Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 31
PubMed Score 171.10
PubTator Score 76.32

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

Expression

  Differential Expression (8)

Disease log2 FC p
astrocytic glioma -1.400 9.1e-03
ependymoma -1.100 1.0e-02
osteosarcoma -2.212 1.1e-06
group 3 medulloblastoma 1.700 1.2e-02
pilocytic astrocytoma -1.500 8.0e-05
Pick disease 1.200 5.3e-04
pituitary cancer -1.300 7.0e-04
facioscapulohumeral dystrophy -1.300 1.9e-02

Synonym

Accession O00198
Symbols DP5
HARAKIRI

Gene

HRK

PDB

2L58   2L5B  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (17)

PMID Text
23580416 our findings suggest that induction of the BH3-only protein Hrk is a critical step in 2-ME activation of the JNK-induced apoptotic pathway, targeting mitochondria by liberating proapoptotic protein Bak.
23192964 Diva binds peptides derived from the BH3 domain of several other proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, including mouse Harakiri, Bid, Bak and Bmf.
23090478 The BH3-only protein harakiri (HRK) is transactivated by ATF4 in severe hypoxia through direct binding of ATF4 to the promoter region.
22964433 SUZ12 promotes the proliferation of human EOC cells by inhibiting apoptosis and HRK is a novel SUZ12 target gene whose upregulation contributes to apoptosis induced by SUZ12 knockdown.
22773666 Data suggest that DP5 and PUMA/BBC3 (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis/bcl-2-binding component 3) contribute to palmitate-induced apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells via lipotoxic endoplasmic reticulum stress.
21731739 These results are used to propose a tentative structural model of how Harakiri works.
21209886 analysis of a novel interaction between Bcl-2 members Diva and Harakiri
20855536 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19641496 Aberrant 5'-CpG methylation status and loss of heterozygosity on 12q13.1 are associated with HRK expression in human malignancies, including prostate cancers, astrocytic tumors and primary central nervous system lymphomas. Review.
18037991 in response to PAHs, Ahr-mediated activation of the harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein (contains only BH3 domain), was necessary for execution of cell death.
18008329 HRK appears to be inactivated principally by promoter hypermethylation in prostate cancers and decreased expression may play an important role in tumor progression by modulating apoptotic cell death
15031724 The interaction between HRK and cellular protein p32 was studied. HRK-induced apoptosis was suppresssed by the expression of p32 mutants lacking the N-terminal sequences 74-282 and the C-terminal sequences 1-221.
14695142 HRK is a target of epigenetic inactivation in colorectal and gastric cancer
12606589 Data report that human oocytes and fragmenting preimplantation embryos possess transcripts encoding Harakiri and caspase-3.
12217801 apoptosis inducers as diverse as oncoprotein inhibitors and cell death receptor activators trigger Hrk expression via blockade of DREAM in leukemia cells
11796190 Hrk is involved in the induction of apoptosis in RGCs after optic nerve transection.

AA Sequence

MCPCPLHRGRGPPAVCACSAGRLGLRSSAAQLTAARLKALGDELHQRTMWRRRARSRRAPAPGALPTYWP      1 - 70
WLCAAAQVAALAAWLLGRRNL                                                      71 - 91
//

Text Mined References (32)

PMID Year Title
23580416 2013 Hrk mediates 2-methoxyestradiol-induced mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in prostate cancer cells.
23192964 2012 Nuclear magnetic resonance study of protein-protein interactions involving apoptosis regulator Diva (Boo) and the BH3 domain of proapoptotic Bcl-2 members.
23090478 2012 ATF4 orchestrates a program of BH3-only protein expression in severe hypoxia.
22964433 2012 SUZ12 promotes human epithelial ovarian cancer by suppressing apoptosis via silencing HRK.
22773666 2012 Death protein 5 and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis mediate the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mitochondrial dialog triggering lipotoxic rodent and human ?-cell apoptosis.
22504421 2012 Common variants at 12q14 and 12q24 are associated with hippocampal volume.
22504417 2012 Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes.
22005931 2012 Genome-wide association analysis of age-at-onset in Alzheimer's disease.
21731739 2011 Intrinsic order and disorder in the bcl-2 member harakiri: insights into its proapoptotic activity.
21666788 2011 Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study.
21209886 2010 Characterization of a novel interaction between Bcl-2 members Diva and Harakiri.
21041309 2011 BH3 domains other than Bim and Bid can directly activate Bax/Bak.
20855536 2010 Germline variation in apoptosis pathway genes and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
19641496 2008 The role of HRK gene in human cancer.
18037991 2007 Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons diminishes murine ovarian reserve via induction of Harakiri.
18008329 2008 HRK inactivation associated with promoter methylation and LOH in prostate cancer.
16697956 2006 Mitochondria primed by death signals determine cellular addiction to antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members.
16541075 2006 The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12.
15694340 2005 Differential targeting of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins by their BH3-only ligands allows complementary apoptotic function.
15031724 2004 Physical and functional interaction between BH3-only protein Hrk and mitochondrial pore-forming protein p32.
14695142 2003 Identification of HRK as a target of epigenetic inactivation in colorectal and gastric cancer.
14596824 2003 High-throughput methods to detect dimerization of Bcl-2 family proteins.
12606589 2003 Expression of apoptosis-related genes during human preimplantation embryo development: potential roles for the Harakiri gene product and Caspase-3 in blastomere fragmentation.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12217801 2002 Fas signaling and blockade of Bcr-Abl kinase induce apoptotic Hrk protein via DREAM inhibition in human leukemia cells.
11483855 2001 Underphosphorylated BAD interacts with diverse antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins to regulate apoptosis.
11331593 2001 Interleukin 3-dependent activation of DREAM is involved in transcriptional silencing of the apoptotic Hrk gene in hematopoietic progenitor cells.
11076863 2000 DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.
10075695 1999 The cell death-promoting gene DP5, which interacts with the BCL2 family, is induced during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to amyloid beta protein.
9228060 1997 Molecular cloning of a novel polypeptide, DP5, induced during programmed neuronal death.
9130713 1997 harakiri, a novel regulator of cell death, encodes a protein that activates apoptosis and interacts selectively with survival-promoting proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L).