Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 36
PubMed Score 13.61
PubTator Score 52.76

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

Expression

  Differential Expression (12)

Disease log2 FC p
esophageal adenocarcinoma -1.200 4.7e-02
psoriasis -1.100 2.1e-02
osteosarcoma 1.577 1.1e-04
medulloblastoma -1.700 4.2e-06
glioblastoma 1.800 4.0e-02
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor -1.500 2.1e-04
medulloblastoma, large-cell -1.200 4.5e-03
primitive neuroectodermal tumor -1.200 2.3e-03
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma liver m... -3.569 6.6e-04
adult high grade glioma -1.500 1.9e-03
pilocytic astrocytoma 1.700 4.4e-06
Down syndrome 1.400 1.3e-03

Protein-protein Interaction (1)

Gene RIF (22)

PMID Text
26241911 Study of the expression of the GDH1/2 in human steroidogenic organs revealed that, while GDH2 was expressed specifically in steroid-synthesizing cells, GDH1 was expressed both in the cells that produce steroids and in those that lack endocrine function.
25225364 IDH1(R132H) exhibits a growth-inhibitory effect that is abrogated in the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (GLUD2), a hominoid-specific enzyme purportedly optimized to facilitate glutamate turnover in human forebrain.
24352816 hGDH2 can operate efficiently in the relatively acidic environment that prevails in astrocytes following glutamate uptake [review]
23874603 A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (GLUD2) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages
22709669 first N-terminal alpha helical structure is crucial for the mitochondrial import of hGDH2 and these findings may have implications in understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that led to the large mitochondrial targeting signals of human GDHs
22658952 first N-terminal alpha helical structure is crucial for the mitochondrial import of hGDH2 and these findings may have implications in understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that led to the large mitochondrial targeting signals of human GDHs
22360420 A protein encoded by this locus was found to be differentially expressed in postmortem brains from patients with atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
21621574 Human GDH1 appears to act like bovine GDH1, but human GDH2 does not show the same enhancement of branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex enzyme activities.
21420458 [review] Whereas GDH2 in most mammals is encoded by a single functional GLUD1 gene expressed widely, humans have acquired through retroposition an X-linked GLUD2 gene that encodes a highly homologous isoenzyme GDH2 expressed in testis and brain.
20194501 GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase is expressed in neural and testicular supporting cells
19826450 A gain-of-function rare polymorphism in hGDH2 hastens the onset of Parkinson's disease in hemizygous subjects.
19826450 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19448744 Hence, while most of the hGDHs translocate into the mitochondria (a process associated with cleavage of the signal sequence), part of the protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, probably serving additional functions
19428807 GDH2 localizes mainly to mitochondria and to a lesser extent to the endoplasmic reticulum of cells
19393024 study of molecular mechanisms regulating hGDH2 function by creating & analyzing mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the regulatory domain (antenna, pivot helix) of the protein
19156168 Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
18688271 Mitochondrial targeting specificity of GLUD2 is due to an amino acid substitution in the mitochondrial targeting sequence soon after the duplication event in the hominoid ancestor approximately 18-25 million years ago.
17924438 amino acid changes, acting in concert with Arg443Ser and Gly456Ala, ought to be responsible the unique properties of the brain-specific human isoenzyme
15750346 results suggest that cysteine 323 plays an important role in catalysis by human GDH isozymes; C323 is not directly involved in allosteric regulation.
15378063 GLUD2 originated by retroposition from GLUD1 in the hominoid ancestor less than 23 million years ago.
15044002 These results suggest that the Ser443 residue plays an important role in the different thermal stability of human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2).
11950837 identify the structural basis for allosteric differences of GlUD1 and GLUD2

AA Sequence

MYRYLAKALLPSRAGPAALGSAANHSAALLGRGRGQPAAASQPGLALAARRHYSELVADREDDPNFFKMV      1 - 70
EGFFDRGASIVEDKLVKDLRTQESEEQKRNRVRGILRIIKPCNHVLSLSFPIRRDDGSWEVIEGYRAQHS     71 - 140
QHRTPCKGGIRYSTDVSVDEVKALASLMTYKCAVVDVPFGGAKAGVKINPKNYTENELEKITRRFTMELA    141 - 210
KKGFIGPGVDVPAPDMNTGEREMSWIADTYASTIGHYDINAHACVTGKPISQGGIHGRISATGRGVFHGI    211 - 280
ENFINEASYMSILGMTPGFRDKTFVVQGFGNVGLHSMRYLHRFGAKCIAVGESDGSIWNPDGIDPKELED    281 - 350
FKLQHGSILGFPKAKPYEGSILEVDCDILIPAATEKQLTKSNAPRVKAKIIAEGANGPTTPEADKIFLER    351 - 420
NILVIPDLYLNAGGVTVSYFEWLKNLNHVSYGRLTFKYERDSNYHLLLSVQESLERKFGKHGGTIPIVPT    421 - 490
AEFQDSISGASEKDIVHSALAYTMERSARQIMHTAMKYNLGLDLRTAAYVNAIEKVFKVYSEAGVTFT      491 - 558
//

Text Mined References (39)

PMID Year Title
26241911 2015 Expression of human GLUD1 and GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenases in steroid producing tissues.
25225364 2014 Hominoid-specific enzyme GLUD2 promotes growth of IDH1R132H glioma.
24352816 2014 The discovery of human of GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase and its implications for cell function in health and disease.
22709669 2012 Alpha helical structures in the leader sequence of human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase responsible for mitochondrial import.
22658952 2012 The complex regulation of human glud1 and glud2 glutamate dehydrogenases and its implications in nerve tissue biology.
22360420 2012 Proteomic analysis identifies dysfunction in cellular transport, energy, and protein metabolism in different brain regions of atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
21621574 2011 Interaction between glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-leucine catabolic enzymes: intersecting metabolic pathways.
21420458 2011 The human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase and its regulation in health and disease.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
20194501 2010 Human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase is expressed in neural and testicular supporting cells.
19826450 2010 Gain-of-function variant in GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase modifies Parkinson's disease onset.
19448744 2009 Human GLUD1 and GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase localize to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.
19428807 The human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase: localization and functional aspects.
19393024 2009 Mutations in human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase affecting basal activity and regulation.
19156168 2009 Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis.
18688271 2008 Mitochondrial targeting adaptation of the hominoid-specific glutamate dehydrogenase driven by positive Darwinian selection.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17924438 2007 Properties and molecular evolution of human GLUD2 (neural and testicular tissue-specific) glutamate dehydrogenase.
16023112 2005 Identification of ADP-ribosylation site in human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes.
15952740 Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.
15772651 2005 The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.
15750346 2005 Critical role of the cysteine 323 residue in the catalytic activity of human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes.
15578726 2005 Molecular basis of human glutamate dehydrogenase regulation under changing energy demands.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15378063 2004 Birth and adaptive evolution of a hominoid gene that supports high neurotransmitter flux.
15044002 2004 Important role of Ser443 in different thermal stability of human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12742085 Study of structure-function relationships in human glutamate dehydrogenases reveals novel molecular mechanisms for the regulation of the nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2) isoenzyme.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12054821 2002 The structure of apo human glutamate dehydrogenase details subunit communication and allostery.
11999891 2002 Diversity of glutamate dehydrogenase in human brain.
11950837 2002 Single amino acid substitution (G456A) in the vicinity of the GTP binding domain of human housekeeping glutamate dehydrogenase markedly attenuates GTP inhibition and abolishes the cooperative behavior of the enzyme.
11032875 2000 Nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2) and housekeeping (GLUD1) human glutamate dehydrogenases are regulated by distinct allosteric mechanisms: implications for biologic function.
9674910 1998 Evaluation of two X chromosomal candidate genes for Rett syndrome: glutamate dehydrogenase-2 (GLUD2) and rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDI1).
9109504 1997 Nerve tissue-specific human glutamate dehydrogenase that is thermolabile and highly regulated by ADP.
8486350 1993 The human glutamate dehydrogenase gene family: gene organization and structural characterization.
8288265 Chromosomal mapping of two members of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family to chromosomes 10q22.3-q23 and Xq22-q23.
8207021 1994 Novel human glutamate dehydrogenase expressed in neural and testicular tissues and encoded by an X-linked intronless gene.
2365355 1990 Yeast artificial chromosomes containing human Xq24-Xq28 DNA: library construction and representation of probe sequences.