galectin-9 in vitro and in vivo.
24958847 action of agonist anti-4-1BB in suppressing autoimmune and allergic inflammation was completely dependent on Galectin-9 (Gal-9). Gal-9 directly bound to 4-1BB, in a site distinct from the binding site of antibodies and the natural ligand of 4-1BB
24919464 Results strongly suggest that Gal-9 is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.
24895689 two novel genes, galectin 9 and PINCH, were expressed at much higher levels in cancerous lesions than in normal tissues in all the patients with clear-cell carcinoma who were examined
24861051 We have previously reported on the role of galectin-1 and -9 in endothelial cell function. Here, we review the current knowledge of these two galectins in endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis.
24859692 Results suggest that galectin-3, -4, -7 and -9 could be involved in the biology of inverted papillomas.
24786365 Gal-9 as a novel component of the first wave of the cytokine storm in acute HIV infection that is sustained at elevated levels in virally suppressed subjects
24716948 The expression of E-cadherin in OSCC was significantly lower than the control tissues but galectin-9 expression was conversely higher.
24695077 Gal-9 production is induced by influenza virus infection in humans, making it a potential disease biomarker.
24651720 Galectin-9 expressing regulatory T cells, TIM-3+ cytotoxic T cells and NK cells could play an important role in the maintenance of healthy pregnancy.
24639110 Tim-3, which specifically expresses on LSCs, is beneficial for LSCs survival and AML progression by promoting expansion of MDSCs and differentiating into TAMs at the leukemia site
24477913 neutrophil TIM-3/Gal-9 signaling is perturbed in the CF airways due to proteolytic degradation of the receptor.
24465902 Galectin-9 reduced survival by inducing apoptosis and suppressed degranulation in HMC-1 cells, while it induced cytokine and chemokine production by these cells by activating ERK1/2.
24339967 The results suggest that expression of Gal-9 and Tim-3 in tumor cells may be a potential, independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Gal-9 and TIM-3 may play an important part in the gastric carcinogenesis.
24333696 Data indicate that endothelial cells expressed five Galectin-9 (LGALS9) splice variants.
24083426 Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations.
23967307 a ligand (Gal-9) compartment-dependent regulatory effect on receptor (Tim-3) activities and inflammatory responses via TLR pathways
23936526 High galectin 9 expression is associated with preeclampsia.
23866914 Persistent Gal-9 production might impair Tim-3 activity and contribute to natural killer cell dysfunction in chronic HIV-1 infection.
23818845 failure of CD4 T cell help during acute HCV is partially due to an imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells whereby exhaustion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells through the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway
23735749 Data show that galectin-9 induces Treg and Th1 polarization through interaction with antigen-presenting cells.
23408620 Galectin-9 impairs the function of NK cells, including cytotoxicity and cytokine production.
23339460 The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD.
23321864 Expression of Gal-9 in the lung is increased in patients with interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease and that Gal-9 may have a protective role against pulmonary fibrosis of these patients.
23242525 These results show a differential regulation of Lgals9 isoform expression during normal and pathological pregnancies and designate Lgals9 as a potential marker for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
23180819 Blocking Gal9 and T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)3 interaction in vitro contributes to control of intracellular bacterial replication in human macrophages.
23161469 HCV-infected human hepatocytes express higher levels of Gal-9 and TGF-beta, and upregulate Tim-3 expression.
23144904 CD4 T cells expressing Gal-9 on the cell surface (Gal-9(+) Th cells) secrete Gal-9 upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation.
23121677 macrophages from sputum samples of asthma patients express low levels of galectin-1 and galectin-9, favouring the exacerbated immune response observed in this disease.
23038209 Plasma levels of Gal-9 may be predictive of a severe inflammation status during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and could be a potential biomarker during acute infection.
22938412 galectin-9 suppressed metastasis of hepatocelllular carcinoma cells in multiple steps; propose that galectin-9 might be a new prognostic factor with antimetastatic potential in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
22650413 galectin-9 is expressed in majority of samples of normal epithelium, along with regular presence of keratins 14 or 19. This lectin can represent potential marker of normality in cases of studied squamous cell epithelia.
22505239 The Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway mediates T-cell senescence in Hepatitis B Virus-associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
22438246 Soluble Gal-9 interacts with Tim-3 expressed on the surface of activated CD4(+) T cells. This leads to down-regulation of HIV-1 coreceptors and up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21.
22371007 Reduced levels of Tim-3 on CD4(pos) CD25(neg) effector cells and of Gal9 in T-regs contribute to impaired immunoregulation in autoimmune hepatitis by rendering effector cells less prone to T-reg control and T-regs less capable of suppressing.
22323453 Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9.
22027828 HDAC3 regulates galectin-9 expression in endothelial cells via interaction with PI3K-IRF3 signal pathway
21717191 data suggest that TIM-3 and its interaction with Gal-9 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and may represent a potential therapeutic target
21670307 galectin-9 binding to PDI on T cells potentiates infection with HIV. We identify a mechanism for regulating cell surface redox status via a galectin-glycoprotein lattice, to regulate distinct T-cell functions
21426359 investigated the source of Gal-9 in the intestine and the mechanism by which Gal-9 modulated DC's phenotyping and sustained the T helper 2 polarization.
21263071 TIM-3 and its ligand galectin-9 are constitutively overexpressed in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cell surface, an observation further confirmed in CF patient samples; A neutrophil-dominated immune response exists in the CF airways.
21187321 the effects of galectin-9 on T cells are more complex than previously thought and are mediated by additional receptors apart from Tim-3
20574007 Overexpression of the Tim-3 ligand in Gal-9 transgenic mice results in an increase in CD11b-positive Ly-6G-positive myeloid cells and inhibition of immune responses.
20484929 the Gal-9 level correlated with the eotaxin level in patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia, but there was no significant correlation between those levels in patients with CEP
20209097 galectin-9 production by Kupffer cells links the innate and adaptive immune response in hepatitis C
20206131 galectin-9 induces osteoblast differentiation through the CD44/Smad signaling pathway in the absence of bone morphogenetic proteins.
19776007 Galectin-9 is a high affinity IgE-binding lectin with anti-allergic effect by blocking IgE-antigen complex formation
19538882 Galectin-9 isoforms regulate the E-selectin expression in LoVo cells differently and thus influence the adhesion between LoVo cells and HUVECs in vitro in different modes.
19335620 Results demonstrate that intracellular galectin-9 transactivates inflammatory cytokine genes in monocytes through direct physical interaction with NF-IL6.
19100864 The simultaneous expression of galectin-9 and Tim-3 may indicate an immunoregulatory function, during the ongoing cytotoxic response.
19005181 Nasopharyngeal carcinoma exosomes induce massive apoptosis in EBV-specific CD4(+) cells used as a model of target T cells. This effect is inhibited by both anti-Tim-3 and antigalectin-9 blocking antibodies.
18977853 the crystal structure of the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with N-acetyllactosamine dimers and trimers.
18485114 increase of TIM-3 expression on PBMCs, overproduction of IFN-gamma in the sera, and increased galectin-9 in PBMCs was observed in acquired aplastic anemia patients
18401566 Transient expression of galectin-9L decreased E-selectin levels, while transient expression of galectin-9M or galectin-9S increased E-selectin levels in LoVo cells.
18264727 decreased Gal-9 expression is inversely associated with malignant potential or differentiation of cervical cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma as a differentiation biomarker.
18258591 Galectin-9 and galectin-1 require different glycan ligands and glycoprotein receptors to trigger T cell death.
18050192 Gal-9-induced apoptosis of hyperproliferative rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes may play a critical role in the suppression of rheumatoid arthritis.
18005988 Structural analysis of LGALS9 terminal carbohydrate recognition domain reveals unexpected properties that differ from the mouse orthologue, Lgals9.
17907924 These results suggest that galectin-9, but not other galectins, induced proliferation of human osteoblasts through clustering lipid rafts on membrane and subsequent phosphorylation of the c-Src/ERK signaling pathway.
17596995 Galectin-9 represents a novel surface marker which might be employed for molecular targeting to the Peyer's patches.
17449641 TLR3, PI3K, and IRF3 are involved in the poly IC-induced galectin-9 expression in HUVECs
17446336 Gal-9 inhibits allergic inflammation of the airway and airway hyperresponsiveness by modulating CD44-dependent leukocyte recognition of the extracellular matrix
17167046 Galectin-9, consisting of two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) induced Jurkat T-cell apoptosis, however, a single CRD had no effect, suggesting the stable dimeric structure of two CRDs is required for the activity.
17156439 Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells can release HLA class-II positive exosomes containing galectin 9 and/or LMP1.
17069754 Stimulation of Tim-3 by its ligand galectin-9 results in increased phosphorylation of Y265, suggesting that this tyrosine residue plays an important role in downstream signalling events regulating T-cell fate.
16116184 Gal-9 plays a role not only in innate immunity but also in acquired immunity by inducing DC maturation and promoting Th1 immune responses.
16012760 Data suggest that galectin-9 is correlated with oral cancer cell-matrix interactions and may therefore play an important role in the metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas.
15837748 Galectin-9 is a possible prognostic factor with antimetastatic potential in breast cancer.
14758084 REVIEW: role in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions
12714580 Changes in the expressions of galectin-9 are potentially important for myeloid cell differentiation into specific lineages.
12646627 Gal-9 induces the apoptosis of various immune cells, including activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, through the Ca2+-calpain-caspase-1 pathway, playing a role not only in thymocyte maturation but also in immunomodulation by inducing apoptosis of those cells.
12421975 Galectin 9 in IFN-gamma-stimulated fibroblasts plays a crucial role as a physiological modulator at inflammatory sites.
12223516 IFN-gamma-induced production of galectin-9 by endothelial cells may play an important role in immune responses by regulating interactions between vascular wall & eosinophils. In situ endothelium from inflammatory diseases expressed galectin-9.
12115481 overexpression of galectin 9 is associated with cell aggregation and apoptosis of melanoma cells
11823532 ecalectin is a novel eosinophil-activating factor

AA Sequence

MAFSGSQAPYLSPAVPFSGTIQGGLQDGLQITVNGTVLSSSGTRFAVNFQTGFSGNDIAFHFNPRFEDGG      1 - 70
YVVCNTRQNGSWGPEERKTHMPFQKGMPFDLCFLVQSSDFKVMVNGILFVQYFHRVPFHRVDTISVNGSV     71 - 140
QLSYISFQNPRTVPVQPAFSTVPFSQPVCFPPRPRGRRQKPPGVWPANPAPITQTVIHTVQSAPGQMFST    141 - 210
PAIPPMMYPHPAYPMPFITTILGGLYPSKSILLSGTVLPSAQRFHINLCSGNHIAFHLNPRFDENAVVRN    211 - 280
TQIDNSWGSEERSLPRKMPFVRGQSFSVWILCEAHCLKVAVDGQHLFEYYHRLRNLPTINRLEVGGDIQL    281 - 350
THVQT                                                                     351 - 355
//

Text Mined References (112)

PMID Year Title
27028892 2016 Reduced Expression of Galectin-9 Contributes to a Poor Outcome in Colon Cancer by Inhibiting NK Cell Chemotaxis Partially through the Rho/ROCK1 Signaling Pathway.
26891020 A galectin-specific signature in the gut delineates Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis from other human inflammatory intestinal disorders.
26823850 2015 Expression of galectin-9 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.
26797414 2016 Galectin-9: An anticancer molecule for gallbladder carcinoma.
26663989 2015 Serum Galectin-9 Levels Are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Chinese Individuals.
26582205 2016 Cooperative Interactions of Oligosaccharide and Peptide Moieties of a Glycopeptide Derived from IgE with Galectin-9.
26475932 2016 HCV-infected cells and differentiation increase monocyte immunoregulatory galectin-9 production.
26342682 2015 Upregulation of the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway and correlation with the development of preeclampsia.
26279267 2015 A TIM-3/Gal-9 Autocrine Stimulatory Loop Drives Self-Renewal of Human Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells and Leukemic Progression.
26260906 2015 Galectin-9 suppresses cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest.
26239725 2015 microRNA-22 downregulation of galectin-9 influences lymphocyte apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation in liver cancer.
26239720 2015 Expression of immune checkpoint molecules of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3/galectin-9 for NK cell suppression in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
26086204 2015 The epithelial polarity regulator LGALS9/galectin-9 induces fatal frustrated autophagy in KRAS mutant colon carcinoma that depends on elevated basal autophagic flux.
25956455 2015 Galectin-9 as an important marker in the differential diagnosis between oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.
25947381 2015 Impact of Exogenous Galectin-9 on Human T Cells: CONTRIBUTION OF THE T CELL RECEPTOR COMPLEX TO ANTIGEN-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION BUT NOT TO APOPTOSIS INDUCTION.
25880730 2015 Graves' disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells.
25823465 2015 Galectin-9 suppresses the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
25784621 2015 Participation of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and its ligand (galectin-9) in the pathogenesis of active generalized vitiligo.
25754930 2015 Up-regulation of galectin-9 induces cell migration in human dendritic cells infected with dengue virus.
25716202 2015 Galectin-9 predicts postoperative recurrence and survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
25578313 2016 The Galectin-9/Tim-3 pathway is involved in the regulation of NK cell function at the maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy.
25259711 2014 Galectin expression profiling identifies galectin-1 and Galectin-9?5 as prognostic factors in stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer.
25135732 2014 Up-regulated expression of Tim-3/Gal-9 at maternal-fetal interface in pregnant woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion.
25091272 2014 A role for the TIM-3/GAL-9/BAT3 pathway in determining the clinical phenotype of multiple sclerosis.
25008927 2014 Human cytomegalovirus upregulates expression of the lectin galectin 9 via induction of beta interferon.
24976296 2015 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? upregulates galectin-9 and predicts prognosis in intestinal-type gastric cancer.
24958847 2014 Galectin-9 controls the therapeutic activity of 4-1BB-targeting antibodies.
24919464 2014 Role of downregulation of galectin-9 in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.
24895689 2014 Galectin 9 and PINCH, novel immunotherapy targets of renal cell carcinoma: a rationale to find potential tumour antigens and the resulting cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by the derived peptides.
24861051 2014 Galectin-1 and -9 in angiogenesis: a sweet couple.
24859692 2014 Galectin fingerprinting in naso-sinusal diseases.
24786365 2014 Galectin-9 is rapidly released during acute HIV-1 infection and remains sustained at high levels despite viral suppression even in elite controllers.
24716948 2014 Changed expression of E-cadherin and galectin-9 in oral squamous cell carcinomas but lack of potential as prognostic markers.
24695077 2014 Increased levels of plasma galectin-9 in patients with influenza virus infection.
24651720 2014 Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy: TIM-3/galectin-9 interaction and its possible role during pregnancy.
24639110 2014 Hypothesis: Tim-3/galectin-9, a new pathway for leukemia stem cells survival by promoting expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and differentiating into tumor-associated macrophages.
24477913 2014 Galectin-9 signaling through TIM-3 is involved in neutrophil-mediated Gram-negative bacterial killing: an effect abrogated within the cystic fibrosis lung.
24465902 2014 Galectin-9 enhances cytokine secretion, but suppresses survival and degranulation, in human mast cell line.
24339967 2013 Decreased galectin-9 and increased Tim-3 expression are related to poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
24333696 2014 Endothelial LGALS9 splice variant expression in endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis.
24083426 2014 Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations.
23967307 2013 Cis association of galectin-9 with Tim-3 differentially regulates IL-12/IL-23 expressions in monocytes via TLR signaling.
23936526 2013 Involvement of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway in the systemic inflammatory response in early-onset preeclampsia.
23866914 2013 Dysregulated Tim-3 expression on natural killer cells is associated with increased Galectin-9 levels in HIV-1 infection.
23818845 2013 Galectin-9 and IL-21 mediate cross-regulation between Th17 and Treg cells during acute hepatitis C.
23817958 2013 Proinflammatory stimuli induce galectin-9 in human mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation.
23735749 2013 Intestinal epithelium-derived galectin-9 is involved in the immunomodulating effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides.
23408620 2013 Galectin-9 functionally impairs natural killer cells in humans and mice.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
23339460 2013 Serum galectin-9 levels are elevated in the patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
23321864 2013 A possible role of galectin-9 in the pulmonary fibrosis of patients with interstitial pneumonia.
23242525 2013 Profiling Lgals9 splice variant expression at the fetal-maternal interface: implications in normal and pathological human pregnancy.
23180819 2012 The Tim3-galectin 9 pathway induces antibacterial activity in human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
23161469 2013 HCV-infected hepatocytes drive CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell development through the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway.
23144904 2012 Cell surface galectin-9 expressing Th cells regulate Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg development by galectin-9 secretion.
23128233 2012 Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
23121677 2012 Reduced expression of galectin-1 and galectin-9 by leucocytes in asthma patients.
23038209 2012 Rapid decrease of plasma galectin-9 levels in patients with acute HIV infection after therapy.
22938412 2012 Galectin-9 acts as a prognostic factor with antimetastatic potential in hepatocellular carcinoma.
22650413 2013 Loss of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-9 from squamous cell epithelium in head and neck carcinomas.
22505239 2012 Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway mediates T-cell dysfunction and predicts poor prognosis in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
22438246 2012 Galectin-9 binding to Tim-3 renders activated human CD4+ T cells less susceptible to HIV-1 infection.
22371007 2012 The impaired immune regulation of autoimmune hepatitis is linked to a defective galectin-9/tim-3 pathway.
22323453 2012 Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9.
22027828 2011 Galectin-9 protein expression in endothelial cells is positively regulated by histone deacetylase 3.
21717191 2012 Underexpression of TIM-3 and blunted galectin-9-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in rheumatoid arthritis.
21670307 2011 Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance T-cell migration and HIV entry.
21426359 2011 Intestinal epithelial cells express galectin-9 in patients with food allergy that plays a critical role in sustaining allergic status in mouse intestine.
21263071 2011 Dysregulation of TIM-3-galectin-9 pathway in the cystic fibrosis airways.
21187321 2011 Galectin-9 regulates T helper cell function independently of Tim-3.
20861009 2010 X-ray structures of human galectin-9 C-terminal domain in complexes with a biantennary oligosaccharide and sialyllactose.
20574007 2010 Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway: regulation of Th1 immunity through promotion of CD11b+Ly-6G+ myeloid cells.
20484929 2010 Involvement of galectin-9 in lung eosinophilia in patients with eosinophilic pneumonia.
20209097 2010 A crucial role for Kupffer cell-derived galectin-9 in regulation of T cell immunity in hepatitis C infection.
20206131 2010 Galectin-9 induces osteoblast differentiation through the CD44/Smad signaling pathway.
19776007 2009 Galectin-9 is a high affinity IgE-binding lectin with anti-allergic effect by blocking IgE-antigen complex formation.
19538882 2009 [Galectin-9 isoforms influence the adhesion between colon carcinoma LoVo cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro by regulating the expression of E-selectin in LoVo cells].
19335620 2009 Intracellular galectin-9 activates inflammatory cytokines in monocytes.
19100864 2009 Detection of the Tim-3 ligand, galectin-9, inside the allograft during a rejection episode.
19005181 2009 Blood diffusion and Th1-suppressive effects of galectin-9-containing exosomes released by Epstein-Barr virus-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
18977853 2009 Structural analysis of the recognition mechanism of poly-N-acetyllactosamine by the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain.
18485114 2008 Increased T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 and its ligand in acquired aplastic anemia.
18401566 2009 Different roles of galectin-9 isoforms in modulating E-selectin expression and adhesion function in LoVo colon carcinoma cells.
18264727 2008 Galectin-9 expression links to malignant potential of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
18258591 2008 Structural features of galectin-9 and galectin-1 that determine distinct T cell death pathways.
18050192 2007 Beneficial effect of galectin 9 on rheumatoid arthritis by induction of apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts.
18005988 2008 Structural analysis of the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain reveals unexpected properties that differ from the mouse orthologue.
17907924 2008 Interaction of galectin-9 with lipid rafts induces osteoblast proliferation through the c-Src/ERK signaling pathway.
17596995 2007 Reversible differentiation of Caco-2 cells reveals galectin-9 as a surface marker molecule for human follicle-associated epithelia and M cell-like cells.
17449641 2007 Double-stranded RNA induces galectin-9 in vascular endothelial cells: involvement of TLR3, PI3K, and IRF3 pathway.
17446336 2007 Galectin-9 inhibits CD44-hyaluronan interaction and suppresses a murine model of allergic asthma.
17167046 2007 Characterization of galectin-9-induced death of Jurkat T cells.
17156439 2006 Exosomes released by EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells convey the viral latent membrane protein 1 and the immunomodulatory protein galectin 9.
17069754 2006 A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9.
16625196 2006 DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
16286920 2005 The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity.
16116184 2005 Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
16012760 2005 Galectin-9 as a regulator of cellular adhesion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
15837748 2005 Galectin-9 as a prognostic factor with antimetastatic potential in breast cancer.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14758084 2004 Galectin-9 in physiological and pathological conditions.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12761501 2003 Large-scale identification and characterization of human genes that activate NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling pathways.
12714580 2003 Potential roles of galectins in myeloid differentiation into three different lineages.
12646627 2003 Galectin-9 induces apoptosis through the calcium-calpain-caspase-1 pathway.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12421975 2002 Selective eosinophil adhesion to fibroblast via IFN-gamma-induced galectin-9.
12223516 2002 Interferon-gamma stimulates the expression of galectin-9 in cultured human endothelial cells.
9642261 1998 Human ecalectin, a variant of human galectin-9, is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes.
9045665 1997 Molecular definition of a novel human galectin which is immunogenic in patients with Hodgkin's disease.
8125298 1994 Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.