Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 71
PubMed Score 717.05
PubTator Score 839.15

Knowledge Summary


No data available

 GO Function (1)

 MGI Phenotype (1)

Gene RIF (58)

26895276 Excess androgen activity might be a factor contributing to alter secretion of incretins in lean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. However it could not be ruled out that it is also possible that increased GIP levels might induce hyperandrogenemia in PCOS.
26434625 Our results might indicate an altered DPP4-incretin system and altered immunoregulation including a potentially dysfunctional GLP1(9)(-)(36) signaling in T1DM.
26395740 Fasting GIP concentrations are higher in individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke) when compared with control subjects.
26221611 Data suggest that high levels of blood glucose or AGEs (advanced glycation end products), as seen in hyperglycemia, reduce secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells via antagonism of GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide)/GIP receptor signaling.
25852025 Data confirm that postprandial plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and insulin (INS) are responsive to glycemic index of foods consumed; glycemic index of breakfast cereals regulate plasma postprandial GIP and INS.
25324507 These novel results support the notion that the GIP-GIPR axis plays a role in the etiology of central obesity in humans
25288806 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma has a role in insulin secretion induced by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
25132122 Data suggest that postprandial blood levels of both GIP and insulin can be regulated by diet; here, inclusion of nopal/Opuntia/cactus (a functional food in traditional Mexican medicine) in breakfast reduces postprandial levels of GIP and insulin.
25029417 irisin and GIP might contribute to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome and may also represent novel polycystic ovary syndrome biomarkers
24525020 Dietary fructose elicits GLP-1 secretion without simultaneous release of glucagonotropic GIP.
24507870 Data from studies in healthy Japanese men suggest that plasma GIP levels in postprandial period are dose dependently increased by fat content of meals of ordinary size, despite the amount of additional fat being relatively small.
24018562 Beta cell connectedness is an inherent property of human islets that is likely to influence incretin-potentiated insulin secretion.
23864340 In type 2 diabetes, GLP-1 secretion is generally preserved and that GIP secretion is exaggerated.
23663508 Patients with idiopathic gastroparesis exhibit abnormal GIP levels.
23485142 Data suggest that postprandial plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) are increased after consumption of buckwheat crackers versus rice crackers in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.
23092914 GIP induces an inflammatory and prolipolytic response via the PKA -NF-kappaB-IL-1 pathway and impairs insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in human adipocytes.
23064014 a lineage of mature enteroendocrine cells have the ability to coexpress members of a group of functionally related peptides: CCK, secretin, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and neurotensin
22422137 The changes in glucose metabolism and incretin (GLP-1/GIP) responses were different between pancreatoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy.
22391044 Hyperinsulinemia subjects with metabolic syndrome showed increased GIP secretion that could be responsible for the delayed glucagon suppression.
22349073 The results suggest that circulating levels of GIP and GLP-1 as well as the beta cell response to these incretins are highly familial as compared with fasting and stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin and serum C-peptide levels.
22319034 Data suggest that reduced insulinotropic effect of GIP or GLP-1 (as in type 2 diabetes) can be induced in healthy subjects; this indicates that reduced incretin stimulation of insulin secretion results from insulin resistance/glucose intolerance.
22301939 results indicate postprandial GIP secretion in early-phase after test meal in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes was positively correlated with BMI, but not those with type 1 diabetes
22179810 GIP reduces free fatty acid release from adipose tissue by inhibition of lipolysis or by increased reesterification.
21815989 may have a pro-obesogenic action [review]
21539943 Studies identified some potentially important additional C-terminal interactions of GIP with its N-terminal extracellular receptor domain.
20978139 We report that the human GIP locus was differentially selected in East Asians about 8100 years ago based on the analysis of a nonsynonymous SNP (rs2291725).
20800603 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20799012 These results suggest that Tyr/His(1) and Ile/Thr(7) of GIP/GLP-1 peptides confer differential ligand selectivity toward GIPR and GLP1R.
20673334 No statistically significant association was observed between any of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of GIP analysed and type 2 diabetes in our population.
20673334 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20580750 GLP-2, but not GIP, was found to stimulate the release of glucagon in patients with T1DM, suggesting a role for GLP-2 in the postprandial hyperglucagonaemia characterising individuals with T1DM
20468064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20424473 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20200305 We demonstrate for the first time that changes in insulin secretion after lifestyle intervention may be mediated via alterations in GIP secretion from intestinal K-cells
20138041 GIP is expressed in and secreted from pancreatic islets and promotes islet glucose competence and also could support islet development and/or survival.
20061446 a binding mode of GIP to GIPR in which the N-terminal moiety of GIP was sited within transmembrane helices (TMH) 2, 3, 5, and 6 with biologically crucial Tyr1 interacting with Gln224 (TMH3), Arg300 (TMH5), and Phe357 (TMH6).
20008019 GLP-1 but not GIP secretion is lower after meal ingestion and oral glucose, whereas GIP but not GLP-1 metabolism is increased after meal ingestion.
19748889 Inhibition of apoptosis by GIP is mediated via a key pathway involving Akt-dependent inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, which subsequently prevents the pro-apoptotic actions of p38 MAPK and JNK.
19351807 GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions
19229515 GIP secretion is blunted after the biliopancreatic diversion only in diabetic patients, suggesting a role in insulin resistance and diabetes.
18593849 concomitant expression of Pax6 and Pdx1 is important for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide expression
18054552 physiologic role for GIP in lipid homeostasis and possibly in the pathogenesis of obesity.
17624916 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17624916 study identified a splice site mutation of the Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) gene which results in a truncated protein and provides evidence for association of GIP receptor genotype with cardiovascular disease
17609256 An inverse relationship between insulin concentrations and insulin clearance suggests that the secretion of insulin itself determines the rate of hepatic insulin clearance.
17244606 protein kinase B, LKB1, and AMP-activated protein kinase have roles in activation of lipoprotein lipase by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in adipocytes
16142014 GIP is rapidly degraded into inactive metabolites by the enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV. (review)
16010522 The relationship between insulin resistance and the insulin secretion to GIP suggests that beta cell secretory function in response to different stimuli increases adaptively when insulin sensitivity is diminished, as in gestational diabetes.
15955806 GIP stimulates insulin secretion by potentiating events underlying membrane depolarization and exerting direct effects on exocytosis.
15899957 Reduced secretion or action of GLP-1 or GIP does not explain a relative reduced beta-cell responsiveness to glucose or the slightly elevated plasma glucose concentrations observed in young low birth weight men
15533777 GIP augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and acts as an endogenous inhibitor of gastric acid secretion--REVIEW
15522230 Results describe the solution structure of GIP(1-30)amide, the major biologically active fragment of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.
15383372 bombesin and nutrients additively stimulate GIP release from GIP/Ins cells.
15220248 Elevated plasma GIP levels are correlated with hyperinsulinemia in the impaired glucose-tolerant state, whereas type 2 diabetes is associated with a failure to secrete adequate amounts of GIP.
14988249 delayed elimination in renal insufficiency
12530694 Mutation in promoter region of gip receptor gene are unlikely to underlie GIP-dependent Cushing syndrome.
12138104 activates the Raf-Mek1/2-ERK1/2 module via a cyclic AMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase/Rap1-mediated pathway
11820780 Substitution of Glu(3) in GIP with proline produces a novel dipeptidylpeptidase IV-resistant GIP antagonist which inhibits GIP-induced cAMP generation and insulin secretion with high sensitivity and specificity in vitro.

AA Sequence

LLDQTNLCRLRSR                                                             141 - 153

Text Mined References (71)

PMID Year Title
26895276 2016 Basic and Meal Stimulated Plasma GIP Levels are Higher in Lean PCOS Women with FAI over 5.
26434625 2015 Altered crosstalk in the dipeptidyl peptidase-4-incretin-immune system in type 1 diabetes: A hypothesis generating pilot study.
26395740 2016 Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Stimulates Osteopontin Expression in the Vasculature via Endothelin-1 and CREB.
26221611 2015 Effects of High Glucose Levels and Glycated Serum on GIP Responsiveness in the Pancreatic Beta Cell Line HIT-T15.
25852025 2015 Plasma glucose kinetics and response of insulin and GIP following a cereal breakfast in female subjects: effect of starch digestibility.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25324507 2014 Common variants of GIP are associated with visceral fat accumulation in Japanese adults.
25288806 2014 Insulin secretion induced by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ? in rodent and human ?-cells.
25132122 2014 The effect of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) on postprandial blood glucose, incretins, and antioxidant activity in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of two different composition breakfasts.
25029417 2014 Circulating irisin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide are associated with the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.
24525020 2014 Fructose stimulates GLP-1 but not GIP secretion in mice, rats, and humans.
24507870 2014 Effects of consumption of main and side dishes with white rice on postprandial glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in healthy Japanese men.
24018562 2013 Lipotoxicity disrupts incretin-regulated human ? cell connectivity.
23864340 2013 Preserved GLP-1 and exaggerated GIP secretion in type 2 diabetes and relationships with triglycerides and ALT.
23663508 2013 Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and insulin sensitivity are impaired in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis: results from a pilot descriptive study.
23485142 2013 Consumption of buckwheat modulates the post-prandial response of selected gastrointestinal satiety hormones in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
23092914 2013 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide induces cytokine expression, lipolysis, and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.
23064014 2012 A major lineage of enteroendocrine cells coexpress CCK, secretin, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and neurotensin but not somatostatin.
22422137 2012 Different incretin responses after pancreatoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy.
22391044 2012 Elevated plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide associates with hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome.
22349073 2012 Fasting and oral glucose-stimulated levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are highly familial traits.
22319034 2012 Impaired incretin-induced amplification of insulin secretion after glucose homeostatic dysregulation in healthy subjects.
22301939 2012 Potential correlation between plasma total GIP levels and body mass index in Japanese patients with types 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus.
22179810 2012 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide reduces fat-specific expression and activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and inhibits release of free fatty acids.
21815989 2011 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: from pathophysiology to therapeutic opportunities in obesity-associated disorders.
21539943 2011 Conformational, receptor interaction and alanine scan studies of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.
21378990 2011 Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
20978139 2011 Adaptive selection of an incretin gene in Eurasian populations.
20800603 2010 Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study.
20799012 2010 Tyr1 and Ile7 of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) confer differential ligand selectivity toward GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors.
20673334 2010 A case-control analysis of common variants in GIP with type 2 diabetes and related biochemical parameters in a South Indian population.
20580750 2010 Glucagon-like peptide-2, but not glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, stimulates glucagon release in patients with type 1 diabetes.
20468064 2010 Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa.
20424473 2010 L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms.
20200305 2010 Improved pancreatic beta-cell function in type 2 diabetic patients after lifestyle-induced weight loss is related to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.
20138041 2010 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is expressed in pancreatic islet alpha-cells and promotes insulin secretion.
20081857 2010 Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge.
20061446 2010 Identification of determinants of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor that interact with N-terminal biologically active region of the natural ligand.
20008019 2010 Secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated metabolism of incretin hormones after a mixed meal or glucose ingestion in obese compared to lean, nondiabetic men.
19748889 2009 Suppression of p38 MAPK and JNK via Akt-mediated inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 constitutes a core component of the beta-cell pro-survival effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.
19351807 2009 The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.
19229515 2009 Circadian rhythms of GIP and GLP1 in glucose-tolerant and in type 2 diabetic patients after biliopancreatic diversion.
18593849 2008 Pax6 and Pdx1 are required for production of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in proglucagon-expressing L cells.
18240029 2008 Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.
18054552 2007 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide enhances adipocyte development and glucose uptake in part through Akt activation.
17624916 2007 Association analyses of GIP and GIPR polymorphisms with traits of the metabolic syndrome.
17609256 2007 Reduction of hepatic insulin clearance after oral glucose ingestion is not mediated by glucagon-like peptide 1 or gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans.
17244606 2007 Activation of lipoprotein lipase by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in adipocytes. A role for a protein kinase B, LKB1, and AMP-activated protein kinase cascade.
17207965 2007 hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes.
16142014 2005 Biological actions of the incretins GIP and GLP-1 and therapeutic perspectives in patients with type 2 diabetes.
16010522 2005 Secretion of incretin hormones and the insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in women with a history of gestational diabetes.
15955806 2005 A novel mechanism for the suppression of a voltage-gated potassium channel by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: protein kinase A-dependent endocytosis.
15899957 2005 Normal secretion and action of the gut incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in young men with low birth weight.
15655707 Physiology of GIP--a lesson from GIP receptor knockout mice.
15533777 2004 Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide/gastric inhibitory polypeptide.
15522230 2004 NMR structure of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide fragment, GIP(1-30)amide.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15383372 2005 Bombesin and nutrients independently and additively regulate hormone release from GIP/Ins cells.
15220248 2004 Elevated plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide associates with hyperinsulinemia in impaired glucose tolerance.
14988249 2004 Secretion, degradation, and elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and healthy control subjects.
12627975 2003 Structure-function analysis of a series of novel GIP analogues containing different helical length linkers.
12530694 2002 Analysis of the putative promoter region of the GIP receptor gene (GIPR) in GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS).
12530693 2002 Expression of ACTH receptor pathway genes in GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS).
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12138104 2002 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide activates the Raf-Mek1/2-ERK1/2 module via a cyclic AMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase/Rap1-mediated pathway.
12036966 2002 Selective inhibition of heterotrimeric Gs signaling. Targeting the receptor-G protein interface using a peptide minigene encoding the Galpha(s) carboxyl terminus.
8795084 1996 GLP-1/GIP chimeric peptides define the structural requirements for specific ligand-receptor interaction of GLP-1.
7589426 1995 Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signal transduction of the GIP-receptor cloned from a human insulinoma.
6745415 1984 The isolation and sequencing of human gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
2890159 1987 Sequence of an intestinal cDNA encoding human gastric inhibitory polypeptide precursor.
2739653 1989 Gastric inhibitory polypeptide: structure and chromosomal localization of the human gene.