Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 55
PubMed Score 276.79
PubTator Score 14.50

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease (2)

Disease Target Count P-value
osteosarcoma 7933 1.0e-03
Disease Target Count Z-score Confidence
Endometriosis 535 3.435 1.7


  Differential Expression (1)

Disease log2 FC p
osteosarcoma 1.094 1.0e-03

Gene RIF (24)

23287110 GnRHII expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
21239435 concluded that GnRHII stimulates PI3K/Akt pathway, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3beta, thereby enhancing the beta-catenin-dependent up-regulation of MT1-MMP production which contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis
21193558 results suggest GnRH-II-induced laminin receptor precursor expression increases 67-kDa nonintegrin laminin receptor, which appears to interact with laminin in the extracellular matrix to promote MMP-2 expression and enhance ovarian cancer cell invasion
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20018426 These preliminary data suggest that local GnRH-II may participate in the regulation of ovarian tumor growth in post-menopausal women.
19608641 These results provide evidence that EGF is an upstream regulator of the autocrine actions of GnRH-II on the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells.
19453261 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19086053 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19064572 Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18599546 p-CREB, C/EBPbeta, and CBP are recruited to the CRE of the GnRH-II promoter in a temporarily defined manner to enhance its transcription in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells in response to cAMP
18477660 GnRH-I and -II induce apoptosis in human granulosa cells through GnRH-I receptors, which mediate the proteolytic caspase cascade involving caspase-8 (the initiator) and caspase-3 and -7 (the effectors).
18467526 analysis of how GNRH I and GNRH II inhibit cell growth
17914092 GnRH II is widely expressed in prostate cancer and is an AR-regulated gene.
17451432 these data demonstrate the differential roles of NF-kappaB p65 and RARalpha/RXRalpha, interacting with the same sequence in the promoter of the human GnRH II gene to influence gene expression in a cell-specific manner.
17296196 Expression of GnRH2 protein and receptor (GnRHR2) is confirmed in both leiomyoma and patient-matched myometrium.
17202595 we observed that LHRH-(1-5), the specific processed peptide of LHRH-I, upregulates LHRH-II mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells, an endometrial cell line but does not exert any influence on LHRH-I mRNA levels
15578334 GnRH-II did not affect proliferation of normal B-cells alone, and did not alter the proliferative response to IL-2.
15562029 Progesterone receptor isoform p4 is a potent regulator of GnRHRI at the transcriptional level as well as GnRH I mRNA.
15001648 GnRH I and GnRH II have both common and discrete cellular distributions in the placenta and decidua and suggest that these two hormones are capable of eliciting their biological actions in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner
14726258 GnRH-II has been identified, together with a 'putative' type II GnRH receptor, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral structures, such as tissues of the reproductive tract (both normal and tumoral).
12969578 gonadotropin releasing hormone-II is more effective than gonadotropin releasing hormone-I in stimulating leptin secretion
12770744 regulation of GnRH-I and GnRH-II gene expression in the ovary
12663744 a novel mechanism in stimulating basal human GnRH-II gene transcription mediated by cooperative actions of multiple regulatory elements within the untranslated first exon of the gene.
12447356 GnRH-II and GnRH-I interact directly with T cells and trigger gene transcription, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs, which may be of clinical relevance.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (55)

PMID Year Title
25908176 2015 Comparative in vitro biological evaluation of daunorubicin containing GnRH-I and GnRH-II conjugates developed for tumor targeting.
25761596 2015 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the motility of human decidual endometrial stromal cells: possible effect on embryo implantation and pregnancy.
25107740 2014 GnRH receptors and peptides: skating backward.
25030361 2014 Towards neuroimmunotherapy for cancer: the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GnRH-II augment substantially the ability of T cells of few head and neck cancer patients to perform spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and migration towards the autologous tumor, and also elevate markedly the expression of CD3zeta and CD3epsilon TCR-associated chains.
24926857 2014 Apoptotic death of prostate cancer cells by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II antagonist.
24228111 2013 Effect of GnRH-II on the ESC proliferation, apoptosis and VEGF secretion in patients with endometriosis in vitro.
24103690 2013 Expression and distribution of GnRH, LH, and FSH and their receptors in gastrointestinal tract of man and rat.
23786715 2013 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2.
23287110 2013 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuropeptides and receptor in human breast cancer: correlation to poor prognosis parameters.
23154267 2013 Starving tumors: inhibition of glycolysis reduces viability of human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells and enhances antitumor efficacy of GnRH receptor-targeted therapies.
22112812 2012 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I or -II interacts with IGF-I/Akt but not connexin 43 in human granulosa cell apoptosis.
22024993 2011 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone/gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor signaling in the placenta.
21239435 2011 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II increases membrane type I metalloproteinase production via beta-catenin signaling in ovarian cancer cells.
21193558 2011 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor mediates GnRH-II-induced MMP-2 expression and invasiveness in ovarian cancer cells.
21036176 2011 Revisiting the evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormones and their receptors in vertebrates: secrets hidden in genomes.
20630060 2010 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II antagonist induces apoptosis in MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
20529558 2010 Phosphatase and tensin homolog gene inhibits the effect induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone subtypes in human endometrial carcinoma cells.
20400076 2010 Role of GnRH-GnRH receptor signaling at the maternal-fetal interface.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
20130508 2010 Expression of hCG and GnRHs and their receptors in endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia.
20074375 2010 GnRH I and II up-regulate MMP-26 expression through the JNK pathway in human cytotrophoblasts.
20018426 2010 GnRH-II mRNA expression in tumor tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
19657181 2009 Retention and silencing of prepro-GnRH-II and type II GnRH receptor genes in mammals.
19656390 2009 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I and GnRH-II induce cell growth inhibition in human endometrial cancer cells: involvement of integrin beta3 and focal adhesion kinase.
19638591 2009 GnRH-II antagonists induce apoptosis in human endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer cells via activation of stress-induced MAPKs p38 and JNK and proapoptotic protein Bax.
19608641 2009 Epidermal growth factor-induced GnRH-II synthesis contributes to ovarian cancer cell invasion.
19453261 2009 High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men.
19372239 2009 Promotion of human trophoblasts invasion by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and GnRH II via distinct signaling pathways.
19086053 2009 Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.
19064572 2008 Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women.
18599546 2008 Temporal recruitment of transcription factors at the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-response element of the human GnRH-II promoter.
18477660 2008 Gonadotropin-releasing hormones I and II induce apoptosis in human granulosa cells.
18467526 2008 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog structural determinants of selectivity for inhibition of cell growth: support for the concept of ligand-induced selective signaling.
17914092 2007 Expression of GnRH type II is regulated by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer.
17451432 2007 Involvement of NF-kappaB subunit p65 and retinoic acid receptors, RARalpha and RXRalpha, in transcriptional regulation of the human GnRH II gene.
17296196 2007 Human myometrium and leiomyomas express gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor.
17202595 2007 Regulation of type II luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH-II) gene expression by the processed peptide of LHRH-I, LHRH-(1-5) in endometrial cells.
16754659 2006 Stable association between G alpha(q) and phospholipase C beta 1 in living cells.
15578334 2004 Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-I (GnRH-I) and type-II (GnRH-II) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) and regulation of B-lymphoblastoid cell proliferation by GnRH-I and GnRH-II.
15562029 2005 Differential role of progesterone receptor isoforms in the transcriptional regulation of human gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH I) receptor, GnRH I, and GnRH II.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15001648 2004 Cellular localization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and GnRH II in first-trimester human placenta and decidua.
14726258 2003 The biology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone: role in the control of tumor growth and progression in humans.
12969578 2003 Possible interactions between leptin, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH-I and II) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG).
12770744 2003 Multi-factorial role of GnRH-I and GnRH-II in the human ovary.
12663744 2003 Functional cooperation between multiple regulatory elements in the untranslated exon 1 stimulates the basal transcription of the human GnRH-II gene.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12447356 2002 The neuropeptides GnRH-II and GnRH-I are produced by human T cells and trigger laminin receptor gene expression, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs.
11931351 The transcription of the hGnRH-I and hGnRH-II genes in human neuronal cells is differentially regulated by estrogen.
11889221 2002 Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH-II) receptor in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells and effects of GnRH-II on tumor cell proliferation.
11861490 2002 GnRH and GnRH receptor genes in the human genome.
11780052 2001 The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.
11459794 2001 Transcriptional regulation of the human GnRH II gene is mediated by a putative cAMP response element.
9419371 1998 Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans.
1727812 1992 Immunohistochemical detection of proluteinizing hormone-releasing hormone peptides in neurons in the human hypothalamus.