Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 58
PubMed Score 298.04
PubTator Score 170.98

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (17)

Disease log2 FC p
nephrosclerosis 1.094 1.6e-02
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 3.200 6.5e-05
psoriasis 1.700 9.3e-66
glioblastoma 1.100 3.9e-02
chronic kidney disease 1.500 4.8e-02
tuberculosis 2.400 1.7e-06
lung cancer -3.100 8.3e-07
sarcoidosis 1.800 2.1e-02
interstitial cystitis 2.100 2.1e-03
adult high grade glioma 1.300 1.9e-02
primary Sjogren syndrome 2.400 1.9e-04
invasive ductal carcinoma 1.311 3.4e-03
nasopharyngeal carcinoma 1.300 8.6e-03
lung adenocarcinoma -1.266 5.9e-04
lung carcinoma -1.100 3.5e-08
ovarian cancer -1.800 9.0e-04
head and neck cancer and chronic obstruc... 1.300 3.6e-02

Gene RIF (37)

26752517 Delivered into parasite infected cells by granulysin and perforin, granzymes generate superoxide and inactivate oxidative defense enzymes to kill the parasite.
26522261 Levels of GZMA and ITGAE mRNAs in colon tissues can identify patients with UC who are most likely to benefit from etrolizumab; expression levels decrease with etrolizumab administration in biomarker(high) patients.
26156785 Results reveal enhanced intra- and extracellular expression of gzmA and B in patients with pulmonary TB, suggesting that gzms are part of the host response to tuberculosis.
26051682 Our results suggest that granzyme A could be considered another biomarker of TB, that can be used, other than IFN-gamma, to discriminate between patients with active TB and LTBI subjects
26032366 Taken together, the authors verified that histone H3 is a real substrate for GzmA in vivo in the Raji cells treated by staurosporin.
26025597 GZMA, GBP5 and CD64 genes show promise as a rapid diagnostic markers separating tuberculosis from other pulmonary diseases.
25928296 We herewith identify GZMA as critical effector molecule of human Treg function for gastrointestinal immune response in an experimental GvHD model.
25745046 GzmA and GzmB expressing cells in the airways and lung parenchyma was higher in subjects who died from asthma
25437548 The exocytosed granzyme A enters target cells and mediates IL-1beta maturation independently of caspase-1 and without inducing cytotoxicity.
25383893 Data indicate N-terminomics on the human and mouse granzymes A and K by combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC).
24673566 Serum concentrations of granzyme A in patients with ovarian cancer were substantially increased in comparison to concentrations in patients with ovarian cystadenomas or ovarian teratomas.
24505135 functional divergence between human and mouse granzyme A
22476618 Patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia have elevated serum granzyme A levels.
21709155 A critical and previously unsuspected role is revealed for granzymes A and B in dictating immunogenicity by influencing the mode of tumor cell death.
21349256 The results indicate that GzmA and GzmB are implicated in mechanisms of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
21068403 Human eosinophils exert TNF-alpha and granzyme A-mediated tumoricidal activity toward colon carcinoma cells.
20536382 investigation of substrate specificity toward Jurkat cell proteins; more than 260 cleavage sites, almost exclusively favoring basic residues at the P1 position, in approximately 200 unique protein substrates, were identified
20503287 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19875524 Granzyme A is a proinflammatory protease.
19506301 The N-terminal GzmA cleavage fragment of PARP-1 acts as a PARP-1 dominant negative, binding to DNA and blocking DNA repair.
19343046 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19258923 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19059912 GrK not only constitutes a redundant functional backup mechanism that assists GrA-induced cell death but that it also displays a unique function by cleaving its own specific substrates.
19014932 Data suggest that 1, 25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) suppresses granzyme A probably by down-regulating Th1 cytokine response, and tah vitamin D receptor gene variants might regulate cytotoxic T-cell response by suppression of granzyme A expression in tuberculosis.
18951048 the granule secretory pathway plays an unexpected role in inflammation, with GzmA acting as an endogenous modulator
18776661 GZMA causes detachment of alveolar epithelial A549 cells accompanied by interleukin-8 release.
18485875 GzmA accesses the mitochondrial matrix to cleave the complex I protein NDUFS3, an iron-sulfur subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I.
18317234 Report activation of the granzymeA/B pathway in children with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection.
17703412 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17308307 GzmK-induced caspase-independent death occurs through Bid-dependent mitochondrial damage that is different from GzmA
17138956 GrA expression is increased in type II pneumocytes of patients with very severe COPD. These results indicate that GrA may be important in the development of COPD.
17116752 Mouse granzyme B is 30 times less cytotoxic than human granzyme B and does not require Bid for killing but regains cytotoxicity on engineering of its active site cleft. Mouse granzyme A is considerably more cytotoxic than human granzyme A.
16440001 Ku70 has other antiapoptotic functions in Granzyme A (GzmA)-induced cell death, which are blocked when GzmA proteolyses Ku70
15998831 polymorphonuclear leukocytes from mice and humans lack the 3 cytotoxic effector molecules, gzmA, granzyme B, and perforin, generally associated with natural killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes
15238416 results demonstrate discordant expression of granzymes A and B in human lymphocyte subsets and T regulatory cells, which suggests that different granzymes may play unique roles in immune system responses and regulation
11909973 HMG2 interacts with the nucleosome assembly protein SET and is a target of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A.
7912927 Downregulation of cell-surface CD4 induced by HIV-1 Nef prevents monoclonal antibodies against CD4 from blocking the presentation of serine esterase tryptase in human monocytoid and CD4+ lymphoid cells

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (62)

PMID Year Title
26752517 2016 Killer lymphocytes use granulysin, perforin and granzymes to kill intracellular parasites.
26522261 2016 Association Between Response to Etrolizumab and Expression of Integrin ?E and Granzyme A in Colon Biopsies of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.
26156785 2015 Increased intra- and extracellular granzyme expression in patients with tuberculosis.
26051682 2015 Granzyme A as a potential biomarker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.
26032366 2015 Histone H3 is Digested by Granzyme A During Compromised Cell Death in the Raji Cells.
26025597 2015 A real-time PCR signature to discriminate between tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases.
25928296 2015 Granzyme A Is Required for Regulatory T-Cell Mediated Prevention of Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease.
25745046 2015 Increased expression of granzymes A and B in fatal asthma.
25437548 2014 Granzyme A produces bioactive IL-1? through a nonapoptotic inflammasome-independent pathway.
25383893 2014 Substrate specificities of the granzyme tryptases A and K.
24673566 2014 Cytotoxic reaction mediators: granzymes A and B in women with ovarian cancer.
24505135 2014 Identification of Serpinb6b as a species-specific mouse granzyme A inhibitor suggests functional divergence between human and mouse granzyme A.
22476618 2012 Increased plasma levels of granzymes in adult patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia.
21709155 2011 A critical role for granzymes in antigen cross-presentation through regulating phagocytosis of killed tumor cells.
21349256 2011 Granzymes A and B levels in serum of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
21068403 2010 Human eosinophils exert TNF-? and granzyme A-mediated tumoricidal activity toward colon carcinoma cells.
20536382 2010 The substrate specificity profile of human granzyme A.
20503287 2010 Interleukin-9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: an opposite effect in boys and girls.
19875524 2009 Granzyme A is a proinflammatory protease.
19506301 2009 The cytotoxic T lymphocyte protease granzyme A cleaves and inactivates poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1.
19343046 2009 Association study between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 199 drug-related genes and commonly measured quantitative traits of 752 healthy Japanese subjects.
19258923 2009 Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling genes and innate immune genes.
19159218 2009 Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry.
19059912 2009 Granzyme K displays highly restricted substrate specificity that only partially overlaps with granzyme A.
19014932 2009 Regulatory role of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D receptor gene variants on intracellular granzyme A expression in pulmonary tuberculosis.
18951048 2008 Human and mouse granzyme A induce a proinflammatory cytokine response.
18776661 2008 Granzyme A causes detachment of alveolar epithelial A549 cells accompanied by promotion of interleukin-8 release.
18485875 2008 Granzyme A cleaves a mitochondrial complex I protein to initiate caspase-independent cell death.
18317234 2008 Activation of the granzyme pathway in children with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection.
17703412 2007 Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes.
17308307 2007 Granzyme K directly processes bid to release cytochrome c and endonuclease G leading to mitochondria-dependent cell death.
17180578 2007 Glucocorticoid-induced alternative promoter usage for a novel 5' variant of granzyme A.
17138956 2007 Increased granzyme A expression in type II pneumocytes of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
17116752 2006 The major human and mouse granzymes are structurally and functionally divergent.
16818237 2006 The exonuclease TREX1 is in the SET complex and acts in concert with NM23-H1 to degrade DNA during granzyme A-mediated cell death.
16440001 2006 Granzyme A, which causes single-stranded DNA damage, targets the double-strand break repair protein Ku70.
15998831 2005 Quiescent and activated mouse granulocytes do not express granzyme A and B or perforin: similarities or differences with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes?
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15372022 2004 The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5.
15342556 2004 Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.
15238416 2004 Differential expression of granzymes A and B in human cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets and T regulatory cells.
12819770 2003 Crystal structure of the apoptosis-inducing human granzyme A dimer.
12819769 2003 The oligomeric structure of human granzyme A is a determinant of its extended substrate specificity.
12721789 2003 Catalog of 680 variations among eight cytochrome p450 ( CYP) genes, nine esterase genes, and two other genes in the Japanese population.
12628186 2003 Tumor suppressor NM23-H1 is a granzyme A-activated DNase during CTL-mediated apoptosis, and the nucleosome assembly protein SET is its inhibitor.
12555094 2003 Granzyme A: the road less traveled.
12524539 2003 Cleaving the oxidative repair protein Ape1 enhances cell death mediated by granzyme A.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11909973 2002 HMG2 interacts with the nucleosome assembly protein SET and is a target of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A.
11555662 2001 Granzyme A activates an endoplasmic reticulum-associated caspase-independent nuclease to induce single-stranded DNA nicks.
11331782 2001 Granzymes A and B directly cleave lamins and disrupt the nuclear lamina during granule-mediated cytolysis.
9531325 1998 Extracellular granzymes A and B in humans: detection of native species during CTL responses in vitro and in vivo.
9256474 1997 Recombinant human granzyme A binds to two putative HLA-associated proteins and cleaves one of them.
8288245 1993 The human granzyme A (HFSP, CTLA3) gene maps to 5q11-q12 and defines a new locus of the serine protease superfamily.
7751653 1995 Loss of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function in Chediak-Higashi syndrome arises from a secretory defect that prevents lytic granule exocytosis.
3533635 1986 Identification of granzyme A isolated from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-granules as one of the proteases encoded by CTL-specific genes.
3263427 1988 Characterization of granzymes A and B isolated from granules of cloned human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
3262682 1988 Characterization of three serine esterases isolated from human IL-2 activated killer cells.
3257574 1988 Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease.
3237717 1988 Comparative molecular model building of two serine proteinases from cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
3047119 1988 Human cytotoxic lymphocyte tryptase. Its purification from granules and the characterization of inhibitor and substrate specificity.
1860869 1991 Granzyme A binding to target cell proteins. Granzyme A binds to and cleaves nucleolin in vitro.