Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 50
PubMed Score 80.10
PubTator Score 58.65

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (10)

Disease log2 FC p
astrocytic glioma -2.400 3.4e-03
ependymoma -2.600 5.3e-03
oligodendroglioma -2.000 1.0e-02
psoriasis 1.200 5.5e-03
medulloblastoma -1.700 2.3e-05
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor -1.100 1.9e-03
medulloblastoma, large-cell -1.200 2.7e-03
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.200 6.3e-03
lung cancer 1.700 1.1e-02
Breast cancer 1.300 5.9e-16

Gene RIF (20)

25735211 Grx2 and Trx1 contribute significantly to neuronal integrity and could be clinically relevant in neuronal damage following perinatal asphyxia and other neuronal disorders.
24295294 The Grx2 system could help to keep Trx2/1 reduced during an oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the anti-apoptotic signaling.
22139372 Grx2 thiol redox regulation is essential for vertebrate embryonic development
21735102 These results suggest that Grx2a plays proliferative and anti-apoptotic roles under serum deprivation.
21437321 Exchange of [2Fe-2S] centers between glutaredoxin 2 and the cluster scaffold protein ISU, supports a direct link for glutaredoxin 2 and glutathione involvement in ISU promoted Fe-S cluster biosynthesis.
20929858 Both thioredoxin 2 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to the reduction of the mitochondrial 2-Cys peroxiredoxin Prx3.
20877624 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20547138 Studies indicate that the mechanism of Grx2 protection against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis is likely associated with its ability to preserve complex I.
19292455 cluster signal of Grx2 is stable at positive potentials up to 0.5 V but that cluster destruction occurs readily when oxidative pulses in excess of this value are applied
18816065 Grx1 and Grx2 exhibit key catalytic similarities, including selectivity for protein-SSG substrates and a nucleophilic, double-displacement, monothiol mechanism exhibiting a strong commitment to catalysis.
17961515 Grx2 is constitutively expressed in both neuron and glia in mouse and human brain including the neurons in human substantia nigra.
17546662 Human Grx2 is found to be a conserved feature within the deuterostomes and appears to be the only additional conserved intramolecular disulfide within the glutaredoxins.
17121859 Eficence of an iron-sulfur cluster in which binding of the cluster inactivates the protein by sequestering active site residues and where loss of the cluster through changes in subcellular redox status creates a catalytically active protein.
17115894 The iron-sulfur cluster is complexed by the two N-terminal active site thiols of two Grx2 monomers and two molecules of glutathione that are bound noncovalently to the proteins and in equilibrium with glutathione in solution.
17065220 Grx2 has a novel function as a peroxidase, accepting electrons both from GSH and TR. This unique property may play a role in protecting the mitochondria from oxidative damage.
15917333 characterization of Grx2 as an iron-sulfur center-containing member of the thioredoxin fold protein family
15297967 Lung cells can synthesize Grx2 mRNA and protein.
15184054 Grx1 and Grx2 were present in placenta extracts and in cell lysates prepared from tumor cell lines; however, the levels of Grx1 were at least 20 times higher than those of Grx2; Grx2 was not detected in plasma from healthy blood donors
14676218 results suggest an important role for glutaredoxin 2 in protection and recovery from oxidative stress
9325327 Treatment of diglutathionylated HIV-1 protease (positions 67 and 95) with thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) restores protease activity and generates an enzyme preparation that has 3- to 5-fold greater specific activity relative to the fully reduced form

AA Sequence

HKEGKLLPLVHQCYLKKSKRKEFQ                                                  141 - 164

Text Mined References (51)

PMID Year Title
25735211 2015 Thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to maintain the phenotype and integrity of neurons following perinatal asphyxia.
24295294 2014 Glutaredoxin 2 reduces both thioredoxin 2 and thioredoxin 1 and protects cells from apoptosis induced by auranofin and 4-hydroxynonenal.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
22139372 2011 Vertebrate-specific glutaredoxin is essential for brain development.
21735102 2012 Glutaredoxin 2a, a mitochondrial isoform, plays a protective role in a human cell line under serum deprivation.
21586322 2011 Segment-specific overexpression of redoxins after renal ischemia and reperfusion: protective roles of glutaredoxin 2, peroxiredoxin 3, and peroxiredoxin 6.
21437321 2011 Mechanism of glutaredoxin-ISU [2Fe-2S] cluster exchange.
21029046 2011 The crystal structure of human GLRX5: iron-sulfur cluster co-ordination, tetrameric assembly and monomer activity.
20929858 2010 Both thioredoxin 2 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to the reduction of the mitochondrial 2-Cys peroxiredoxin Prx3.
20877624 2010 Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression.
20829229 2010 Glutaredoxin 2 prevents aggregation of mutant SOD1 in mitochondria and abolishes its toxicity.
20547138 2010 Glutaredoxin 2 prevents H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis by protecting complex I activity in the mitochondria.
20064440 2009 In vivo fluorescent detection of Fe-S clusters coordinated by human GRX2.
19723146 2009 Expression profiles of thioredoxin family proteins in human lung cancer tissue: correlation with proliferation and differentiation.
19383853 2009 Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy.
19292455 2009 Oxidative disassembly of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of human Grx2 and redox regulation in the mitochondria.
19290777 2009 A disruption in iron-sulfur center biogenesis via inhibition of mitochondrial dithiol glutaredoxin 2 may contribute to mitochondrial and cellular iron dysregulation in mammalian glutathione-depleted dopaminergic cells: implications for Parkinson's disease.
19216714 2008 Involvement of thio-, peroxi-, and glutaredoxins in cellular redox-dependent processes.
19184988 2009 Fluorescence detection of a protein-bound 2Fe2S cluster.
19119916 2009 Mechanistic and kinetic details of catalysis of thiol-disulfide exchange by glutaredoxins and potential mechanisms of regulation.
19038292 2009 Attenuation of doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury by mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2.
18816065 2008 Kinetic and mechanistic characterization and versatile catalytic properties of mammalian glutaredoxin 2: implications for intracellular roles.
18092940 2008 Expression pattern of human glutaredoxin 2 isoforms: identification and characterization of two testis/cancer cell-specific isoforms.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17961515 2007 Constitutive expression and functional characterization of mitochondrial glutaredoxin (Grx2) in mouse and human brain.
17680760 2007 Mitochondrial glutathione.
17546662 2007 Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins.
17355958 2007 Oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteines in human cytosolic and mitochondrial glutaredoxins: effects on structure and activity.
17121859 2007 Reversible sequestration of active site cysteines in a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer provides a mechanism for glutaredoxin 2 regulation in human mitochondria.
17115894 2007 How does iron-sulfur cluster coordination regulate the activity of human glutaredoxin 2?
17065220 2006 Mitochondrial thioltransferase (glutaredoxin 2) has GSH-dependent and thioredoxin reductase-dependent peroxidase activities in vitro and in lens epithelial cells.
16712839 2006 Thioredoxin induced antioxidant gene expressions in human lens epithelial cells.
16710414 2006 The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.
16246122 2005 Thiol redox control via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems.
16112873 2006 Human glutaredoxin 2 affinity tag for recombinant peptide and protein purification.
15917333 2005 Characterization of human glutaredoxin 2 as iron-sulfur protein: a possible role as redox sensor.
15649413 2005 Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15328416 2004 Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide.
15297967 2004 Expression of glutaredoxin is highly cell specific in human lung and is decreased by transforming growth factor-beta in vitro and in interstitial lung diseases in vivo.
15184054 2004 Cellular and plasma levels of human glutaredoxin 1 and 2 detected by sensitive ELISA systems.
15146197 2004 Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.
14713336 2004 Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system.
14676218 2004 Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin reduces S-glutathionylated proteins with high affinity accepting electrons from either glutathione or thioredoxin reductase.
14503974 2003 Immunohistochemical determination of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin distribution in the human cervix, and possible relation to cervical ripening.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11397793 2001 Identification and characterization of a new mammalian glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), Grx2.
11329013 2001 Creation of genome-wide protein expression libraries using random activation of gene expression.
11297543 2001 Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms.
10810093 2000 Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics.
8889549 1996 Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags.