Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 606
PubMed Score 9497.88
PubTator Score 1733.76

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

TINX Plot

  Disease (8)

Disease Target Count P-value
ovarian cancer 8491 7.8e-06
lung cancer 4473 8.1e-04
astrocytic glioma 2241 8.0e-03
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
Cancer 2346 7.763 3.9

Expression

  Differential Expression (3)

Disease log2 FC p
astrocytic glioma -1.100 8.0e-03
lung cancer 1.100 8.1e-04
ovarian cancer 1.600 7.8e-06

Synonym

Accession P01112 B5BUA0 Q14080 Q6FHV9 Q9BR65 Q9UCE2
Symbols CTLO
HAMSV
HRAS1
RASH1
p21ras
C-H-RAS
H-RASIDX
C-BAS/HAS
C-HA-RAS1

Gene

PDB

121P   1AA9   1AGP   1BKD   1CLU   1CRP   1CRQ   1CRR   1CTQ   1GNP   1GNQ   1GNR   1HE8   1IAQ   1IOZ   1JAH   1JAI   1K8R   1LF0   1LF5   1LFD   1NVU   1NVV   1NVW   1NVX   1P2S   1P2T   1P2U   1P2V   1PLJ   1PLK   1PLL   1Q21   1QRA   1RVD   1WQ1   1XCM   1XD2   1XJ0   1ZVQ   1ZW6   221P   2C5L   2CE2   2CL0   2CL6   2CL7   2CLC   2CLD   2EVW   2GDP   2LCF   2LWI   2N42   2N46   2Q21   2QUZ   2RGA   2RGB   2RGC   2RGD   2RGE   2RGG   2UZI   2VH5   2X1V   3DDC   3I3S   3K8Y   3K9L   3K9N   3KKM   3KKN   3KUD   3L8Y   3L8Z   3LBH   3LBI   3LBN   3LO5   3OIU   3OIV   3OIW   3RRY   3RRZ   3RS0   3RS2   3RS3   3RS4   3RS5   3RS7   3RSL   3RSO   3TGP   421P   4DLR   4DLS   4DLT   4DLU   4DLV   4DLW   4DLX   4DLY   4DLZ   4DST   4DSU   4EFL   4EFM   4EFN   4G0N   4G3X   4K81   4L9S   4L9W   4NYI   4NYJ   4NYM   4Q21   4RSG   4URU   4URV   4URW   4URX   4URY   4URZ   4US0   4US1   4US2   4XVQ   4XVR   521P   5B2Z   5B30   5P21   621P   6Q21   721P   821P  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (441)

PMID Text
27067779 our data suggest roles for HRAS and EGFR as drivers in a subset of poroma and porocarcinoma.
26858456 Endocytosis separates EGF receptors from endogenous fluorescently labeled HRas and diminishes receptor signaling to MAP kinases in endosomes.
26674223 Data show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) unfolds the HRAS protein i-motif.
26636543 mTOR kinase inhibitor pp242 causes mitophagy terminated by apoptotic cell death in E1A-Ras transformed cells.
26620726 We describe extensively the tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles of miRNAs in regulation of ras oncogenes in Oral squamous cell carcinoma
26617336 SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice.
26568031 Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.
26565026 Ras.GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos.
26560143 analysis of HRAS, KRAS and NRAS expression in colorectal tumor cells
26544513 Data show that Ba/F3 cells transformed with mutant HRAS protien indicated equal sensitivity towards Map kinase kinase (MEK) and mTOR serine-threonine kinase (mTOR) inhibition.
26419841 HRAS differentially influences iTBS- and PAS-induced LTP.
26413934 Expression of flotillin-1 was associated with H-Ras in breast cancer, especially in TNBC (p < 0.001).
26274561 Nanoclustering of mutant proteins in plasma membrane dictates downstream effector recruitment, MAPK-activity, and tumorigenic cell proliferation.
26253102 RAS-positive thyroid nodules, especially in older individuals, frequently demonstrate a benign phenotype.Cytologically benign nodules, even if RAS-positive, may be candidates for a non-operative observational strategy
26165597 The RAS-binding domain of human BRAF protein exhibits allosteric conformational changes upon binding HRAS.
25999467 ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS.
25914166 Strongly increased HRAS(Gly60Asp) binding to RAF1.
25902334 The data suggest a role for redox-dependent activation of wild-type KRAS through cysteine 118 in oncogenic HRAS-driven tumorigenesis.
25893378 MTH1 expression is required for effective transformation of epithelial cells by oncogenic HRAS.
25778922 NORE1A allows Ras to qualitatively modify p53 function to promote senescence.
25774517 H-Ras mediates the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on the epithelial Na+ channel
25713064 Data indicate that the farnesyl may determine small GTPase K-Ras4B function in different membrane microdomain environments.
25684575 In the presence of Raf1, the RasQ61L mutant has a rigid switch II relative to the wild-type and increased flexibility at the interface with switch I, which propagates across Raf-Ras binding domain.
25631751 We have demonstrated that clinically achievable concentrations of zoledronic acid and docetaxel cause a reduction in the prenylation of both H-Ras and Rho A and a reduction of protein movement into the membrane.
25616580 Ecdysoneless and H-Ras expressing human mammary epithelial cells form tumors in NOD/SCID mice.
25533468 Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.
25435281 human cellular models with inducible expression of c-Myc and H-RasV12 (Ras), two commonly deregulated oncoproteins operating in a functionally connected signaling network, is reported.
25267792 CARD9 regulates H-Ras activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras, which mediates Dectin-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation and proinflammatory responses when stimulated by their ligands.
25158650 acylation state of Ras proteins (H-Ras and N-Ras) controls not only their distribution between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane, but also their distribution within the Golgi stacks.
25133308 Case Report: Costello syndrome due to a rare tandem base substitution (c.35_36GC>AA) resulting in the p.G12E missense change.
25109485 RAS mutations in indeterminate thyroid nodules have a role in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma
25097040 Next-generation sequencing identified recurrent mutations in HRAS (Q61R) in 3 of 5 Inverted urothelial papilloma (IUP), described for the first time in this neoplasm.
25086355 H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.
25072932 Patients with somatic mutations, especially HRAS-mutations, have a significantly worse prognosis than patients lacking these changes
25062109 We present the case of a patient, in whom fetal tachycardia, polyhdramnios and physical characteristics led to an early diagnosis of Costello syndrome.
25026275 Data suggest that H-Ras inhibits TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis through downregulation of surface death receptors DR4/DR5.
24990945 BLT2 is markedly up-regulated by oncogenic Ras and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in response to TGF-beta in mammary epithelial cells.
24908601 In OCCS, missense mutations in HRAS were found in 10 of 79 cases (12.66%), and were significantly associated with tumor grade.
24890286 Trichilemmomas commonly harboured activating HRAS mutations.
24884338 Our study further suggests that the PLA/AT activity of H-rev107 may play an important role in H-rev107-mediated RAS suppression
24819468 Ras expression negatively regulated the TSH-stimulated CREB phosphorylation but was ineffective on forskolin-stimulated CREB phosphorylation
24696319 Oncogenic HRAS in head and neck squamous cell cancer promotes activation of ERK signaling, which in turn mediates cetuximab resistance
24684458 Somatic H-RAS mutations are restricted to a relevant proportion of sporadic pheochromocytoma.
24648519 Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation induces RRAD epigenetic inactivation, which in turn promotes glucose uptake and may contribute to ovarian cancer
24641407 HRAS mutations play a critical role in the genesis of rhabdomyosarcoma
24637993 Case Report: uniparental trisomy, as a variant of uniparental disomy, with triplication of a paternally derived mutated HRAS gene as a novel observation in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
24535843 Mutations in Ha-ras gene is associated with liver tumors.
24516166 H-Ras forms dimers on membrane surfaces via a protein-protein interface.
24454781 H-Ras gene analysis identified an hypermethylated CpG island in intron 1 that can affect the DNA-protein interaction modifying RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) activity.
24390138 activating mutations in HRAS are involved in sporadic nevus spilus that may progress to melanocytic neoplasms
24371145 Small G proteins Rac1 and Ras regulate serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5).extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) complexes involved in the feedback regulation of Raf1.
24341335 PIK3CA mutations/amplification, HRAS mutation, or PTEN loss that likely lead to PI3K pathway activation were identified in 34 of 75 cases (45%) and did not correlate with disease specific survival.
24277618 there were no significant differences between HRAS mutation positive and mutation negative cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas in terms of age, gender and outcome.
24259709 Levels of de novo HRAS mutations in the paternal germline affected by intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection.
24247240 Differences in the regulation of K-Ras and H-Ras isoforms by monoubiquitination.
24224811 Data suggest that mutations in HRAS (as seen in Costello syndrome) affect intrinsic kinetic mechanisms of HRAS and alter HRAS-binding characteristics of GTP/GDP, p120GAP (RAS p21 protein activator), and Cdc25 (guanine nucleotide-releasing factor).
24222113 HRAS mutations are associated with proliferative thyroid lesions.
24169525 Results suggest that mosaicism for oncogenic HRAS mutations may increase the risk for developing bladder cancer at a young age.
24129065 HRAS p.G12S mutation has a role in causing woolly hair and epidermal nevi
24123531 HRAS mutations confer erlotinib resistance in head and neck squamous cell culture.
24096320 293 cells transformed with H-Ras enhanced Enteric human adenoviruses replication by more than threefold.
24057668 the central role of Ras signaling in enamel formation in Costello syndrome patients
24006476 Finding of somatic activating HRAS and NRAS mutation in bone, the endogenous source of FGF23, provides the first evidence that elevated serum FGF23 levels, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia are associated with pathologic Ras activation.
24000146 These results provide evidence for a role of H-ras oncogene in the metabolic reprogramming of MCF10A cells during early mammary carcinogenesis.
23953123 H-ras is one of the genes targeted by miR-663
23934677 In silico results showed conformational changes in H-RAS that could influence its activation by Sos and phosphate binding
23918800 Data indicate oncogenic HRAS (HRAS(G12V)) as a potent mediator of SLC5A8 silencing in human nontransformed normal mammary epithelial cell lines and in mouse mammary tumors through DNMT1.
23884447 Among 30 breast tumors, 10(33%) had BCSCs with AKT1, HRAS, or PIK3CA mutations. A single mutation was detected in HRAS.Tumors in which BCSCs have defects in PI3K/Akt signaling are significantly more likely to manifest nodal metastases.
23868059 Tunneling nanotubes connecting B and T cells provide a hitherto undescribed route for the transfer of plasma membrane patches containing, for example, H-Ras from B to T cells.
23739246 Suggest that activating mutations of EGFR, HRAS, and KRAS contribute to the pathogenesis of human seborrheic keratosis.
23726918 Data suggest a treatment rationale for Src- or Ras-activated cancer.
23722551 OHT induced K-Ras degradation in breast, colon, glioma, and pancreatic cancer cells.
23648844 Data indicate that numerous proteins that are up-regulated in H-ras(G12V) transgenic rat pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are also up-regulated in human PDAC; therefore, this rat model can be used for diagnostic biomarkers for this disease.
23640968 Data suggest that HRAS mutations are associated with sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; this study in Sweden identified three new somatic mutations in HRAS exomes (G13R, Q61K, Q61R) exclusively in males with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.
23617461 beta4 integrin rs8669 genotyping may help to identify a subgroup of HER-3-negative, K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer patients who are more likely to benefit from anti-EGFR treatment.
23599145 This study identifies HRAS mutations in deep penetrating nevi. The presence of HRAS mutations and absence of GNAQ or GNA11 mutations in deep penetrating nevi suggests classification of these nevi within the Spitz rather than the blue nevus category.
23583409 study elucidates a novel correlation between the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the oncogene Ras in regulating EMT program, and expands the knowledge about the function of p53 in EMT process
23561972 These results implied that nicotinamide might be a potential therapeutic agent for human pancreatic cancer treatment through downregulating SIRT1, K-Ras and P-Akt expression.
23548900 Endomembrane H-Ras controls vascular endothelial growth factor-induced nitric-oxide synthase-mediated endothelial cell migration.
23512829 Data suggest that RAS mutations are infrequent in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome that identify subset of patients with higher WBC count and higher bone marrow blast burden.
23498955 HRas signal transduction promotes hepatitis C virus cell entry by triggering the host CD81-CLDN1 complex formation.
23496764 Wild-type copies of HRas, NRas and KRas play unique roles in the context of mutant KRas-driven tumors.
23487764 study used NMR to obtain detailed mechanistic data on RAS cycling defects conferred by oncogenic mutations, or full-length RASopathy-derived regulatory proteins
23477374 Data suggest that mutations in HRAS are relatively common (6/28 patients, 21%, p.Gln61Arg or p.Gln61Lys substitution) in subjects with partially-encapsulated or well-circumscribed follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in Boston area.
23459937 The ability of K-Ras to activate MST2 and MST2-dependent apoptosis is determined by the differential activation kinetics of mutant K-Ras and wild type K-Ras.
23429430 A correlation between the specific Costello syndrome-causing HRAS mutation and severity of medical problems in the affected individual.
23396970 Dynamic palmitoylation links cytosol-membrane shuttling of acyl-protein thioesterase-1 and acyl-protein thioesterase-2 with that of proto-oncogene H-ras product and growth-associated protein-43
23337891 Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica is best explained by a postzygotic-activating HRAS mutation in a multipotent progenitor cell that gives rise to both a sebaceous and a melanocytic nevus.
23335589 We suggest that disrupted HRAS reagibility, as we demonstrate for the p.E63_D69dup mutation, is a previously unappreciated molecular pathomechanism underlying Costello syndrome.
23324341 mutant K-Ras contributes to the maintenance of the aberrantly high levels of survivin in tumors by regulating its stability, and the ability of mutant K-Ras to induce malignant transformation is, in part, dependent on these high levels of survivin.
23317213 Mutation in HRAS gene is not associated with phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth.
23264394 Approximately 90% of medullary thyroid cancers had mutually exclusive mutations in RET, HRAS, and KRAS, suggesting that RET and RAS are the predominant driver pathways in medullary thyroid cancer.
23248241 Data suggest that EPI64A and B, which are ubiquitously expressed members of the EPI64 subfamily, inactivate Ras and certain Rabs at the periphery of cells.
23240926 The prevalence of RAS mutations in the present series of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) was 10.1%, and 17.6% when considering only RET-negative cases. RAS mutations were found in MTC tumor tissue but not in peripheral blood indicating their somatic origin
23168708 The absence of K-ras gene mutations questions its role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease in Indian patients.
23150177 HRAS T81C SNP has been found to moderately increase thyroid cancer risk with variant alleles implicated more in follicular thyroid tumors
23129805 Fendiline significantly mislocalizes K-Ras and inhibits K-Ras signaling.
23096712 The findings confirm the predominance of HRAS mutations in nevus sebaceus (NS) and provide evidence that HRAS and KRAS mutations are sufficient to cause NS without genome instability, LOH, or secondary mutation.
23096709 The results confirm a strong correlation between activating RAS mutations and nevus sebaceus.
23063714 The Ras/MEK/ERK pathway might be activated by VEGF and play a critical role in the angiogenesis of chronic subdural hematoma.
23046202 Results show that postzygotic HRAS mosaicism affects epithelial progenitor cells resulting in mutated cells with variable developmental potential. Nevus marginalis appears to be a manifestation of this.
23028055 Ras oncoproteins transfer from melanoma to T cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and subsequently induce functional effects in the adopting T cells.
23009572 The mutation frequencies of K-ras genes in Taiwanese CRC patients are very low, which may suggest that they are not the dominant factors for CRC occurrence and prognosis in Taiwanese CRC patients.
22982396 the Ras-PI3K signaling pathway targets specific epigenetic modifications in tumor cells
22926243 HRAS p.G12C and p.G12D mutations found in 2 patients with severe neonatal Costello syndrome.
22920169 possible role of K- ras mutation as an early event in the process of endometrial carcinogenesis in type 1 tumors
22909976 K-Ras mutations were present in 89 patients (32.6%).
22894707 S-nitrosylation of H-Ras at Cys(118) and the activation of Src kinase are spatiotemporally linked events of the S-nitrosothiol-mediated signaling pathway that occurs at the plasma membrane and at the Golgi.
22865907 RAS mutations are frequent events in sporadic medullary thyroid cancer.
22826122 It was concluded that extracellular kinase-mediated up-regulation of c-myc by K-Ras or B-Raf oncogenes disrupts the establishment of apical/basolateral polarity in colon epithelial cells independently of its effect on proliferation.
22800643 A novel interplay between K-ras and H-ras, with possible implications for colorectal carcinogenesis.
22798674 Upregulation of NKG2D ligands by H-RasV12 increased sensitivity of cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity
22796164 endogenous IL-1beta play a role in elastin gene upregulation and this upregulation is mediated by the Ras-ERK1/2 pathway in 3D cultures
22712795 In advanced NSCLC, the presence of K-RAS mutations identifies a subgroup of patients who do not respond to EGFR-TKI therapy.
22707223 ). Abnormal methylation of the HRAS gene may be an early event during urocystic tumorigenesis and may be further used as a cancer biomarker in bladder tissue for early diagnosis and a potential therapeutic target.
22683711 Mosaicism for HRAS c.37G>C and KRAS c.35G>A mutations was found in two individuals with Schimmelpenning syndrome.
22618666 These results suggest that rs12628 C homozygosis of the HRAS gene may be considered a potential risk factor for melanoma development in the North American population
22605333 The consequence of complex formation is a DiRas3-mediated recruitment and anchorage of C-RAF to components of the membrane skeleton, suppression of C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization, and inhibition of C-RAF kinase activity.
22589270 study examined the mutational spectra of Ras isoforms curated from large-scale tumor profiling and found that each isoform exhibits surprisingly distinctive codon mutation and amino-acid substitution biases
22584058 The GTP bound state 1 crystal structures of wild-type H-Ras together with the oncogenic G12V and Q61L mutants.
22579650 Studies indicate that mutations of TP53 and Ras proteins were found in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) cells.
22573884 H-Ras transformation promotes tumor progression by enhancing growth factor receptor signaling as a result of increased receptor macropinocytosis.
22499344 activating RAS somatic mutations leading to mosaicism result in benign Keratinocytic epidermal nevi (KEN) of the skin.
22495892 molecular, clinical, and pathological findings in patients with mutations predicting HRAS p.Gly12Val
22494971 GSK3beta plays an essential role in Ras degradation and inhibition of this degradation pathway by aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling may contribute to Ras-induced transformation in colorectal tumorigenesis
22490849 The polymorphism of H-ras and L-myc genes is not related to colorectal cancer risk, but there is a synergy between H-ras and L-myc polymorphisms in the development of rectal cancer.
22488832 Transmission of the mutation underscores its attenuated phenotype compatible with reproduction
22433386 COLD-PCR is a highly sensitive, reliable, and convenient clinical assay for H-ras mutation detection in bladder cancer.
22431868 EFVPTC 2 patients had RAS mutations.
22427690 H-Ras activity is differently regulated by the various mutant p53 categories in tumor cell lines.
22417847 we have analyzed the prevalence of somatic mutations in the FGFR3, PIK3CA, AKT1, KRAS, HRAS, and BRAF genes in bladder cancers
22367918 Activating K-ras mutation is one of the frequently encountered molecular alterations that occur in the pathogenesis of pancreaticobiliary malignancy.
22325215 Generation of cetuximab-resistance in 5-8F/Erbitux cells is associated with amplification and overexpression of the H-ras gene.
22324744 A total of 80.8% of Chinese patients with colorectal cancer show variations in microsatellite DNA, p53, APC or K-ras.
22317973 reduced C4ST-1 expression and chondroitin sulfation imbalance mediating the effects of oncogenic HRAS signaling in the pathogenesis of Costello syndrome.
22298595 Findings indicate that Ras-induced nuclear accumulation of activated MEK1/2 was reliant on downregulation of the spatial regulator Sef.
22294102 In HRAS, two hotspot mutations in codon 12 and eight new genetic alterations were detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
22266936 Genetic alterations in SMAD4 and K-ras in Serbian patients with endometrial carcinoma.
22261753 The activating point mutations of HRAS in Costello syndrome shift the balance toward the active, signal transmitting state, resulting in dysregulation of the signaling pathway.
22223432 No significant influence of age was found on the prevalence of K-ras mutation. Males with pathological changes and females with poorly differentiated tumors displayed GAT as a less common genotype compared with most other prevalence studies.
22214007 The data amassed in last several years indicate that the anti-EGFR antibody is ineffective when KRAS has mutated.[review]
22209037 EGFR and K-ras mutations frequently occur randomly in multifocal lung adenocarcinomas
22207524 Data show that MiR-181d may act as a glioma suppressor by targeting K-ras and Bcl-2.
22199277 RET mutations may have a role in medullary thyroid carcinoma, while BRAF, AKT1, and CTNNB1 do not; the role of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS mutations are not determined
22188534 Mutations in hras proteins are present in benign lichenoid keratosis.
22179043 Data show that PDEdelta activity augments K/Hras signalling by enriching Ras at the plasma membrane.
22172840 hRas mutations did not appear to be associated with urothelial carcinoma development after kidney transplantation.
22098123 The dermatological features of Costello syndrome, a Ras dysregulation syndrome, share many features with cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes. This may provide further insight into the role of Ras signalling in cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes.
22096025 Mutations of HRAS are associated with Skin tumors induced by sorafenib.
22080568 triple-negative cases had a worse prognosis for relapse and death, compared with cases with EGFR, KRAS, or ALK mutations or group B triple-negative cases
22045063 Helicobacter pylori infection may increase the expression of c-H-ras p21 early in the process of gastric carcinogenesis
21945529 At least with respect to the binding sites involving the G domain, H-Ras is an excellent model for K-Ras and probably N-Ras as well.
21943101 the HRAS G12V mutation increased cell migration and invasion, mediated by Rac1, along with the mesenchymal morphology obtained through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition
21931711 The HRAS G-quadruplexes behave as transcription repressors.
21930707 Solution structure of the state 1 conformer of GTP-bound H-Ras protein and distinct dynamic properties between the state 1 and state 2 conformers.
21850009 Our findings suggest that the HRAS mutations identified in Costello syndrome (CS) are sufficient to cause oncogene-induced senescence and that cellular senescence might therefore contribute to the pathogenesis of CS.
21841825 NADPH oxidase NOX4 is a critical mediator in oncogenic H-RasV12-induced DNA-damage response and subsequent senescence.
21834037 identification of an HRAS mutation c.34G>A, predicting a p.G12S amino acid substitution, in the surviving brother of a previously reported sibling pair with Costello syndrome and documentation of same change in autopsy material from his deceased sister
21826673 HRAS mutations and llelic loss of susceptibility loci are associated with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer.
21825040 These results suggest that mutant K-Ras acts in concert with CDK5 and its activators to increase malignant progression, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.
21808062 The H-Ras-ERK-induced and HO-1-mediated pathway could protect renal cancer cells from apoptosis.
21782855 Transformed cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway are therefore particularly susceptible to human cytomegalovirus infection.
21771097 both EGFR and HRAS mutations are rare events in the carcinogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and therefore, only a small subgroup of patients will benefit from the screening for mutations
21768877 Genetic K-ras alterations were rather low in the Tunisian population, but further study is necessary to unravel the molecular background of CRC.
21725518 A rare case of pancreatic carcinosarcoma in a 48-year-old man in which the sarcomatous component had an identical mutation (G to A transition) at codon 12 of K-ras gene.
21665306 Regulation of Double Strand Break repair by EGFR involves both the NHEJ and HR pathway, and appears to occur in most tumor cell lines regardless of p53 and K-Ras mutation status.
21607592 data demonstrate that SNPs and point mutations observed in HRAS do not change the amino acid sequence, and suggest that the mutations affecting the amino acid sequence may be a rare event in oral carcinomas of the Japanese population.
21524920 G-CSF-induced MMP-2 upregulation and invasive phenotype is mediated by Rac1.
21514184 HRAS T81C polymorphism is associated with urinary bladder cancer.
21503581 CDKN2A/ARF, RAS and TP53, but not BRAF, PTEN, MAPK2 or EGFR may have roles in rare salivary gland tumours
21480388 Data show that the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway can account for Fyn over-expression in cancers.
21473856 RASSF1A has a tumor suppressive effect as a modulator for ROS production induced by oncogenic K-Ras.
21438134 Novel ectodermal findings were noted in individuals with p.G13C, including loose anagen hair, easily pluckable with a matted appearance, different from the tight curls typical for most Costello syndrome individuals and long eye lashes requiring trimming
21411223 constitutively active H-Ras can confer resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in cancer cells
21403836 this work identifies the C-terminal HVR, two consecutive proline residues Pro173 and Pro174, as a critical domain that contributes to activation of H-Ras and its invasive potential in human breast epithelial cells.
21388064 findings show activation of H-ras by mutation plays a less frequent role than other genetic events in the development of most transitional cell tumors of the bladder in Kashmiri population
21336946 HRAS1 polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer.
21330833 Taken together, our data indicate that K-Ras mutations are relatively uncommon in cervical cancer but seem to be associated with more advanced tumor stage, increased risk of distant metastases, and poor probability of long-term survival.
21303778 Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways are abnormally activated in eutopic endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis
21281602 these data demonstrate that the activation of H-Ras and the downstream molecule Rac1 correlates with EGF-induced breast cancer cell invasion.
21264513 Cyst fluid K-ras mutation correlates with other markers of aggressive cyst behavior.
21221763 HRAS1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer.
21211511 the implication of H-Ras and NADPH oxidase-generated superoxide production in MMP-13 gene regulation by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha
21167132 miR-181a may function as an oral squamous cell carcinoma suppressor by targeting on K-ras oncogene.
21122380 The frequency of EGFR mutation in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients is higher than that in Westerners, but the frequency of K-ras mutation is quite opposite.
21120662 gene expressions were significantly higher in the cancer group and may serve as reliable biomarkers to monitor tumour development and the efficiency of therapy
21115922 Ras mutational status is associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitors in colorectal carcinoma.
21080251 There are novel p53 mutations in gastric cancer and mutation patterns of p53 and k-ras in the population of the central southern region of China.
21072204 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20937837 Conformational states of human rat sarcoma (Ras) protein complexed with its natural ligand GTP and their role for effector interaction and GTP hydrolysis.
20871217 We therefore conclude that HRAS mutation analysis may be a useful diagnostic tool to help differentiate between Spitz nevus and Spitzoid melanoma.
20865400 Ras is a key mediator of IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha activation, under normoxia.
20860430 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20848283 An association exists between TRAIL resistance to apoptosis in human pancreatic and lung cancer cell lines and G12D K-ras(12) mutation.
20828432 We show the shift of Ras into its "off" conformation, which inhibits the Ras pathway; down-regulation of Ras signaling by changes in the Ras-Raf effector interaction;& down-regulation of Ras signaling pathway by catalyzing GTP hydrolysis.
20824703 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20729618 The homozygous type of major allele TT was more frequent in GC group than ChG group, while the frequencies of heterozygous type TC and homozygous type of minor allele CC were higher in ChG group than GC group.
20729618 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20720444 The presence of a K-ras mutation in cytology specimens distinguishes pancreatic cancer frm cholangiocarcinomain this study.
20676142 Data show that p66(Shc) coordinates Ras-dependent control of proliferation and anchorage sensation.
20584693 Gene amplification and overexpression of H-ras is the major mechanism that causes drug resistance of 5-8F/Erbitux cells to cetuximab.
20583607 Mutation analysis of K-ras protooncogene in colorectal adenocarcinomas and polyps in Russian patients
20581871 HBP1 targets P16(INK4A), upregulating its expression and consequently is involved in Ras-induced premature senescence.
20581865 Abolishing the expression of cyclin D1, Cdk4 or Nek2 in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells expressing H-Ras(G12V) abrogated Ras-induced centrosome amplification.
20579853 H-ras was altered in 22% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma samples from a Serbian population. Statistical association with tumour natural history was poor, indicating high clonal heterogeneity and multiple pathways of carcinogenesis.
20569235 The HRAS1 haplotype enhanced the effect of an APOE haplotype on exceptional survival, and a LASS1 haplotype further augmented its magnitude.
20569235 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20526288 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20515613 Recent studies on the cooperative molecular mechanisms by which p53 inactivation and oncogenic Ras converge to enhance tumorigenesis.
20503341 investigation of whether HRAS is involved in development of vestibular schwannomas not associated with an underlying NF2 mutation; no potentially pathogenic HRAS mutations found; conclude that HRAS is not a common cause of vestibular schwannomas
20491778 Mutations may predict the biological nature of pulmonary adenocarcinomas and facilitate new therapies.
20489206 Leukotriene B(4) BLT receptor signaling regulates the level and stability of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA through restricted activation of Ras/Raf/ERK/p42 AUF1 pathway
20479006 X-ray crystal structure analyses of a series of mutant H-Ras and M-Ras in complex with guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate (GppNHp), representing various intermediate states of the transition, were determined.
20437058 Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)
20425820 Costello syndrome is a rasopathy caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS.
20413844 maintain colorectal cancer cell proliferation during ERK MAP kinases inhibition
20406971 Using lung cell lines expressing oncogenic K-Ras, authors show that NF-kappaB is activated in these cells in a K-Ras-dependent manner and that NF-kappaB activation by K-Ras.
20392691 Ras induces ARC in epithelial cancers, and ARC plays a role in the oncogenic actions of Ras
20375073 increased binding of DNMT3b to E-cadherin promoter region by K-Ras cause promoter hypermethylation for reduced expression of E-cadherin, leading to the decreased cell aggregation and increased metastasis of human prostate cancer cells.
20354187 JNK2 collaborates with other oncogenes, such as Ras, at multiple molecular levels to promote tumorigenesis
20188103 Oncogenic K-Ras and its effector Raf1 convert death receptors into invasion-inducing receptors by suppressing the ROCK/LIM kinase pathway, and this is essential for K-Ras/Raf1-driven metastasis formation.
20184776 In Chinese patients with CRC, EGFR mutations were rare, and K-ras mutations were similar to those of Europeans.
20173673 The present study suggests that the single-clonal convergence of K-ras mutation is associated with the malignant progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.
20150643 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20147967 The identification of mutations outwith previously described hotspot codons increases the K-Ras mutation burden in colorectal tumours by one-third.
20108024 Features of KRAS mutations in lung cancer and contrast these with the features of EGFR mutations.
20046837 p19 induces FOXO1 that in combination with the G1/S phase delay and hypophosphorylation of both Akt and p70SK6 leads to maintenance of a reversible cellular quiescence state, thereby preventing entry into apoptosis.
20042089 Exogenous expression of RASSF1A is able to induce growth inhibition effect and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines, and this effect could be enhanced by activated K-Ras.
20038817 loss of BRCA1 function may contribute to the aggressiveness of Ras-MAPK driven breast cancer with associated increase in levels of cyclin D1 and c-myc, enhanced MAPK activity, angiogenic potential & invasiveness
20012784 Screening for BRAF, RET, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS mutations, as well as RET-PTC1 and RET-PTC3 rearrangements, was performed on cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis with a dominant nodule
19966300 Data show that Myc repressed Ras-induced senescence, and that Cdk2 interacted with Myc at promoters, where it affected Myc-dependent regulation of genes, including those of proteins known to control senescence.
19936293 H-ras expression in immortalized keratinocytes produces an invasive epithelium in cultured skin equivalents
19890398 RAS enables DNA damage- and p53-dependent differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells in response to chemotherapy
19888426 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19855428 Silencing of the Lats2 tumor suppressor overrides a p53-dependent oncogenic stress checkpoint and enables mutant H-Ras-driven cell transformation.
19855393 A single cellular event for mutations arising in male germ cells that show a paternal age effect; screening of 30 spermatocytic seminomas for oncogenic mutations in 17 genes identified 2 mutations in FGFR3 and 5 mutations in HRAS.
19849697 HRAS codon 12 mutation is not a very common event in actinic keratosis or nonmelanoma skin cancers
19815050 Data suggest that investigation of the mechanisms of abnormal RAS and phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway activation in erythroblasts may contribute to the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PV.
19802012 Results show a cooperative relationship between the expression of Ras and loss of RB in providing a discrete proliferative advantage under physiologically relevant conditions.
19802010 Data show that conversion of Ras-expressing keratinocytes from a premalignant to malignant state induced by decreasing E-cadherin function was associated with and required an approximately two to threefold decrease in RalA expression.
19787272 We noted statistically significant difference in genotype distribution at hexanucleotide locus and at SNP 81 T>C between healthy population and colon cancer patients
19787260 the organophosphorous pesticides parathion and malathion induced malignant transformation of breast cells through genomic instability altering p53 and c-Ha-ras
19752775 Data show that significant K-ras mutation occurs most frequently in the pancreatobiliary regions of patients with AIP.
19723872 Findings show that JNK is necessary for oncogenic H-ras-induced, caspase-independent cell death, and that both PI3K and Rac1 activities are required for JNK activation and cell death.
19681119 Investigated the prevalence of PTPN11, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 mutations in a relatively large cohort of primary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumors. HRAS and KRAS were found to be rarely mutated.
19638615 Data show that in the presence of negative feedback, changes in the rate of Ras-c-Raf binding have little effect on ERK activation.
19638574 Sorafenib inhibits NSCLC cell growth by targeting B-RAF in cells with wild-type KRAS and C-RAF in those with mutant KRAS.
19628422 results suggest that RAS is an important member in the PI3K-AKT signaling and could play an important role in the tumorigenesis of oral carcinoma.
19628422 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19596959 KRAS does not seem an "a priori" negative factor for TKI-based treatment of NSCLC
19543317 BMI1 collaborates with H-RAS to induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with the unusual occurrence of brain metastasis.
19494114 DEP-1 inhibits the RAS pathway by direct dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases
19487299 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19443408 The median pancreatic cancer survival in K-ras positive group was 7.0+/-2.4 months and in K-ras negative group was 10.0+/-0.6 months
19438459 HRAS mutation may be a marker of Spitz naevus
19420344 Mutation E17K/AKT1 was not detected in the 24 samples of retinoblastoma analyzed. K-RAS mutations were identified in two samples. There were no mutations in any of the other genes analyzed.
19406145 Chronic NF-kappaB activation delays RasV12-induced premature senescence of human fibroblasts by suppressing the DNA damage checkpoint response.
19369630 K-ras, EGFR, and BRAF mutations are disproportionately seen in adenocarcinomas of lung with a dominant micropapillary growth pattern compared with conventional adenocarcinoma in our institutional experience.
19351817 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19347028 Study provides evidence that p53, binding with Snail, is exported from a K-Ras-mutated cell through a vesicle transport-like mechanism, independently using a p53-nuclear-exporting mechanism.
19326463 Alcohol consumption is weakly associated with an increased risk of having a K-ras mutated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
19303097 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19295453 Data show that the combination with CA 19-9 assay is useful for detection and prognostic evaluation of pancreatic carcinoma.
19289583 K-ras mutations, significantly associated with the mucin-secreting type of adenocarcinoma, consistently predict lack of response in white patients
19276157 EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status is predictive for clinical response to matuzumab +/- paclitaxel in patients with advanced NSCLC.
19254697 These findings support the hypothesis that the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk pathway may be constitutively active even in pancreatic tumor cells that express wild-type K-ras.
19240121 A novel regulatory mechanism whereby turnover of both endogenous and overexpressed H-Ras protein is controlled by beta-TrCP-mediated ubiquitylation, proteasomal degradation and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, is reported.
19218240 BLNK recruits active H-Ras to the BCR complex, which is essential for sustained surface expression of BCR in the form of the cap and for the signal leading to functional ERK activation
19206176 A single patient with somatic mosaicism for a Costello syndrome causing HRAS mutation is reported. The male-to-male transmission was from father to son.
19160018 Rho mediates various phenotypes of malignant transformation by Ras and Src through its effectors, ROCK and mDia [review]
19146951 p21(Ras)-mediated survival signaling is regulated by via a PI(3)K-AKT pathway, which is dependent upon both PDK1 and PKCdelta, and PDK1 activates and regulates PKCdelta to determine the fate of cells containing a mutated, activated p21(Ras).
19140325 K-RAS point mutations, and anomalies of p16-RB1-cyclin D pathway could occur before LOH on 10q23 (PTEN) and microsatellite instability during tumor progression.
19139860 Subtle deficits in inhibition and enhanced excitation evoke the interneuronal changes in the synRas transgenic mouse cortex.
19133693 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19107910 Women with the NAT2 fast acetylator genotype may exhibit a higher risk of CRC with increased occurrence of K-RAS mutation.
19107228 The Snail-p53 binding as the new therapeutic target for K-Ras-mutated cancers including pancreatic, lung, and colon cancers.
19101897 failed to find hRAS mutations in bladder tumor samples
19089619 The oncoprotein Ras is a possible mediator of Tax-induced apoptosis protection and suggest a possible role of Tax in Ras activation.
19075190 RAS mutations may play a greater role in leukemogenesis than currently believed
19064572 Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19062714 The increased accumulation of miR-143 inhibits the proliferation of transfected cells, and results in down-regulation of K-ras protein in colorectal carcinoma.
19048123 Ras transformation has at least two independent actions to disrupt E-cadherin junctions, with effects to cause both mislocalization of E-cadherin away from the cell surface and profound decrease in the expression of E-cadherin
19035362 Costello syndrome-associated HRAS mutations result in prolonged signal flux in a ligand-dependent manner
19029954 Hdm2 is expressed in pancreatic cancer cells as a result of activated Ras signaling, and regulates cellular proliferation and the expression of target genes by p53-independent mechanisms.
19021766 The secondary structure of membrane-bound, lipidated Ras is similar to that determined for the nonlipidated truncated Ras protein for the highly conserved G-domain.
19013323 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation
18922970 This study revealed S100A8/A9 genes as candidate markers for metastatic potential of breast epithelial cells.
18790720 Ca(2+) may activate Ras signaling pathway by interaction with Ras, providing clues to understand the role of calcium in regulating Ras function in physiological environments.
18783589 the H-RAS T81C polymorphism might be a low penetrance gene predisposition factor for gastric cancer in the Chinese population
18783589 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18771652 This review will summarize the chemical biology of Ras and discuss in more detail the biophysical and structural features of the membrane bound C-terminus of the protein.
18769120 transfection of a promoterless K-ras cDNA resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous K-ras in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induces pancreatic cell apoptosis
18757346 LDLs stimulate p38 MAPKs and wound healing through SR-BI independently of Ras and PI3 kinase
18724893 Occupational exposure to coking oven emissions increases expression levels of P21 and P53 proteins in peripheral white blood cells.
18683737 HRAS-shRNA could efficiently down-regulate the expression of H-ras, induce apoptosis of SACC-M cells and simultaneously inhibit cell proliferation.
18677112 Low-penetrant RB allele in small-cell cancer shows geldanamycin instability and discordant expression with mutant ras.
18676755 K-Ras mutations have a role in treatment outcome in colorectal cancer patients receiving exclusive fluoropyrimidine therapy
18660489 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18655729 k-ras may have a role in progression of rectal cancer after resection
18641685 Scribble is an important mediator of MAPK signalling and cooperates with H-ras to promote cell invasion.
18621636 Presence of K-ras mutations might be associated with lack of response to panitumumab alone and inferior survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
18577512 p21 Ras/Imp regulate cytokine production and migration in CD4 T cells
18555006 p19(ras) interaction with p73beta amplifies p73beta-induced apoptotic signaling responses including Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, increased production of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential.
18485440 RAS signalling may play an important role in neuronal susceptibility to Sindbis virus infection
18465119 Report extremely weak tumor-promoting effect of troglitazone on splenic hemangiosarcomas in rasH2 mice induced by urethane.
18454158 Study shows that SOS responds to the membrane density of Ras molecules, to their GTP loading and to the concentration of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, and that the integration of these signals potentiates the release of autoinhibition.
18425390 K-ras and p53 genes are altered in Tamoxifen-associated endometrial carcinoma
18383861 K-RAS and BRAF mutations are a frequent genetic event in our samples of sporadic papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
18355852 high frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA, HRAS and KRAS genes leads us to believe that dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Ras pathway is significant for the development and progression of penile carcinoma.
18330889 Results correlate P53 status and mutation site/type with nuclear protein accumulation, clinicopathologic variables and data on K-ras mutations and high-level microsatellite instability.
18325324 The redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by S-nitrosoglutathione.
18310288 Hras mutation is associated with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma
18296105 Some smoking characteristics, i.e. being an ex-smoker, frequency and inhalation, may be associated with risk for colorectal cancer characterized by the wild-type KRAS gene, especially in men.
18284919 Taken together, these results reveal a novel role for fad24 in the repression of NF-kappaB activity and H-ras-mediated transformation.
18247425 study reports on two patients with novel HRAS mutations affecting amino acids 58 (T58I) and 146 (A146V), respectively; both patients show many of the physical and developmental problems characteristic for Costello syndrome
18176964 K-ras mutations were detected in only one of the Hungarian cases; Eight of 19 (42.1%) Japanese cases were MSI-high (presence of novel peaks in more than one of the five loci analyzed), whereas only 1 of 15 (6.7%) Hungarian cases was MSI-high (P = 0.047
18094044 Trafficking of H-Ras was examined to determine whether it can enter cells through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE).
18077377 V12 H-Ras oncogenic signaling may contribute to anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenesis by promoting the final cleavage furrow ingression during cytokinesis.
18048363 H-Ras interacts with Spry2-binding partners, c-Cbl and CIN85, in a Spry2-dependent manner.
18042262 the results of HRAS, BRAF and MAP2K1/2 mutation screening in a large cohort of patients with CS and CFC
18039947 Four cases of Costello syndrome had an unusually severe phenotype, associated in three cases with two unusual mutations, c.35G>A, p.G12D in two cases and c.34G>T, p.G12C in the other.
18021740 These findings suggest that the activation of Ras signaling pathways promotes the generation of brain cancer stem-like cells from p53-deficient mouse astrocytes by changing cell fate and transforming cell properties.
17979197 These data show that a RAS mutation that only perturbs guanine nucleotide binding has similar functional consequences as mutations that impair GTP hydrolysis and causes human disease.
17974970 Examination of various growth-regulatory pathways suggested that Bmi-1 overexpression together with H-Ras promotes human mammary epithelial cell transformation and breast oncogenesis by deregulation of multiple growth-regulatory pathways.
17943694 Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)
17940286 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation
17912430 a potential key role for activated members of ras family genes in terms of their contribution to the development of nasal polyposis as well as to the hypertrophy of adjacent turbinates.
17767136 H-Ras mutation defines a molecular subtype of oral carcinoma with favourable outcome and unique biology
17712732 No mutations in HRAS was found in pilocytic astrocytomas.
17699159 Erf provides a direct link between the RAS/ERK signaling and the transcriptional regulation of c-Myc and suggests that RAS/ERK attenuation actively regulates cell fate
17638918 BCR/ABL-Y177 plays an essential role in Ras and Akt activation and in human hematopoietic progenitor transformation in chronic myelogenous leukemia
17635919 In contrast to C-RAF that requires farnesylated H-Ras, cytosolic B-RAF associates effectively and with significantly higher affinity with both farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras.
17601930 De novo germline HRAS (G12A) and KRAS (F156L) mutations in two siblings with short stature and neuro-cardio-facio-cutaneous features.
17518771 low rate of RAS-RAF mutations (2/22, 9.1%) observed in Spitz melanocytic nevi suggests that these lesions harbor as yet undetected activating mutations in other components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK pathway
17488404 The evaluation of a large number of actinic keratoses specimens have found a low gene mutation rate in low-graded AK lesions. p53 mutations rather than p16(INK4a) and/or Ha-ras mutations may be an early event in the development of AK to cutaneous SCC.
17428306 Study identified Crk adapter proteins, Rac1 and H-Ras, but not RhoA or Cdc42 as crucial components of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein-induced phenotype.
17412879 We identified two known activating and two novel germline HRAS mutations in four patients with an unusual form of congenital myopathy histologically charactered by an excess of muscle spindles.
17388810 The subcellular distribution of K-Ras is driven by electrostatic interaction of the polybasic region of the protein with negatively charged membranes.
17374253 K-ras mutations may play a less important role in the tumorigenesis of ovarian serous tumor of the Chinese patients.
17324647 One female patient exhibiting the distal phalangeal creases had a mutation in the HRAS gene.
17264303 Transfection of U266 cells with constitutively activated H-Ras (Q61L) attenuated ERK1/2 inactivation and dramatically diminished the lethality of statins + UCN-01 regimen.
17255356 Ras is able to promote monocyte lineage selection via PKC and PDK1.
17237388 Ras and Ral mediate BCR-controlled activation of JUN/ATF2 and NFAT transcription factors
17210246 Taken together, the observations indicate that both H-Ras(G12V) and K-Ras4B(G12V) activates non-conventional and perhaps unique effector pathways to induce cytoplasmic vacuolation in glioblastoma cells.
17196792 The activation of HRAS was inhibited by 25.1% or 81.4% in cells cotransfected with wild-type or Golgi-targeted RIG1, respectively.
17164262 HRAS mutations represent independent but cooperating events to uniparental disomy during embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma development.
17096025 Neurofibromin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human NF1 tumor cells were more resistant than neurofibromin-expressing cells to apoptosis mediated by two survival pathways: a Ras-dependent pathway, and a Ras-independent pathway.
17094109 The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by p21(ras) (Ras) has been modeled by using ab initio type quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical simulations. The minimum energy reaction path is consistent with a 2-step mechanism of GTP hydrolysis.
17018607 Activation of Ras plays a critical role in modulating the expression of both CXCL10 and CXCR3-B, which may have important consequences in the development of breast tumors through cancer cell proliferation.
16969868 Somatic mosaicism for an HRAS mutation causes Costello syndrome.
16945398 Ras expression in cervical keratinocyte cell lines containing stably replicating extrachromosomal HPV-16 consistently diminished anchorage-independent growth (AI), reduced E6 and E7 expression, and caused p53 induction in these cells.
16923573 analysis of H-RAS, K-RAS and N-RAS expression in acute myeloid leukemia
16890591 High prevalence of CIMP-high and K-ras mutations in G-LST, especially in the proximal colon, could strongly suggest that G-LST appearance is associated with a unique carcinogenic pathway.
16881968 Three unrelated Dutch patients with Costello syndrome all have the same mutation, G12S, in HRAS.
16857742 Ras and c-Myc play important roles in the up-regulation of nucleophosmin/B23 during proliferation of cells associated with a high degree of malignancy, thus outlining a signaling cascade involving these factors in the cancer cells.
16849642 Down-regulation of MIP-1 alpha was not observed following FGFR3 inhibition in MM cells with RAS mutations implicating RAS-MAPK in MIP-1 alpha regulation
16831126 The entire Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is activated by intracellular acidosis, indicating that the initiating acid sensor is found at the level of Ras or above.
16806262 These findings indicate that mechanical strain causes ROS-dependent S-glutathiolation of Ras at Cys118, leading to myocyte hypertrophy via activation of the Raf/Mek/Erk pathway.
16774944 Targeted activation of a human oncogenic-ras transgene in rat pancreas can induce carcinomas correspondent to human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
16761621 ras may be involved in early stages of larynx carcinogenesis and may be activated by other mechanisms different from mutations, such as epigenetic events
16760302 K-ras mutations were observed in 68/182 (37.4%) cases of colorectal cancer.
16738062 Review. An alternative splice form of c-H-ras, called p19ras, is a positive regulator of p73beta via Mdm2. Implications for this previously unidentified means of regulation are discussed in light of tumor suppression and are extended to p53 and p63.
16717102 histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate induces G1/S phase arrest in E1A + Ras-transformed cells through down-regulation of E2F1 activity and stabilization of beta-catenin
16645632 There is a signaling loop between Ras-dependent MAPK cascade activation and p73 function.
16644864 NF1 is a novel regulator of RAS-induced signals in primary vascular smooth muscle cells
16598313 Ras mutations were significantly more frequent in inv(16) than in t(8;21) subset (36 versus 8%, P=0.001).
16598312 Activating RAS mutation is a pivotal molecular lesion that is implicated in the pathogenesis of AML and MDS.
16573741 In 239 Thai adult AML cases, 35 RAS mutations were found in 32 cases (13%) predominantly classified as M1/M2 (53%) followed by M4/M5 (38%). Ten cases were positive for NRAS codon 12, 11 for NRAS codon 61, 13 for NRAS codon 13, and one for KRAS codon 13.
16569214 intracellular generation of NO* by nNOS leads to S-nitrosylation of H-Ras, which interferes with Raf-1 activation and propagation of signalling through ERK1/2
16552541 The IGFBP3, hRas, JunB, Egr-1, Id1 and MIDA1 genes were up-regulated in psoriatic involved skin compared with uninvolved skin.
16532025 the H-RAS 81T --> C polymorphism may induce aneuploidy through overexpression of the active p21 isoform of H-RAS
16531227 Interplay and transmission of structural information between the switch regions are important factors for Ras function. They propose that initiation of GTP hydrolysis sets off the separation of the Ras/effector complex.
16518851 Our data suggest that mutations of PTPN11 as well as RAS play a role in the pathogenesis of not only myeloid hematological malignancies but also a subset of RMS malignancies
16518842 Ras induces ErbB4 receptor phosphorylation in a non-autocrine manner and this activation depends on multiple Ras effector pathways and on ErbB4 kinase activity.
16488657 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16436505 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation
16434492 Analysus if 2502 patients with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis for NRAS mutations around hot spots at codons 12, 13, and 61 and correlation of the the results with cytomorphology, cytogenetics, other molecular markers, and prognosis.
16384911 Oncogenic RAS activity is directly responsible for OPCML promoter hypermethylation & epigenetic gene silencing. Elevation of the RAS signaling pathway may play an important role in epigenetic inactivation of OPCML in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
16356174 APC and K-ras, but not CTNNB1 mutations have roles in regulation of expression of hMLH1 in sporadic colorectal carcinomas
16286246 activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway replaced Ras once tumors formed, although other effectors were still activated independently of Ras, presumably by factors provided upon the establishment of a tumor microenvironment
16268778 Expression of constitutively active Galpha(q)Q209L in cells inhibited Ras activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway but had no effect on Ras/Raf/MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase] signalling
16268414 K-ras mutation was found in 29% of sporadic adenocarcinomas respectively and in 0% and 22% of the 9 HNPCC cases.
16264231 IL-24 is a member of IL-10 family of cytokines, and it signals through two hetorodimeric receptors, whose expression is also upregulated by ras oncogenes
16187291 We conclude that in wild-type cells, endogenous Ras does not need to be prenylated to be active.
16174078 Incidence of K-ras mutation and frequencies of COX-2 and gastrin overexpression are high in laterally spreading granular and protruded type colorectal tumors.
16170316 Germline mutations in HRAS perturb human development and increase susceptibility to tumors.
16170018 growth factor-induced, Ras-mediated changes of keratinocyte shape may be an important mechanism that determines the speed of wound epitheli
16081426 in primary fibroblasts stabilization of Ras protein by ROS and ERK1/2 amplifies the response of the cells to growth factors and in systemic sclerosis represents a critical factor in the onset and progression of the disease
16007212 studies provide evidence for the existence of human-specific mechanisms that resist Ras/MEK/ERK-mediated transformation
16005186 RIG1 exerts inhibitory effect at the level of Ras activation, which is independent of Ras subtype but dependent on membrane localization of RIG1. It may be mediated through downregulation of Ras levels and alteration of Ras subcellular distribution.
15980150 Ras activity regulates Fbw7-mediated cyclin E proteolysis; impaired cyclin E proteolysis is a mechanism through which Ras mutations promote tumorigenesis.
15963850 N-Ras(L61) transformed cells lack a G0-G1 arrest upon TGF-beta treatment due to absence of p27.
15950068 HRAS oncogene could play an important role in the development of cervical cancer, in addition to the presence of HPV, by reducing the G1 phase and accelerating the G1/S transition of infected cells
15940260 In this study, we probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms of RAS-mediated transformation.
15855817 Ras isoforms have distinct and separate cellular and subcellular distribution that may persist even in the malignantly transformed state in pancreatic disease
15831492 the mechanism for Ras-mediated down-regulation of Par-4 is by promoter methylation
15816642 K-ras mutations are found in plasma after colorectal tumor resection
15784896 reduced Ras activation in cells harbouring the Hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon
15757891 RAS-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway can sensitize cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating DR4 and DR5
15702478 We found mutations in p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in 35%, 30%, and 4% of tumors, respectively, and observed a minimal or no co-presence of these gene alterations.
15697248 Ras exists in (at least) two conformational states identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: state 2 represents the high-affinity binding state for effectors, while state 1 represents a weak binding state.
15684418 the mechanism of O2*-mediated Ras guanine nucleotide dissociation is similar to that of NO/O2-mediated Ras guanine nucleotide dissociation
15677464 H-Ras-specific activation of Rac-MKK3/6-p38 pathway has a role in invasion and migration of breast epithelial cells
15638373 No significant correlations were found between mutations in colorect cancer.
15597105 RAS appears to be a pejorative prognostic factor in terms of survival in NSCLC globally, in ADC and when it is studied by PCR.
15528212 Myc rescued cell growth inhibition induced by Ras
15320975 ras gene alterations have a specific and early role in the development of follicular type of thyroid tumors in Taiwan.
15211515 Changes in flexibility upon protein-protein complex formation of H-Ras & the Ras-binding domain of C-Raf1 have been investigated using the molecular framework approach FIRST and molecular dynamics simulations of in total approximately 35 ns length.
15202051 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15098441 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15031297 a domain of Rap1 acts dominantly on COOH-terminal lipid modification of Ha-Ras, which has been considered to be essential and sufficient for the plasma membrane localization
14767509 H-ras mutations have a role in malignant transformation of aerodigestive spindle cell carcinoma
14737103 complete loss of p53 is a prerequisite for collaborating with activated Ha-ras to promote bladder tumorigenesis
14729607 When mutated, causes hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mice.
14724641 Ras activates the MAP kinase cascade through simultaneous dual effector interactions: induction of Raf kinase activity and derepression of Raf-MEK complex formation
14693748 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
14688016 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
14662018 the human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene product does not influence the androgen-dependence of prostate carcinogenesis due to the probasin-mediated SV40 T antigen.
14576295 using fragments of the human c-Ha-ras gene containing 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-G) in codon 12, evidence for the highly complex biochemical events leading to activation of the oncogene
12915131 Results demonstrate the close relationship between Ha-ras expression level and sensitization of 5-flurouracil (5-FU)-treated cells.
12878090 Ha-ras mutations detected in HPV-induced cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and invasive squamous cell carcinoma
12838617 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
12717016 steady-state structure of the switch I region of the protein in both the inactive GDP-bound conformation as in the active GTP-bound conformation.
12668284 overexpression of PPARalpha or the c-Ha-ras transgene is not associated with the liver tumorigenesis induced by DEHP in rasH2 mice
12589428 HRAS genes are biallelically expressed in multiple fetal and adult tissues both in humans and in mice
12569357 H-Ras mutations at the binding site for the GTP nucleotide ring in a human multiple myeloma line leads to transformation and factor-independent cell growth
12540507 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12115522 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
11958689 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation
11934900 H-Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion and induces apoptosis in osteoblasts
11920220 Point mutations were identified in DNA from two of the 115 normal individuals. Both mutations resulted in an amino acid substitution at position 12 in H RAS.
11904419 molecular dynamics simulations to show that Ras, a monomeric G protein, can generate mechanical force upon hydrolysis
11788888 immunohistochemical analysis reveals a protective effect of H-ras expression mediated via apoptosis in node-negative breast cancer patients
11695563 The Tg.Ac (v-Ha-ras) mouse model was not overly sensitive and possesses utility as an adjunct to the battery of toxicity studies used to establish carcinogenic risk.
11695562 The Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse model provides a reporter phenotype of skin papillomas in response to either genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens.
11487538 Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
11303621 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
11097227 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
10748182 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation
9344703 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation
9269777 Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation

AA Sequence

MTEYKLVVVGAGGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFVDEYDPTIEDSYRKQVVIDGETCLLDILDTAGQEEYSAMRDQ      1 - 70
YMRTGEGFLCVFAINNTKSFEDIHQYREQIKRVKDSDDVPMVLVGNKCDLAARTVESRQAQDLARSYGIP     71 - 140
YIETSAKTRQGVEDAFYTLVREIRQHKLRKLNPPDESGPGCMSCKCVLS                         141 - 189
//

Text Mined References (615)

PMID Year Title
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26617336 2015 Inhibition of SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of Ras suppresses oncogenesis.
26568031 2015 Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.
26565026 2016 Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.
26560143 2015 Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance.
26544513 2015 Mutant HRAS as novel target for MEK and mTOR inhibitors.
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26413934 2016 A novel role for flotillin-1 in H-Ras-regulated breast cancer aggressiveness.
26274561 2015 Specific cancer-associated mutations in the switch III region of Ras increase tumorigenicity by nanocluster augmentation.
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26165597 2015 The RAS-Binding Domain of Human BRAF Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase Exhibits Allosteric Conformational Changes upon Binding HRAS.
25999467 2015 Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding.
25914166 2015 An attenuated phenotype of Costello syndrome in three unrelated individuals with a HRAS c.179G>A (p.Gly60Asp) mutation correlates with uncommon functional consequences.
25902334 2015 Reduced HRAS G12V-Driven Tumorigenesis of Cell Lines Expressing KRAS C118S.
25893378 2015 MTH1 expression is required for effective transformation by oncogenic HRAS.
25778922 2015 NORE1A is a Ras senescence effector that controls the apoptotic/senescent balance of p53 via HIPK2.
25774517 2015 H-Ras mediates the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on the epithelial Na+ channel.
25713064 2015 Mechanisms of membrane binding of small GTPase K-Ras4B farnesylated hypervariable region.
25684575 2015 Allosteric effects of the oncogenic RasQ61L mutant on Raf-RBD.
25631751 2015 Effects of zoledronic acid and docetaxel on small GTP-binding proteins in prostate cancer.
25616580 2015 The cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless cooperates with H-Ras to promote oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.
25533468 2015 Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.
25435281 2015 Myc and Ras oncogenes engage different energy metabolism programs and evoke distinct patterns of oxidative and DNA replication stress.
25267792 2014 CARD9 mediates Dectin-1-induced ERK activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras for antifungal immunity.
25241761 2014 Using an in situ proximity ligation assay to systematically profile endogenous protein-protein interactions in a pathway network.
25158650 2015 The differential palmitoylation states of N-Ras and H-Ras determine their distinct Golgi subcompartment localizations.
25133308 Early-lethal Costello syndrome due to rare HRAS Tandem Base substitution (c.35_36GC>AA; p.G12E)-associated pulmonary vascular disease.
25109485 2015 RAS mutations in indeterminate thyroid nodules are predictive of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
25097040 2014 HRAS mutations are frequent in inverted urothelial neoplasms.
25086355 2014 Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells.
25072932 2014 CDKN2A(p16) and HRAS are frequently mutated in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
25062109 2015 Early postnatal diagnosis of Costello syndrome.
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24990945 2014 Ras promotes transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via a leukotriene B4 receptor-2-linked cascade in mammary epithelial cells.
24908601 2014 Combined mutational analysis of RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 genes in Taiwanese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
24890286 2014 Frequent activating HRAS mutations in trichilemmoma.
24884338 2014 Phospholipase A/Acyltransferase enzyme activity of H-rev107 inhibits the H-RAS signaling pathway.
24819468 2014 Ras oncoprotein disrupts the TSH/CREB signaling upstream adenylyl cyclase in human thyroid cell.
24696319 2014 RAS/PI3K crosstalk and cetuximab resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
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24648519 2014 Ras-induced epigenetic inactivation of the RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) gene promotes glucose uptake in a human ovarian cancer model.
24641407 2014 Compound HRAS/PIK3CA mutations in Chinese patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
24637993 2015 Uniparental Trisomy of a Mutated HRAS Proto-Oncogene in Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of a Patient With Costello Syndrome.
24535843 2014 Ha-ras and ?-catenin oncoproteins orchestrate metabolic programs in mouse liver tumors.
24516166 2014 H-Ras forms dimers on membrane surfaces via a protein-protein interface.
24454781 2014 Eicosapentaenoic acid activates RAS/ERK/C/EBP? pathway through H-Ras intron 1 CpG island demethylation in U937 leukemia cells.
24390138 2014 Activating HRAS mutation in nevus spilus.
24371145 2014 Small G proteins Rac1 and Ras regulate serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5)·extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) complexes involved in the feedback regulation of Raf1.
24341335 2013 PIK3CA, HRAS and PTEN in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
24277618 2014 HRAS mutations in epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma.
24259709 2013 Contributions of intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection to levels of de novo HRAS mutations in the paternal germline.
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24222113 2013 Comprehensive survey of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS mutations in proliferative thyroid lesions from an ethnically diverse population.
24169525 2014 HRAS mutations in bladder cancer at an early age and the possible association with the Costello Syndrome.
24129065 2014 Somatic HRAS p.G12S mutation causes woolly hair and epidermal nevi.
24123531 2014 HRAS mutations and resistance to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
24096320 2014 Enhancement of enteric adenovirus cultivation in a novel Ras-overexpressing cell line.
24057668 2014 Abnormal Ras signaling in Costello syndrome (CS) negatively regulates enamel formation.
24006476 2014 Multilineage somatic activating mutations in HRAS and NRAS cause mosaic cutaneous and skeletal lesions, elevated FGF23 and hypophosphatemia.
24000146 2015 Altered glucose metabolism in Harvey-ras transformed MCF10A cells.
23953123 2013 The epigenetically-regulated miR-663 targets H-ras in K-562 cells.
23934677 2013 Functional significance of the novel H-RAS gene mutation M72I in a patient with medullary thyroid cancer.
23918800 2013 Molecular mechanism of SLC5A8 inactivation in breast cancer.
23884447 2013 Correlation of breast cancer axillary lymph node metastases with stem cell mutations.
23868059 2013 H-Ras transfers from B to T cells via tunneling nanotubes.
23739246 2014 Low incidence of oncogenic EGFR, HRAS, and KRAS mutations in seborrheic keratosis.
23726918 2013 Differential anti-tumor activities of curcumin against Ras- and Src-activated human adenocarcinoma cells.
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23706742 2013 RAS and RHO families of GTPases directly regulate distinct phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms.
23648844 2013 Twenty-one proteins up-regulated in human H-ras oncogene transgenic rat pancreas cancers are up-regulated in human pancreas cancer.
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23583409 2013 p53 Attenuates the oncogenic Ras-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells.
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23459937 2013 The differential effects of wild-type and mutated K-Ras on MST2 signaling are determined by K-Ras activation kinetics.
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23396970 2013 Dynamic palmitoylation links cytosol-membrane shuttling of acyl-protein thioesterase-1 and acyl-protein thioesterase-2 with that of proto-oncogene H-ras product and growth-associated protein-43.
23337891 2013 Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica is caused by a postzygotic HRAS mutation in a multipotent progenitor cell.
23335589 2013 Functional analysis of a duplication (p.E63_D69dup) in the switch II region of HRAS: new aspects of the molecular pathogenesis underlying Costello syndrome.
23324341 2013 Depletion of K-Ras promotes proteasome degradation of survivin.
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22573884 2012 Macropinocytosis of the PDGF ?-receptor promotes fibroblast transformation by H-RasG12V.
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22494971 2012 Ras stabilization through aberrant activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling promotes intestinal tumorigenesis.
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22427690 2012 Various p53 mutant proteins differently regulate the Ras circuit to induce a cancer-related gene signature.
22417847 2012 Mutations in FGFR3 and PIK3CA, singly or combined with RAS and AKT1, are associated with AKT but not with MAPK pathway activation in urothelial bladder cancer.
22367918 2012 Diagnostic value of K-ras mutation analysis for pancreaticobiliary cytology specimens with indeterminate diagnosis.
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22298595 2012 Sef downregulation by Ras causes MEK1/2 to become aberrantly nuclear localized leading to polyploidy and neoplastic transformation.
22294102 2012 Novel mutations of the HRAS gene and absence of hotspot mutations of the BRAF genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population.
22266936 2012 Genetic alterations in SMAD4 and K-ras in Serbian patients with endometrial carcinoma.
22261753 2012 Costello syndrome: a Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway syndrome (rasopathy) resulting from HRAS germline mutations.
22223432 2012 Differences in the frequencies of K-ras c12-13 genotypes by gender and pathologic phenotypes in colorectal tumors measured using the allele discrimination method.
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22209037 2012 Clonality status of multifocal lung adenocarcinomas based on the mutation patterns of EGFR and K-ras.
22207524 2012 MiR-181d acts as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting K-ras and Bcl-2.
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22188534 2012 FGFR3, PIK3CA and RAS mutations in benign lichenoid keratosis.
22179043 2011 The GDI-like solubilizing factor PDE? sustains the spatial organization and signalling of Ras family proteins.
22172840 2011 Association between urothelial carcinoma after kidney transplantation and aristolochic acid exposure: the potential role of aristolochic acid in HRas and TP53 gene mutations.
22169110 2011 Nilotinib and MEK inhibitors induce synthetic lethality through paradoxical activation of RAF in drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia.
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22096025 2012 Skin tumors induced by sorafenib; paradoxic RAS-RAF pathway activation and oncogenic mutations of HRAS, TP53, and TGFBR1.
22080568 2012 Identification of genes upregulated in ALK-positive and EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas.
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22045063 2012 Molecular assessment of c-H-ras p21 expression in Helicobacter pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis.
22020336 2012 p37? is a new isoform of PI3K p110? that increases cell proliferation and is overexpressed in tumors.
21968647 2012 PAQR10 and PAQR11 mediate Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus.
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21931711 2011 G4-DNA formation in the HRAS promoter and rational design of decoy oligonucleotides for cancer therapy.
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21480388 2011 Fyn is induced by Ras/PI3K/Akt signaling and is required for enhanced invasion/migration.
21473856 2011 RASSF1A suppresses the activated K-Ras-induced oxidative DNA damage.
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21411223 2011 Constitutively active Harvey Ras confers resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy with cetuximab and gefitinib.
21403836 2011 Identification of H-Ras-specific motif for the activation of invasive signaling program in human breast epithelial cells.
21388064 Activated H-ras gene mutations in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder in a Kashmiri population.
21336946 2011 Limited evidence supported the association of HRAS1 polymorphism with breast cancer risk.
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21303778 2011 Abnormal activation of Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways in eutopic endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis.
21281602 2011 Activation of H-Ras and Rac1 correlates with epidermal growth factor-induced invasion in Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells.
21264513 2011 K-ras mutations correlate with atypical cytology and elevated CEA levels in pancreatic cystic neoplasms.
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21080251 2011 Genetic mutations of p53 and k-ras in gastric carcinoma patients from Hunan, China.
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20865400 2011 Ras regulates interleukin-1?-induced HIF-1? transcriptional activity in glioblastoma.
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20581871 2010 Transcriptional factor HBP1 targets P16(INK4A), upregulating its expression and consequently is involved in Ras-induced premature senescence.
20581865 2010 The Ras oncogene signals centrosome amplification in mammary epithelial cells through cyclin D1/Cdk4 and Nek2.
20579853 2010 Cancer genes alterations and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
20569235 2010 HRAS1 and LASS1 with APOE are associated with human longevity and healthy aging.
20526288 2010 Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns.
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20503341 2010 Isolated unilateral vestibular schwannomas do not harbor HRAS mutations.
20491778 2010 Predictive advantage of a cell type classification for pulmonary adenocarcinoma coupled with data for p53, K-ras and EGFR alterations.
20489206 2010 Leukotriene B(4) BLT receptor signaling regulates the level and stability of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA through restricted activation of Ras/Raf/ERK/p42 AUF1 pathway.
20479006 2010 Structural basis for conformational dynamics of GTP-bound Ras protein.
20437058 2010 The utility and predictive value of combinations of low penetrance genes for screening and risk prediction of colorectal cancer.
20425820 2010 High incidence of progressive postnatal cerebellar enlargement in Costello syndrome: brain overgrowth associated with HRAS mutations as the likely cause of structural brain and spinal cord abnormalities.
20413844 2010 Oncogenic K-ras activates p38 to maintain colorectal cancer cell proliferation during MEK inhibition.
20406971 2010 Requirement of the NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA for K-Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis.
20392691 2010 Induction of the apoptosis inhibitor ARC by Ras in human cancers.
20375073 2010 Modulation of E-cadherin expression by K-Ras; involvement of DNA methyltransferase-3b.
20354187 2010 The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 plays a dominant role in human epidermal neoplasia.
20188103 2010 Oncogenic K-Ras turns death receptors into metastasis-promoting receptors in human and mouse colorectal cancer cells.
20184776 2010 Mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and K-ras in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer.
20178605 2010 Genetic and functional characterization of putative Ras/Raf interaction inhibitors in C. elegans and mammalian cells.
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20154697 2010 An oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade drives metastatic prostate cancer by coordinately activating Ras and nuclear factor-kappaB.
20150643 2010 Absence of oncogenic mutations of RAS family genes in soft tissue sarcomas of 100 Japanese patients.
20147967 2010 Activating K-Ras mutations outwith 'hotspot' codons in sporadic colorectal tumours - implications for personalised cancer medicine.
20108024 2010 Biological and clinical significance of KRAS mutations in lung cancer: an oncogenic driver that contrasts with EGFR mutation.
20046837 2009 P19 H-ras induces G1/S phase delay maintaining cells in a reversible quiescence state.
20042089 2009 Methylation associated inactivation of RASSF1A and its synergistic effect with activated K-Ras in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
20038817 2009 Reduced cell death, invasive and angiogenic features conferred by BRCA1-deficiency in mammary epithelial cells transformed with H-Ras.
20012784 2010 Absence of BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS mutations, and RET/PTC gene rearrangements distinguishes dominant nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinomas.
19995790 2010 Duplication of Glu37 in the switch I region of HRAS impairs effector/GAP binding and underlies Costello syndrome by promoting enhanced growth factor-dependent MAPK and AKT activation.
19966300 2010 Phosphorylation by Cdk2 is required for Myc to repress Ras-induced senescence in cotransformation.
19936293 2009 H-ras expression in immortalized keratinocytes produces an invasive epithelium in cultured skin equivalents.
19890398 2009 Oncogenic RAS enables DNA damage- and p53-dependent differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells in response to chemotherapy.
19888426 2009 Analysis of candidate genes in occurrence and growth of colorectal adenomas.
19855428 2009 Silencing of the Lats2 tumor suppressor overrides a p53-dependent oncogenic stress checkpoint and enables mutant H-Ras-driven cell transformation.
19855393 2009 Activating mutations in FGFR3 and HRAS reveal a shared genetic origin for congenital disorders and testicular tumors.
19849697 2010 Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
19815050 2009 Polycythemia vera erythroid precursors exhibit increased proliferation and apoptosis resistance associated with abnormal RAS and PI3K pathway activation.
19802012 2010 Modeling the effect of the RB tumor suppressor on disease progression: dependence on oncogene network and cellular context.
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19787260 2009 Organophosphorous pesticides and estrogen induce transformation of breast cells affecting p53 and c-Ha-ras genes.
19752775 2009 Frequent and significant K-ras mutation in the pancreas, the bile duct, and the gallbladder in autoimmune pancreatitis.
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19696784 2009 Nucleocytoplasmic transport of Alp7/TACC organizes spatiotemporal microtubule formation in fission yeast.
19681119 2009 RAS signaling dysregulation in human embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.
19638615 2009 Cell type-specific importance of ras-c-raf complex association rate constants for MAPK signaling.
19638574 2009 Sorafenib inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell growth by targeting B-RAF in KRAS wild-type cells and C-RAF in KRAS mutant cells.
19628422 2009 Detection of two novel mutations and relatively high incidence of H-RAS mutations in Vietnamese oral cancer.
19596959 2009 Dominance of EGFR and insignificant KRAS mutations in prediction of tyrosine-kinase therapy for NSCLC patients stratified by tumor subtype and smoking status.
19543317 2009 BMI1 cooperates with H-RAS to induce an aggressive breast cancer phenotype with brain metastases.
19494114 2009 Tumor suppressor density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) inhibits the RAS pathway by direct dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases.
19487299 2009 Mutational profile of advanced primary and metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers reveals distinct pathogenetic roles for BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1.
19443408 2009 Mutation status of K-ras, p53 and allelic losses at 9p and 18q are not prognostic markers in patients with pancreatic cancer.
19438459 2009 BRAF, NRAS and HRAS mutations in spitzoid tumours and their possible pathogenetic significance.
19420344 2009 PI3K/Akt pathway mutations in retinoblastoma.
19406145 2009 Chronic NF-kappaB activation delays RasV12-induced premature senescence of human fibroblasts by suppressing the DNA damage checkpoint response.
19369630 2009 Micropapillary lung adenocarcinoma: EGFR, K-ras, and BRAF mutational profile.
19351817 2009 Genetic mutations associated with cigarette smoking in pancreatic cancer.
19347028 2009 p53, secreted by K-Ras-Snail pathway, is endocytosed by K-Ras-mutated cells; implication of target-specific drug delivery and early diagnostic marker.
19326463 2009 Lifetime history of alcohol consumption and K-ras mutations in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
19303097 2009 Activation of RAS family genes in urothelial carcinoma.
19295453 2009 Follow-up study of K-ras mutations in the plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer: correlation with clinical features and carbohydrate antigen 19-9.
19289583 2009 EGFR and K-ras mutations along the spectrum of pulmonary epithelial tumors of the lung and elaboration of a combined clinicopathologic and molecular scoring system to predict clinical responsiveness to EGFR inhibitors.
19276157 2009 Molecular determinants of response to matuzumab in combination with paclitaxel for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
19254697 2009 Comparison of ras-responsive gene enhancers in pancreatic tumor cells that express either wild-type or mutant K-ras.
19240121 2009 H-Ras is degraded by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling via beta-TrCP-mediated polyubiquitylation.
19222999 2009 Reassessment of the role of FKBP38 in the Rheb/mTORC1 pathway.
19218240 2009 BLNK binds active H-Ras to promote B cell receptor-mediated capping and ERK activation.
19206176 2009 Male-to-male transmission of Costello syndrome: G12S HRAS germline mutation inherited from a father with somatic mosaicism.
19160018 2009 Rho signaling, ROCK and mDia1, in transformation, metastasis and invasion.
19146951 2009 PKCdelta survival signaling in cells containing an activated p21Ras protein requires PDK1.
19140325 [Molecular-genetic analysis of clonal intratumoral heterogeneity on colorectal adenocarcinomas].
19139860 2009 Interneuronal growth and expression of interneuronal markers in visual cortex of mice with transgenic activation of Ras.
19133693 2009 Cognitive profile of disorders associated with dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade.
19107910 2009 NAT2 fast acetylator genotype and MGMT promoter methylation may contribute to gender difference in K-RAS mutation occurrence in Taiwanese colorectal cancer.
19107228 2009 Blocking of p53-Snail binding, promoted by oncogenic K-Ras, recovers p53 expression and function.
19101897 2008 Mutations of RAS gene family in specimens of bladder cancer.
19089619 2009 HTLV-1 Tax protein cooperates with Ras in protecting cells from apoptosis.
19075190 2009 High-throughput sequencing screen reveals novel, transforming RAS mutations in myeloid leukemia patients.
19064572 2008 Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women.
19063885 2009 Regulation of growth and survival of activated T cells by cell-transducing inhibitors of Ras.
19062714 2008 [Effect of microRNA143 expression on cell proliferation in colonic carcinoma].
19054851 2008 Human protein factory for converting the transcriptome into an in vitro-expressed proteome,.
19048123 2008 Restoration of E-cadherin cell-cell junctions requires both expression of E-cadherin and suppression of ERK MAP kinase activation in Ras-transformed breast epithelial cells.
19035362 2009 Oncogenic HRAS mutations cause prolonged PI3K signaling in response to epidermal growth factor in fibroblasts of patients with Costello syndrome.
19029954 2009 Hdm2 is regulated by K-Ras and mediates p53-independent functions in pancreatic cancer cells.
19021766 2008 Secondary structure of lipidated Ras bound to a lipid bilayer.
18922970 2008 Global gene expression profiling unveils S100A8/A9 as candidate markers in H-ras-mediated human breast epithelial cell invasion.
18790720 2008 Binding of calcium ions to Ras promotes Ras guanine nucleotide exchange under emulated physiological conditions.
18783589 2008 Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: a population based case-control study in China.
18771652 2009 Membrane binding of lipidated Ras peptides and proteins--the structural point of view.
18769120 2008 A homologous promoterless K-ras cDNA targeting endogenous K-ras expression inhibits human pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
18757346 2009 LDLs stimulate p38 MAPKs and wound healing through SR-BI independently of Ras and PI3 kinase.
18724893 2008 [Effect of coking oven emissions on level of serum oxidation-reduction and peripheral white blood cellular ras P21 and P53 in coke oven workers].
18683737 2008 [Effect of shRNA-mediated silence of H-ras gene on proliferation of human SACC-M cells].
18677112 2008 Low-penetrant RB allele in small-cell cancer shows geldanamycin instability and discordant expression with mutant ras.
18676755 2008 K-Ras mutations and treatment outcome in colorectal cancer patients receiving exclusive fluoropyrimidine therapy.
18660489 2008 Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
18655729 2008 Molecular detection (k-ras) of exfoliated tumour cells in the pelvis is a prognostic factor after resection of rectal cancer?
18641685 2008 Loss of human Scribble cooperates with H-Ras to promote cell invasion through deregulation of MAPK signalling.
18621636 2008 Association of K-ras mutational status and clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving panitumumab alone.
18596699 2008 Novel type of Ras effector interaction established between tumour suppressor NORE1A and Ras switch II.
18577512 2008 p21 Ras/impedes mitogenic signal propagation regulates cytokine production and migration in CD4 T cells.
18555006 2008 p19(ras) amplifies p73beta-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway.
18485440 2008 Alphavirus production is inhibited in neurofibromin 1-deficient cells through activated RAS signalling.
18465119 2008 Extremely weak tumor-promoting effect of troglitazone on splenic hemangiosarcomas in rasH2 mice induced by urethane.
18454158 2008 Membrane-dependent signal integration by the Ras activator Son of sevenless.
18425390 2008 Alterations of the K-ras and p53 genes in Tamoxifen-associated endometrial carcinoma.
18383861 BRAF and K-RAS mutation in a Greek papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma cohort.
18355852 2008 PIK3CA, HRAS and KRAS gene mutations in human penile cancer.
18330889 2008 P53 mutations in colorectal cancer from northern Iran: Relationships with site of tumor origin, microsatellite instability and K-ras mutations.
18325324 2008 The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.
18310288 2008 Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC): analysis of fPTC/PRN, NMTC1, MNG1 and TCO susceptibility loci and identification of somatic BRAF and RAS mutations.
18296105 2008 Cigarette smoking and KRAS oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.
18284919 2008 FAD24, a regulator of adipogenesis and DNA replication, inhibits H-RAS-mediated transformation by repressing NF-kappaB activity.
18273062 2008 A novel switch region regulates H-ras membrane orientation and signal output.
18247425 2008 Costello syndrome associated with novel germline HRAS mutations: an attenuated phenotype?
18176964 2008 Genetic changes of p53, K-ras, and microsatellite instability in gallbladder carcinoma in high-incidence areas of Japan and Hungary.
18094044 2008 A unique platform for H-Ras signaling involving clathrin-independent endocytosis.
18077377 2007 Oncogenic H-Ras V12 promotes anchorage-independent cytokinesis in human fibroblasts.
18073111 2007 Transformation efficiency of RasQ61 mutants linked to structural features of the switch regions in the presence of Raf.
18048363 2008 Evidence that sprouty 2 is necessary for sarcoma formation by H-Ras oncogene-transformed human fibroblasts.
18042262 2008 Mutation and phenotypic spectrum in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous and Costello syndrome.
18039947 2008 Severe neonatal manifestations of Costello syndrome.
18021740 2008 Brain cancer stem-like cell genesis from p53-deficient mouse astrocytes by oncogenic Ras.
17979197 2008 Mutation analysis in Costello syndrome: functional and structural characterization of the HRAS p.Lys117Arg mutation.
17974970 2007 Bmi-1 cooperates with H-Ras to transform human mammary epithelial cells via dysregulation of multiple growth-regulatory pathways.
17943694 2007 Prevalence of RAS point mutations in papillary thyroid carcinoma; a novel mutation at codon 31 of K-RAS.
17912430 2007 Mutations and differential expression of the ras family genes in human nasal polyposis.
17767136 2007 H-Ras mutation modulates the expression of major cell cycle regulatory proteins and disease prognosis in oral carcinoma.
17724343 2007 Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG.
17712732 2007 Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma.
17699159 2007 The RAS-dependent ERF control of cell proliferation and differentiation is mediated by c-Myc repression.
17638918 2007 BCR-tyrosine 177 plays an essential role in Ras and Akt activation and in human hematopoietic progenitor transformation in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
17635919 2007 B- and C-RAF display essential differences in their binding to Ras: the isotype-specific N terminus of B-RAF facilitates Ras binding.
17601930 2007 De novo HRAS and KRAS mutations in two siblings with short stature and neuro-cardio-facio-cutaneous features.
17540175 2007 Binding of ras to phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110alpha is required for ras-driven tumorigenesis in mice.
17518771 2007 Low prevalence of RAS-RAF-activating mutations in Spitz melanocytic nevi compared with other melanocytic lesions.
17488404 2007 Low prevalence of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras tumour-specific mutations in low-graded actinic keratosis.
17428306 2007 Use of a novel coinfection system reveals a role for Rac1, H-Ras, and CrkII phosphorylation in Helicobacter pylori-induced host cell actin cytoskeletal rearrangements.
17412879 2007 Myopathy caused by HRAS germline mutations: implications for disturbed myogenic differentiation in the presence of constitutive HRas activation.
17388810 2007 Electrical properties of plasma membrane modulate subcellular distribution of K-Ras.
17374253 2006 [K-ras mutation analysis in ovarian serous borderline and malignant tumors].
17324647 Distal phalangeal creases--a distinctive dysmorphic feature in disorders of the RAS signalling pathway?
17264303 2007 Statins synergistically potentiate 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) lethality in human leukemia and myeloma cells by disrupting Ras farnesylation and activation.
17260967 2007 GTP binding is essential to the protein kinase activity of LRRK2, a causative gene product for familial Parkinson's disease.
17255356 2007 The role of PKC and PDK1 in monocyte lineage specification by Ras.
17237388 2007 The B cell antigen receptor controls AP-1 and NFAT activity through Ras-mediated activation of Ral.
17230191 2007 Feedback inhibition of calcineurin and Ras by a dual inhibitory protein Carabin.
17210246 2007 Activated Ras induces cytoplasmic vacuolation and non-apoptotic death in glioblastoma cells via novel effector pathways.
17196792 2007 RIG1 suppresses Ras activation and induces cellular apoptosis at the Golgi apparatus.
17164262 2007 Uniparental disomy at chromosome 11p15.5 followed by HRAS mutations in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: lessons from Costello syndrome.
17096025 2007 The tumor suppressor neurofibromin confers sensitivity to apoptosis by Ras-dependent and Ras-independent pathways.
17094109 2007 Mechanisms of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis by Ras and Ras-GAP proteins as rationalized by ab initio QM/MM simulations.
17084389 2006 Catalytic competence of the Ras-GEF domain of hSos1 requires intra-REM domain interactions mediated by phenylalanine 577.
17056636 2007 Expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum in patients with KRAS germline mutations.
17054105 2007 Diversity, parental germline origin, and phenotypic spectrum of de novo HRAS missense changes in Costello syndrome.
17018607 2006 Ras-induced modulation of CXCL10 and its receptor splice variant CXCR3-B in MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells: relevance for the development of human breast cancer.
16969868 2006 Somatic mosaicism for an HRAS mutation causes Costello syndrome.
16945398 2006 Cervical keratinocytes containing stably replicating extrachromosomal HPV-16 are refractory to transformation by oncogenic H-Ras.
16923573 2006 Detection of N-RAS and K-RAS in their active GTP-bound form in acute myeloid leukemia without activating RAS mutations.
16890591 2006 Laterally spreading type of colorectal adenoma exhibits a unique methylation phenotype and K-ras mutations.
16881968 2006 Recurring HRAS mutation G12S in Dutch patients with Costello syndrome.
16857742 2006 Ras-dependent recruitment of c-Myc for transcriptional activation of nucleophosmin/B23 in highly malignant U1 bladder cancer cells.
16849642 2006 MIP-1alpha (CCL3) is a downstream target of FGFR3 and RAS-MAPK signaling in multiple myeloma.
16831126 2006 Ras triggers acidosis-induced activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway in cardiac myocytes.
16806262 2006 Strain-stimulated hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species-dependent Ras S-glutathiolation.
16774944 2006 Ductal origin of pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced by conditional activation of a human Ha-ras oncogene in rat pancreas.
16761621 2006 Mutational analysis of K-ras and Ras protein expression in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.
16760302 2006 Patterns of K-ras mutation in colorectal carcinomas from Iran and Italy (a Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale study): influence of microsatellite instability status and country of origin.
16738062 2006 p19ras brings a new twist to the regulation of p73 by Mdm2.
16717102 2006 G1/S arrest induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in E1A + Ras-transformed cells is mediated through down-regulation of E2F activity and stabilization of beta-catenin.
16645632 2007 p73 cooperates with Ras in the activation of MAP kinase signaling cascade.
16644864 2006 Neurofibromin is a novel regulator of RAS-induced signals in primary vascular smooth muscle cells.
16598313 2006 Incidence and prognostic impact of c-Kit, FLT3, and Ras gene mutations in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML).
16598312 2006 Acquisition of JAK2, PTPN11, and RAS mutations during disease progression in primary myelodysplastic syndrome.
16573741 2006 Frequency of RAS gene mutation and its cooperative genetic events in Southeast Asian adult acute myeloid leukemia.
16569214 2006 Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-induced S-nitrosylation of H-Ras inhibits calcium ionophore-mediated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activity.
16552541 2006 Expression of genes involved in the regulation of p16 in psoriatic involved skin.
16532025 2006 H-RAS 81 polymorphism is significantly associated with aneuploidy in follicular tumors of the thyroid.
16531227 2006 Structure of a transient intermediate for GTP hydrolysis by ras.
16518851 2006 Mutations of the PTPN11 and RAS genes in rhabdomyosarcoma and pediatric hematological malignancies.
16518842 2006 Ligand-independent regulation of ErbB4 receptor phosphorylation by activated Ras.
16488657 2006 Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in H-Ras and cyclin D1 genes on oral cancer susceptibility.
16443854 2006 Genotype-phenotype correlation in Costello syndrome: HRAS mutation analysis in 43 cases.
16436381 2006 p19ras interacts with and activates p73 by involving the MDM2 protein.
16434492 2006 Implications of NRAS mutations in AML: a study of 2502 patients.
16384911 2006 RAS-mediated epigenetic inactivation of OPCML in oncogenic transformation of human ovarian surface epithelial cells.
16356174 2005 Mutations in APC, CTNNB1 and K-ras genes and expression of hMLH1 in sporadic colorectal carcinomas from the Netherlands Cohort Study.
16329078 2006 HRAS mutation analysis in Costello syndrome: genotype and phenotype correlation.
16316996 2006 The RAP1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac2 couples cyclic AMP and Ras signals at the plasma membrane.
16286246 2005 Reduction in the requirement of oncogenic Ras signaling to activation of PI3K/AKT pathway during tumor maintenance.
16268778 2006 Galphaq binds to p110alpha/p85alpha phosphoinositide 3-kinase and displaces Ras.
16268414 Microsatellite instability in sporadic and inherited colon adenocarcinomas from Greek patients: correlation with several clinicopathological characteristics.
16264231 2006 Identification by differential display of IL-24 autocrine loop activated by ras oncogenes.
16187291 2006 Prenylation is not necessary for endogenous Ras activation in non-malignant cells.
16174078 2005 Analysis of K-ras mutations and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and gastrin protein in laterally spreading tumors.
16170316 2005 Germline mutations in HRAS proto-oncogene cause Costello syndrome.
16170018 2005 Ras-induced spreading and wound closure in human epidermal keratinocytes.
16081426 2005 Platelet-derived growth factor and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate Ras protein levels in primary human fibroblasts via ERK1/2. Amplification of ROS and Ras in systemic sclerosis fibroblasts.
16007212 2005 Human diploid fibroblasts are resistant to MEK/ERK-mediated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and invasiveness stimulated by Ras.
16005186 2006 RIG1 inhibits the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by suppressing the activation of Ras.
16000296 2005 DHHC9 and GCP16 constitute a human protein fatty acyltransferase with specificity for H- and N-Ras.
15980150 2005 Ras activity regulates cyclin E degradation by the Fbw7 pathway.
15963850 2005 Oncogenic Ras blocks transforming growth factor-beta-induced cell-cycle arrest by degradation of p27 through a MEK/Erk/SKP2-dependent pathway.
15950068 Effects of HRAS oncogene on cell cycle progression in a cervical cancer-derived cell line.
15940260 2005 Proteomics analysis of H-RAS-mediated oncogenic transformation in a genetically defined human ovarian cancer model.
15886098 2005 RIN1 is an ABL tyrosine kinase activator and a regulator of epithelial-cell adhesion and migration.
15855817 2005 Expression of Ras GTPase isoforms in normal and diseased pancreas.
15831492 2005 Ras-mediated loss of the pro-apoptotic response protein Par-4 is mediated by DNA hypermethylation through Raf-independent and Raf-dependent signaling cascades in epithelial cells.
15816642 Persistence of K-ras mutations in plasma after colorectal tumor resection.
15784896 2005 Perturbation of epidermal growth factor receptor complex formation and Ras signalling in cells harbouring the hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon.
15757891 2005 Transformation by oncogenic RAS sensitizes human colon cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 through a MEK-dependent pathway.
15721486 2005 Role of Ras/PKCzeta/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
15705808 2005 An acylation cycle regulates localization and activity of palmitoylated Ras isoforms.
15702478 2005 Mutation analysis of p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in colorectal cancer progression.
15697248 2005 Conformational states of Ras complexed with the GTP analogue GppNHp or GppCH2p: implications for the interaction with effector proteins.
15688026 2005 Cooperation and selectivity of the two Grb2 binding sites of p52Shc in T-cell antigen receptor signaling to Ras family GTPases and Myc-dependent survival.
15684418 2005 Superoxide anion radical modulates the activity of Ras and Ras-related GTPases by a radical-based mechanism similar to that of nitric oxide.
15677464 2005 H-Ras-specific activation of Rac-MKK3/6-p38 pathway: its critical role in invasion and migration of breast epithelial cells.
15638373 2004 Clinical usefulness of K-RAS mutation detection in colorectal cancer and in surgical margins of the colon.
15597105 2005 The role of RAS oncogene in survival of patients with lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis.
15546861 2005 Dephosphorylation of tau by protein phosphatase 5: impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
15528212 2005 Myc antagonizes Ras-mediated growth arrest in leukemia cells through the inhibition of the Ras-ERK-p21Cip1 pathway.
15507210 2004 Structural analysis of autoinhibition in the Ras activator Son of sevenless.
15496409 2004 Toll-like receptor 2 and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 are effectors of Mycobacterium avium-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15320975 2004 Selective occurrence of ras mutations in benign and malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms in Taiwan.
15211515 2004 Change in protein flexibility upon complex formation: analysis of Ras-Raf using molecular dynamics and a molecular framework approach.
15202051 2004 Predictive factors for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis in association with K-ras gene mutation.
15187129 2004 The CD40-induced signaling pathway in endothelial cells resulting in the overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor involves Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
15098441 [Study of HRas1 minisatellite frequencies in children with thyroid papillary cancer].
15031297 2004 Identification of a novel domain of Ras and Rap1 that directs their differential subcellular localizations.
15031288 2004 Identification and characterization of rain, a novel Ras-interacting protein with a unique subcellular localization.
14767509 2004 H-ras mutation is an additional event of sarcomatous transformation in aerodigestive spindle cell carcinoma.
14737103 2004 p53 deficiency provokes urothelial proliferation and synergizes with activated Ha-ras in promoting urothelial tumorigenesis.
14729607 2004 Hepatocarcinogenesis in mice with beta-catenin and Ha-ras gene mutations.
14724641 2004 Ras regulates assembly of mitogenic signalling complexes through the effector protein IMP.
14693748 2003 The HRAS1 variable number of tandem repeats and risk of breast cancer.
14688016 2004 Polymorphisms in DNA repair and metabolic genes in bladder cancer.
14662018 2003 Lack of effect of human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene overexpression on prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats.
14622581 2003 The NMDA receptor is coupled to the ERK pathway by a direct interaction between NR2B and RasGRF1.
14576295 2003 8-Hydroxyguanine in a mutational hotspot of the c-Ha-ras gene causes misreplication, 'action-at-a-distance' mutagenesis and inhibition of replication.
14500341 2003 Alternative splicing of the human proto-oncogene c-H-ras renders a new Ras family protein that trafficks to cytoplasm and nucleus.
12970366 2003 Intersectin activates Ras but stimulates transcription through an independent pathway involving JNK.
12915131 2003 Ha-ras overexpression mediated cell apoptosis in the presence of 5-fluorouracil.
12878090 2003 Ha-ras oncogene mutation associated to progression of papillomavirus induced lesions of uterine cervix.
12874025 2003 rgr oncogene: activation by elimination of translational controls and mislocalization.
12867418 2003 Ras participates in CpG oligodeoxynucleotide signaling through association with toll-like receptor 9 and promotion of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 complex formation in macrophages.
12838617 2003 [Development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease correlates with mini- and microsatellite locus instability].
12750467 2003 Targeting Ras signaling through inhibition of carboxyl methylation: an unexpected property of methotrexate.
12748287 2003 Identification of tetratricopeptide repeat 1 as an adaptor protein that interacts with heterotrimeric G proteins and the small GTPase Ras.
12740440 2003 Structural and biochemical studies of p21Ras S-nitrosylation and nitric oxide-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange.
12732644 2003 RASSF2 is a novel K-Ras-specific effector and potential tumor suppressor.
12727991 2003 RAS point mutations and PAX8-PPAR gamma rearrangement in thyroid tumors: evidence for distinct molecular pathways in thyroid follicular carcinoma.
12717016 2003 Conformational states of the switch I region of Ha-ras-p21 in hinge residue mutants studied by fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence anisotropy measurements.
12695509 2003 H-Ras modulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function via inhibition of Src tyrosine kinase activity.
12684535 2003 The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 binds to and activates H-Ras.
12668284 2003 Overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha or the human c-Ha-ras transgene is not involved in tumorigenesis induced by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rasH2 mice.
12628188 2003 Structural evidence for feedback activation by Ras.GTP of the Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factor SOS.
12620389 2003 Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis.
12589428 2003 Biallelic expression of HRAS and MUCDHL in human and mouse.
12569357 2003 An unusual H-Ras mutant isolated from a human multiple myeloma line leads to transformation and factor-independent cell growth.
12540507 2003 A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human H-ras proto-oncogene determines the risk of urinary bladder cancer.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12379659 2003 Erbin suppresses the MAP kinase pathway.
12213964 2002 The structural basis for the transition from Ras-GTP to Ras-GDP.
12135390 2002 ADP-ribosylation and functional effects of Pseudomonas exoenzyme S on cellular RalA.
12134164 2002 Tiam1 mediates Ras activation of Rac by a PI(3)K-independent mechanism.
12115522 2002 HRAS1 variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism and risk of bladder cancer.
12034322 2002 Detection of rare K-ras codon 12 mutations using allele-specific competitive blocker PCR.
11980706 2002 The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from structure to function.
11977185 2002 Refinement and delineation of the breakpoint regions of a chromosome 1;22 translocation in a patient with Costello syndrome.
11948427 2002 SmgGDS displays differential binding and exchange activity towards different Ras isoforms.
11880369 2002 RasGRP4 is a novel Ras activator isolated from acute myeloid leukemia.
11857081 2002 The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1.
11744690 2002 Ras participates in the activation of p38 MAPK by interleukin-1 by associating with IRAK, IRAK2, TRAF6, and TAK-1.
11739523 2001 Localizing a control region in the pathway to leukotriene C(4) secretion following stimulation of human basophils with anti-IgE antibody.
11709720 2001 Galectin-1 binds oncogenic H-Ras to mediate Ras membrane anchorage and cell transformation.
11709168 2001 The Ras-Byr2RBD complex: structural basis for Ras effector recognition in yeast.
11695562 2001 The Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse: nature of the model.
11598133 2001 Nedd4 regulates ubiquitination and stability of the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor CNrasGEF.
11560935 2001 Basis for signaling specificity difference between Sos and Ras-GRF guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
11525649 2001 Differences in patterns of activation of MAP kinases induced by oncogenic ras-p21 and insulin in oocytes.
11520933 2001 Nerve growth factor signaling, neuroprotection, and neural repair.
11487538 2001 Polymorphisms and colorectal tumor risk.
11352655 2001 Electroconvulsive shock increases the phosphorylation of Pyk2 in the rat hippocampus.
11335720 2001 Prenylated Rab acceptor protein is a receptor for prenylated small GTPases.
11303621 2000 Lack of association of rare alleles in the HRAS variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region with adult glioma.
11257115 2001 Diacylglycerol kinase zeta regulates Ras activation by a novel mechanism.
11156605 2001 Human breast cancer cells generated by oncogenic transformation of primary mammary epithelial cells.
11136978 2000 Crystal structure and functional analysis of Ras binding to its effector phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma.
11097227 2000 Relationships of TP53 codon 72 and HRAS1 polymorphisms with lung cancer risk in an ethnically diverse population.
11022048 2001 Regulation of a novel human phospholipase C, PLCepsilon, through membrane targeting by Ras.
10998413 2000 Ras uses the novel tumor suppressor RASSF1 as an effector to mediate apoptosis.
10989457 Ras-induced cellular events (review).
10922060 2000 The junctional multidomain protein AF-6 is a binding partner of the Rap1A GTPase and associates with the actin cytoskeletal regulator profilin.
10891505 2000 Evidence for a telomere-independent "clock" limiting RAS oncogene-driven proliferation of human thyroid epithelial cells.
10862698 2000 Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling complexes.
10848592 2000 Involvement of Ras and Ral in chemotactic migration of skeletal myoblasts.
10848576 2000 Mapping of atypical protein kinase C within the nerve growth factor signaling cascade: relationship to differentiation and survival of PC12 cells.
10842192 2000 Increased oxidative stress with gene alteration in urinary bladder urothelium after the Chernobyl accident.
10783161 2000 The leucine-rich repeat protein SUR-8 enhances MAP kinase activation and forms a complex with Ras and Raf.
10712923 2000 The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don't fall far from the tree.
10677502 2000 Survival function of ERK1/2 as IL-3-activated, staurosporine-resistant Bcl2 kinases.
10608844 1999 RA-GEF, a novel Rap1A guanine nucleotide exchange factor containing a Ras/Rap1A-associating domain, is conserved between nematode and humans.
10574788 1999 The pre-hydrolysis state of p21(ras) in complex with GTP: new insights into the role of water molecules in the GTP hydrolysis reaction of ras-like proteins.
10545207 1999 Biochemical characterization of the Ras-related GTPases Rit and Rin.
10514505 1999 CrkL mediates Ras-dependent activation of the Raf/ERK pathway through the guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G in hematopoietic cells stimulated with erythropoietin or interleukin-3.
10504264 1999 Transient palmitoylation supports H-Ras membrane binding but only partial biological activity.
10490827 1999 Bcl-2 differentially targets K-, N-, and H-Ras to mitochondria in IL-2 supplemented or deprived cells: implications in prevention of apoptosis.
10485711 1999 NF-kappaB is a target of AKT in anti-apoptotic PDGF signalling.
10369681 1999 Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by regulating Bcl-2 expression and its cellular localization.
10212255 1999 A novel pathway for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ceramide signaling involving sequential activation of tyrosine kinase, p21(ras), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
9880516 1999 A non-farnesylated Ha-Ras protein can be palmitoylated and trigger potent differentiation and transformation.
9765203 1998 Premature senescence involving p53 and p16 is activated in response to constitutive MEK/MAPK mitogenic signaling.
9699522 1998 Presence of activated ras correlates with increased cysteine proteinase activities in human colorectal carcinomas.
9690470 1998 The structural basis of the activation of Ras by Sos.
9674433 1998 SUR-8, a conserved Ras-binding protein with leucine-rich repeats, positively regulates Ras-mediated signaling in C. elegans.
9582122 1998 RasGRP, a Ras guanyl nucleotide- releasing protein with calcium- and diacylglycerol-binding motifs.
9525745 1998 Both farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors are required for inhibition of oncogenic K-Ras prenylation but each alone is sufficient to suppress human tumor growth in nude mouse xenografts.
9488663 1998 Identification of Nore1 as a potential Ras effector.
9447984 1998 Regulation of Sos activity by intramolecular interactions.
9297626 1997 Ras effectors and their role in mitogenesis and oncogenesis.
9235916 1997 p110delta, a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit that associates with p85 and is expressed predominantly in leukocytes.
9219684 1997 The Ras-RasGAP complex: structural basis for GTPase activation and its loss in oncogenic Ras mutants.
9178006 1997 Mechanism of activation of the Caenorhabditis elegans ras homologue let-60 by a novel, temperature-sensitive, gain-of-function mutation.
9150145 1997 Role of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase in cell transformation and control of the actin cytoskeleton by Ras.
9144171 1997 Protein binding and signaling properties of RIN1 suggest a unique effector function.
9113989 1997 P110delta, a novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase in leukocytes.
9099670 1997 Physical association with ras enhances activation of membrane-bound raf (RafCAAX).
9069267 1997 Signal transduction by the neurotrophin receptors.
9069260 1997 The complexity of Raf-1 regulation.
9054499 1997 Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a.
9038168 1997 RalGDS functions in Ras- and cAMP-mediated growth stimulation.
9020890 1997 Ras activation in platelets after stimulation of the thrombin receptor, thromboxane A2 receptor or protein kinase C.
9020151 1997 A molecular redox switch on p21(ras). Structural basis for the nitric oxide-p21(ras) interaction.
8939933 1996 Identification of a novel RalGDS-related protein as a candidate effector for Ras and Rap1.
8911690 1996