Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 76
PubMed Score 146.88
PubTator Score 151.32

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease (3)

Disease Target Count
Prostatic Neoplasms 471
Disease Target Count P-value
diabetes mellitus 1663 2.2e-03
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
Prostate cancer 172 5.987 3.0
Prostate disease 3 3.491 1.7


  Differential Expression (1)

Disease log2 FC p
diabetes mellitus 1.100 2.2e-03

 GWAS Trait (2)

Protein-protein Interaction (3)

Gene RIF (48)

26582203 glycosylation changes the enzymatic activity of KLK2 in a drastically substrate-dependent manner.
25847286 The results indicated that W-hK2 had a defect in cellular trafficking due to its misfolding and that it activated the unfolded protein response, suggesting a mechanism to explain the association of the T allele with higher prostate cancer risk.
25326387 Structure-function analyses of KLK2 establish the 99-loop as master regulator of its activity.
25153393 The differential regulation of alternative transcripts (using KLK2, KLK3 and KLK4 as models) by androgens and anti-androgens as an indicator of prostate cancers, was investigated.
25153390 miR-378 was predicted to target both KLK2 and KLK4 and downregulated levels detected in prostate cancer patients.
24711254 Alteration of cellular junctions in benign prostatic hyperplasia could contribute to the presence of luminal epithelial secreted proteins prostate specific antigen (PSA)2 and and KLK2 in the stromal compartment.
24270797 Associations observed in young, healthy men between the seminal plasma and serum concentrations of hK2 and PSA and several genetic variants in KLK2 and KLK3 could be useful to refine models of PSA cutoff values in prostate cancer testing.
24122203 we present the first evidence that KLK2 can also function as an androgen receptor modulator that may modulate cell growth after the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer
23683475 Predictions based on levels of four kallikrein markers, including KLK2, in blood distinguish between pathologically insignificant and aggressive disease after radical prostatectomy with good accuracy.
23555189 Two SNPs, in beta-microseminoprotein at and in kallikrein-related peptidase 2 at, are associated with PCA3 score at genome-wide significance level
23359319 Genetic variants at ATF7IP and KLK2 contribute to the variance of %fPSA.
22435954 TK promotes vessel growth by increasing the number of EPCs and enhancing their functional properties through the kinin B(2) receptor-Akt signaling pathway.
21178268 An exploratory study of a KLK2 polymorphism as a prognostic marker in prostate cancer was found to be less likely associated with low Gleason score morphology.
21071540 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20620409 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20460480 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20438785 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20424135 we identifiedand genotyped novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer cases and controls which verified prior associations in KLK2 and in MSMB (but not in KLK3) with prostate cancer
20424135 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20406964 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19902474 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19823874 Data show six non-synonymous amino acid or frame shift changes in the KLK3 gene and three changes in each of the neighboring genes, KLK15 and KLK2.
19558318 Combination of KLK2, 3, 13, and 14 and KLK1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, and 14 showed very strong discriminatory potential for semen liquefaction and viscosity, respectively.
19434652 PSA and kallikrein 2 transcripts in the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients during barchytherapy could serve as a predictor of biochemiacl outcome.
19423540 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19372141 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19318432 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19223501 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-gene interaction, and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)
19003994 adding free PSA and human kallikrein 2 to standard pretreatment risk-assessment models to predict biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer enhanced the AUC
18567807 Recombinant hK2 activates ERK1/2 signaling of prostate cancer cell lines, which express both PAR1 and PAR2.
18451133 The two novel ETV4 fusion partners possess as predominant common characteristics androgen-induction and prostate-specific expression.
17657743 %fPSA and hK2 add important predictive value in older men and much closer to diagnosis
17593395 role of kallikrein gene 2 and 3 variant SNPs in the etiology of prostate cancer among men of European ancestry
17593395 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17257635 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17257635 results imply that prostate cancer risk is associated with androgen receptor(AR)-CAG repeat and kallikrein-2 polymorphisms in Indian population but no unambiguous association was observed with PSA and AR-GGN repeat polymorphism
17085659 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17085659 a role for the KLK2 gene in prostate cancer susceptibility
16388506 An additional serum marker for the detection of prostatic cancer.
16152616 Measurements of free prostate specific antigen and hK2 improve on our ability to counsel patients prior to treatment as to their risk of biochemical recurrence
15643194 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12805332 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12209605 kallikrein expression in nipple aspirate fluid- ethnic variation
12124798 Characterization of androgen receptor and nuclear receptor co-regulator expression in human breast cancer cell lines exhibiting differential regulation of kallikreins 2 and 3.
11834722 The identification of unusual mRNA splice variants of the KLK2 and KLK3 genes that result from inclusion of intronic sequences adjacent to the first exon.
11130770 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (77)

PMID Year Title
26582203 2016 A Single Glycan at the 99-Loop of Human Kallikrein-related Peptidase 2 Regulates Activation and Enzymatic Activity.
25847286 2015 Trp(250) -hK2 is defective in intracellular trafficking and activates the unfolded protein response.
25326387 2014 Structure-function analyses of human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 establish the 99-loop as master regulator of activity.
25153393 2014 Analysis of androgen and anti-androgen regulation of KLK-related peptidase 2, 3, and 4 alternative transcripts in prostate cancer.
25153390 2014 Loss of miR-378 in prostate cancer, a common regulator of KLK2 and KLK4, correlates with aggressive disease phenotype and predicts the short-term relapse of the patients.
24711254 2014 Proteomic analysis of patient tissue reveals PSA protein in the stroma of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
24270797 2014 Genetic variation in KLK2 and KLK3 is associated with concentrations of hK2 and PSA in serum and seminal plasma in young men.
24122203 2014 Human kallikrein 2 (KLK2) promotes prostate cancer cell growth via function as a modulator to promote the ARA70-enhanced androgen receptor transactivation.
23936387 2013 A possible mechanism behind autoimmune disorders discovered by genome-wide linkage and association analysis in celiac disease.
23683475 2013 Predictive value of four kallikrein markers for pathologically insignificant compared with aggressive prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy specimens: results from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer section Rotterdam.
23555189 2013 Genome-wide association study identifies genetic determinants of urine PCA3 levels in men.
23533145 2013 In-depth proteomic analyses of exosomes isolated from expressed prostatic secretions in urine.
23359319 2013 Genome-wide association study identifies loci at ATF7IP and KLK2 associated with percentage of circulating free PSA.
22435954 2012 Tissue kallikrein promotes cardiac neovascularization by enhancing endothelial progenitor cell functional capacity.
21178268 2010 Exploratory study of a KLK2 polymorphism as a prognostic marker in prostate cancer.
21071540 2011 Validation of genome-wide prostate cancer associations in men of African descent.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20620409 2010 Improved prediction of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy by genetic polymorphisms.
20460480 2010 Susceptibility loci associated with prostate cancer progression and mortality.
20438785 2010 Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of childhood leukemia.
20424135 2010 Blood biomarker levels to aid discovery of cancer-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms: kallikreins and prostate cancer.
20406964 2010 Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19902474 2010 Replication of prostate cancer risk loci on 8q24, 11q13, 17q12, 19q33, and Xp11 in African Americans.
19823874 2010 A comprehensive resequence analysis of the KLK15-KLK3-KLK2 locus on chromosome 19q13.33.
19558318 2009 Association between kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and macroscopic indicators of semen analysis: their relation to sperm motility.
19434652 2009 Detection of prostate specific transcripts in the peripheral blood during brachytherapy predicts postoperative PSA kinetics.
19423540 2009 Common variation in genes related to innate immunity and risk of adult glioma.
19372141 2009 Candidate gene approach evaluates association between innate immunity genes and breast cancer risk in Korean women.
19318432 2009 Generalizability of associations from prostate cancer genome-wide association studies in multiple populations.
19223501 2009 Utility of incorporating genetic variants for the early detection of prostate cancer.
19003994 2009 Evaluation of molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen and human kallikrein 2 in predicting biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy.
18567807 2008 Prostate-specific kallikreins-2 and -4 enhance the proliferation of DU-145 prostate cancer cells through protease-activated receptors-1 and -2.
18451133 2008 Two unique novel prostate-specific and androgen-regulated fusion partners of ETV4 in prostate cancer.
17657743 2007 The predictive value of prostate cancer biomarkers depends on age and time to diagnosis: towards a biologically-based screening strategy.
17593395 2007 Tagging SNPs in the kallikrein genes 3 and 2 on 19q13 and their associations with prostate cancer in men of European origin.
17257635 2007 Is there an inter-relationship between prostate specific antigen, kallikrein-2 and androgen receptor gene polymorphisms with risk of prostate cancer in north Indian population?
17085659 2006 Variants of the hK2 protein gene (KLK2) are associated with serum hK2 levels and predict the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy.
16800724 2006 A comprehensive nomenclature for serine proteases with homology to tissue kallikreins.
16800723 2006 Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Kallikreins, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 1-3 , 2005.
16388506 2006 Three new serum markers for prostate cancer detection within a percent free PSA-based artificial neural network.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
16152616 2006 Risk assessment for biochemical recurrence prior to radical prostatectomy: significant enhancement contributed by human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) and free prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men with moderate PSA-elevation in serum.
15643194 2005 Human kallikrein-2 gene polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer.
15542435 2004 HER2/neu kinase-dependent modulation of androgen receptor function through effects on DNA binding and stability.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15203212 2004 Taxon-specific evolution of glandular kallikrein genes and identification of a progenitor of prostate-specific antigen.
15057824 2004 The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19.
14759258 2004 An unappreciated role for RNA surveillance.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12805332 2003 Single nucleotide polymorphism of the human kallikrein-2 gene highly correlates with serum human kallikrein-2 levels and in combination enhances prostate cancer detection.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12209605 2002 Ethnic variation in kallikrein expression in nipple aspirate fluid.
12124798 2002 Characterization of androgen receptor and nuclear receptor co-regulator expression in human breast cancer cell lines exhibiting differential regulation of kallikreins 2 and 3.
11834722 2002 Unusual alternative splicing within the human kallikrein genes KLK2 and KLK3 gives rise to novel prostate-specific proteins.
11745444 2001 Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), but not prostate-specific antigen (PSA), rapidly complexes with protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) released from prostate carcinoma cells.
11358513 2001 Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) as potential physiological substrates for human kallikreins hK2 and hK3.
11130770 2000 Altered frequency of a promoter polymorphism of the kinin B2 receptor gene in hypertensive African-Americans.
11054574 2000 Sequencing and expression analysis of the serine protease gene cluster located in chromosome 19q13 region.
10991942 2000 A positively charged loop on the surface of kallistatin functions to enhance tissue kallikrein inhibition by acting as a secondary binding site for kallikrein.
10969073 2000 Tissue-specific expression patterns and fine mapping of the human kallikrein (KLK) locus on proximal 19q13.4.
10773882 2000 Tea polyphenols down-regulate the expression of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
10544017 1999 Identification of three new alternate human kallikrein 2 transcripts: evidence of long transcript and alternative splicing.
10463585 1999 Identification of a novel complex between human kallikrein 2 and protease inhibitor-6 in prostate cancer tissue.
10411640 1999 Enzymatic action of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2). Substrate specificity and regulation by Zn2+ and extracellular protease inhibitors.
10391209 1999 Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes.
10386814 Measurement of prostate-specific antigen and human glandular kallikrein 2 in different body fluids.
10209959 1999 Prostatic human kallikrein 2 inactivates and complexes with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
10197620 1999 Identification of the transcriptional regulatory sequences of human kallikrein 2 and their use in the construction of calydon virus 764, an attenuated replication competent adenovirus for prostate cancer therapy.
9759557 1998 Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA): two closely related, but distinct, kallikreins in the prostate.
9428387 1998 Human glandular kallikrein, hK2, shows arginine-restricted specificity and forms complexes with plasma protease inhibitors.
9368023 1997 Serpin-derived peptide substrates for investigating the substrate specificity of human tissue kallikreins hK1 and hK2.
9042371 1997 Purification of enzymatically active kallikrein hK2 from human seminal plasma.
2824146 1987 Primary structure of a human glandular kallikrein gene.
2468530 1989 The prostate-specific antigen gene and the human glandular kallikrein-1 gene are tandemly located on chromosome 19.
1783409 1991 Localization of human glandular kallikrein-1 gene to chromosome 19q13.3-13.4 by in situ hybridization.
1726490 1991 Identification and androgen-regulated expression of two major human glandular kallikrein-1 (hGK-1) mRNA species.