Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 36
PubMed Score 132.29
PubTator Score 37.79

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (8)

Disease log2 FC p
psoriasis -2.200 2.8e-04
non-small cell lung cancer 1.329 2.2e-12
lung cancer 1.500 1.1e-02
interstitial cystitis -2.300 2.0e-06
spina bifida -1.050 3.9e-02
ductal carcinoma in situ 1.300 2.0e-03
invasive ductal carcinoma 1.600 6.0e-03
ovarian cancer 1.700 7.8e-11

Protein-protein Interaction (1)

Gene RIF (24)

26826389 Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for miR-217 in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation, partially through the regulation of GRHL2.
26400775 Genetic variations in the EYA4, GRHL2 and DFNA5 genes and their interactions with occupational noise exposure may play an important role in the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).
26085095 The p63 gene is regulated by GRHL2 through reciprocal feedback and determines the epithelial phenotype in human keratinocytes.
26069269 GRHL1, GRHL2, and GRHL3 have roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and polarity and may promote cancer or be tumor suppressors [review]
25758223 A Grhl2-dependent gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis.
25152456 Mutations in GRHL2 result in an autosomal-recessive ectodermal Dysplasia syndrome.
24756066 has identified ZEB1 as a target of GRHL2 and suggested a reciprocal GRHL2-ZEB1 repressive relationship, providing a novel mechanism through which proliferation may be modulated in colorectal cancer cells.
24131873 These findings indicate that GRHL2 may be a noise-induced hearing loss susceptibility gene and that polymorphisms of GRLH2 may contribute to the etiology of noise-induced hearing loss.
24068586 Over-expression of Grhl2 decreased c-Myc and Bcl-2 protein expression level.
23814079 expression of GRHL2 is directly suppressed by the ZEB1, which in turn is a direct target for repression by GRHL2, suggesting that the EMT transcription factors GRHL2 and ZEB1 form a double negative regulatory feedback loop
23813623 Frameshift mutation in GRHL2 is associated with autosomal-dominant deafness.
23690579 GRHL2 plays a key role in regulating many physiological functions of human airway epithelium, including those involving cell morphogenesis, adhesion, and motility.
23284647 Grhl2 plays an essential role in the determination of epithelial phenotype of breast cancers, EMT and tumor progression
23254293 GRHL2 impairs keratinocyte differentiation through transcriptional inhibition of the genes clustered at the epidermal differentiation complex.
22379025 Findings define a major role for GRHL2 in the suppression of oncogenic EMT in breast cancer cells.
21949371 GRHL2 suppresses death-receptor expression.
21557239 No positive association was found between GRHL2 polymorphisms and age-related hearing impairment in Han Chinese individuals.
20978075 Grhl2 expression in human tissue samples, including adult kidney, embryonic kidney, renal cell carcinomas and Wilms tumors was highly correlated with E-cadherin expression
20938050 GRHL2 regulates the hTERT expression through an epigenetic mechanism and controls the cellular life span.
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19015635 Regulation of the hTERT promoter activity by MSH2, the hnRNPs K and D, and GRHL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
18752864 a gain of GRHL2 in 8q22.3 was associated with early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, controlling for clinical parameters
17921507 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17921507 Fine mapping demonstrated that the majority of the associated SNPs reside in intron 1 of GRHL2 gene; the causative variant may change the expression levels of a GRHL2 isoform.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (35)

PMID Year Title
26826389 2016 MiR-217 is down-regulated in psoriasis and promotes keratinocyte differentiation via targeting GRHL2.
26400775 2015 Associations of genetic variations in EYA4, GRHL2 and DFNA5 with noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese population: a case- control study.
26085095 2015 The p63 Gene Is Regulated by Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) through Reciprocal Feedback and Determines the Epithelial Phenotype in Human Keratinocytes.
26069269 2015 Recent discoveries concerning the involvement of transcription factors from the Grainyhead-like family in cancer.
25758223 2015 A Grhl2-dependent gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25152456 2014 Mutations in GRHL2 result in an autosomal-recessive ectodermal Dysplasia syndrome.
24756066 2014 Downregulation of GRHL2 inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by targeting ZEB1.
24390342 2014 Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
24131873 2013 Association between genetic variations in GRHL2 and noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese high intensity noise exposed workers: a case-control analysis.
24068586 2013 Expression and role of grainyhead-like 2 in gastric cancer.
23897914 2013 A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
23814079 2013 Dual roles of the transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) in breast cancer.
23813623 2013 Confirmation of GRHL2 as the gene for the DFNA28 locus.
23690579 2013 Evidence for multiple roles for grainyhead-like 2 in the establishment and maintenance of human mucociliary airway epithelium.[corrected].
23284647 2012 Grhl2 determines the epithelial phenotype of breast cancers and promotes tumor progression.
23254293 2012 Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) inhibits keratinocyte differentiation through epigenetic mechanism.
22379025 2012 Suppression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by Grainyhead-like-2.
21949371 2011 A whole-genome RNAi screen identifies an 8q22 gene cluster that inhibits death receptor-mediated apoptosis.
21557239 2011 The grainyhead-like 2 gene (GRHL2) single nucleotide polymorphism is not associated with age-related hearing impairment in Han Chinese.
21081122 2011 The unique and cooperative roles of the Grainy head-like transcription factors in epidermal development reflect unexpected target gene specificity.
20978075 2010 The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 regulates the molecular composition of the epithelial apical junctional complex.
20938050 2010 Grainyhead-like 2 enhances the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression by inhibiting DNA methylation at the 5'-CpG island in normal human keratinocytes.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
19015635 2009 Regulation of the hTERT promoter activity by MSH2, the hnRNPs K and D, and GRHL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
18752864 2008 Gain of GRHL2 is associated with early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17921507 2008 The grainyhead like 2 gene (GRHL2), alias TFCP2L3, is associated with age-related hearing impairment.
16461635 2006 Decoding the fine-scale structure of a breast cancer genome and transcriptome.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12549979 2003 The identification and characterization of human Sister-of-Mammalian Grainyhead (SOM) expands the grainyhead-like family of developmental transcription factors.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12393799 2002 Mutation of a transcription factor, TFCP2L3, causes progressive autosomal dominant hearing loss, DFNA28.
12175488 2002 A highly conserved novel family of mammalian developmental transcription factors related to Drosophila grainyhead.