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NCBI Gene PubMed Count 740
PubMed Score 4732.22
PubTator Score 574.82

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  Differential Expression (3)

Protein-protein Interaction (2)

Gene RIF (719)

26904686 The concentrations of gastric peptide(Ghrelin and obestatin)and adipocytokines(omentin and Apelin ) across all subgroups were lower than in the control group. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), which may be of importance in the development of the disease complications
26741958 GH, IGF-1 and ISI-Matsuda index were lower in the high fatty liver index group in obese subjects with fatty liver and sarcopenia.
26721207 High serum ghrelin may be protective against the development of hypertension.
26643495 Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans.
26599409 the GHRL rs26311 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk to hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis, especially in men.
26536003 Preproghrelin Leu72Met variation is on the exon 2 with a cytosine (C) to adenine (A) transition at base 408 (+408C>A). Previous studies indicated that this variation was associated with obesity, early onset of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
26506614 Among the gastroesophageal reflux disease patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation
26407611 Ghrelin modulates GLUT1 expression and thus indirectly enhances tumor cell proliferation. These findings are of major relevance, because glucose uptake is assumed to be a promising target for cancer treatment.
26402983 low serum ghrelin concentrations associated with increased global cardiovascular risk
26396004 Higher levels of ghrelin were associated with an increased risk of Barrett's esophagus among the general population.
26375586 Ghrelin gene variants -604GA, -501AC and M72L are associated with certain components of metabolic syndrome
26164343 Leptin and ghrelin regulate dendritic cell maturation and dendritic cell induction of regulatory T-cells.
26124083 In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human pancreatic/gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.
26103606 Ghrelin plays a beneficial role in multiple processes of atherogenesis and vascular function
26084218 Plasma ghrelin and interleukin-6 levels correlate with body mass index and arterial blood pressure in males with essential hypertension
26068568 The immunomodulatory as well as the non-immune-mediated effects of ghrelin that form the scientific basis of its role in critical illness. [Review]
25989955 The switch to excessive weight gain in PWS seems to coincide with an increase in the acylated ghrelin/unacylated ghrelin ratio, even prior to the start of hyperphagia.
25987348 Plasma ghrelin is higher in HNF1A-maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)and in glucokinase-MODY than in the common polygenic forms of diabetes.
25951715 In women with adnexal endometrioma versus teratoma, the medians were 105.31 pg/mL versus 120.84 pg/mL for urocortin, 7.16 pg/mL versus 9.13 pg/mL for leptin and 584.33 pg/mL versus 657.82 pg/mL for ghrelin (p > 0.05), respectively.
25925728 Ghrelin can activate Snail function via the GHS-R-PI3K-Akt axis, which may contribute to renal cell carcinoma metastasis.
25870965 circulating ghrelin, but not PYY(3-36), levels are increased in neonates with infection, possibly reflecting and/or participating in the inflammatory process
25868387 Rs4684677 T/A polymorphisms in preproghrelin gene could contribute to development of AITDs in children and T allele is the main risk factor.
25849925 three distinct members [porcupine (PORCN), hedgehog (Hh) acyltransferase (HHAT) and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)] have been shown to acylate specific proteins or peptides.
25837320 in Polycystic ovary syndrome patients copeptin was positively correlated and obestatin was negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk factors
25833030 findings support the hypothesis that appetite hormones are trait markers for alcohol craving.
25782001 Effect of oral glucose administration on rebound growth hormone release in normal and obese women: the role of adiposity, insulin sensitivity and ghrelin.
25737012 Data indicate that expression pattern of ghrelin system showed a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas compared with normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed.
25671547 human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI
25568079 Both intraduodenal protein and lipid suppressed ghrelin release.
25524946 the single nucleotide polymorphism of GHRL might be weaker association with cancer risk, especially with breast cancer risk
25459900 This review aims at providing a concise yet comprehensive overview of the role of ghrelin in psychiatric disorders [review]
25436282 Serum ghrelin level can be used with CRP as an important marker in establishing the mucosal damage in inflammatory bowel diseases.
25399301 Increasing expression of TGF-beta1 protein, decreasing expressions of Ghrelin, Neurexin, and Neuroligin proteins can induce the loss or dysfunction of ganglion cells in distal intestinal canal
25376984 This study suggests that the rs696217 and rs2075356 ghrelin gene (GHRL) polymorphisms may protect carriers against breast cancer, and the rs4684677 GHRL and rs572169 GHSR polymorphisms may increase the risk among carriers.[Meta-analysis]
25361054 Eating speed at breakfast did not affect postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, and fullness values or daily energy and macronutrient intake.
25355237 It seems unlikely that high ghrelin levels are directly responsible for the switch to the hyperphagic nutritional phases in Prader-Willi syndrome.
25273611 GHRL secretion from gastric endocrine cells is influenced by factors including nutrients, hormones, and neural control; these factors influence each other directly/indirectly; circulating GHRL level is determined by sum of activities. [REVIEW]
25257829 Our results for the first time demonstrate low AG and DG levels in autistic children.
25257375 high plasma ghrelin concentration was related to protection from CHD and Leu72Leu genotype to prevention of cancer in healthy adults during the 19 years follow-up. C/C promoter protects from IHD in the hypertensive subjects.
25223427 Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide polymorphisms were not found to be associated with SGA status in neonates; however, ghrelin and obestatin levels may be involved in growth and development.
25217306 Ghrelin, by direct inhibition of 3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD, and CYP19 protein expression, inhibits LH- and FSH-stimulated steroid secretion by ovarian follicles, thus negatively affecting ovarian steroidogenesis in mature pigs.
25200304 Data (including data from knockout mice) suggest ghrelin produced in pancreatic islets regulates insulin secretion and thereby regulates blood glucose; ghrelin signaling via growth hormone secretagogue-receptor appears to be involved. [REVIEW]
25152618 Demonstrate lower appetite scores and caloric intake in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD, but could not confirm that these effects were caused by insufficient levels of the orexigenic peptide, acyl ghrelin.
25141321 Comparison of mild and severe pancreatitis groups and healthy controls did not reveal a difference in ghrelin values. Ghrelin values after oral feeding were higher patients. The patient group had higher obestatin levels.
25127083 These results indicate that circulating PYY may have buffering effects during the early stages of smoking cessation while ghrelin may confer increased risk of smoking relapse.
25105727 Acute Changes in Sleep Duration on Eating Behaviors and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Overweight/Obese Adults
25095788 MTLRP polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.
25068948 The positive correlations between the insulin, leptin, and ghrelin values of babies at birth with gestational age and anthropometric values suggest that both hormones play important roles in fetal and neonatal growth and development.
24922633 High ghrelin expression is associated with tumor growth in esophageal carcinoma.
24919551 It is secreted from stomach and plays a role in gastrointestinal motilities. (review)
24875659 Fasting plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in type 2 diabetes patients compared to controls.
24858413 Suggest that ghrelin secreted by sources other than stomach plays a role in the long-term regulation of body weight after total gastrectomy.
24845415 possible role in endometriosis
24824706 Leptin and ghrelin play an important role in the maintenance of the balance of IL-17-producing and T-regulatory cells during pregnancy.
24809812 The Ghr and GHSR-1a were co-expressed by the pigmented epithelium (PE) of the CB, by the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and by the anterior limiting layer (ALL) of the iris.
24806082 Data suggest that girls (ages 6-10) with higher serum ghrelin levels are more likely to have increased total FM (fat mass) and FFM (fat-free mass); conversely, body composition is not associated with serum ghrelin levels in boys (ages 6-10).
24760977 Data suggest that effects of acylated GHRL (here injected subcutaneously into abdomen) on appetite regulation and on orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus activation are similar to those evoked by fasting; both increase appeal of high-energy foods.
24728171 the SNP Q90L of the preproghrelin gene was not associated with gestational diabetes in the studied population
24643690 The -501 A/C polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population
24637892 The effect of Islamic intermittent fasting, during and outside of Ramadan, on plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin, were examined.
24619886 Glucose impairment and L90G Ghrelin gene variant influence cognitive function in old dwelling individuals participating in the Mataro Ageing Study.
24604119 It may lead to weight gain by appetite stimulation.
24508379 Predictive value of early decreased plasma ghrelin level for three-month cognitive deterioration in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.
24465706 Serum levels of ghrelin are significantly positively correlated with Ang II in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and that ghrelin can inhibit Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by down-regulating AT1R, thereby playing a role in preventing HF.
24438371 Unacylated ghrelin (UAG), acylated ghrelin (AG), obestatin(OBST), and their ratios are differently regulated in children with type 1 diabetes, suggesting a role in the metabolic balance of the disease, with insulin a likely regulator of AG and UAG.
24433403 FFA and ghrelin can be used as promising molecular markers to stratify the risk of recurrent acute coronary events and diabetes mellitus in myocardial infarction patients.
24415571 Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia have significantly lower levels of ghrelin, irrespective of feeding behavior.
24388886 In autoimmune gastritis, the authors were able to find evidence for a new gastrin-mediated mechanism for ghrelin suppression as a gastro-protective marker.
24388883 The article summarizes results of a series of recent studies on the effect of ghrelin on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.
24367126 Ghrelin levels rise significantly after the cold pressor stress test in obese women, peeking at 19 minutes before declining, but there are no differences between the binge-eating disorder (BED) and non-BED groups.
24365237 Ghrelin promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt pathway and EGFR trans-activation both converging to ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.
24350300 Elevated plasma obestatin levels might protect T2 Diabetes Mellitus patients against carotid atherosclerosis to some extent.
24341728 Association between ghrelin gene polymorphism (Leu72Met) and ghrelin serum level with coronary artery diseases.
24333655 summarize here the current evidences surrounding the cardiovascular actions of obestatin, and the possible implications of obestatin as a therapeutic agent in common conditions such as hypertension and heart failure.
24302008 hyperglycemia abolishes meal-induced satiety and dysregulates postprandial responses of the gut hormones PYY3-36 and ghrelin in overweight/obese healthy humans.
24287118 Ghrelin stimulated the rapid phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), P70S6K and S6.
24285677 These results provide further evidence of an age-dependent decline in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, which might play a role both in the decline of GH and in the anorexia of aging.
24260344 The level of ghrelin was significantly lower in TB.
24240664 serum ghrelin levels are significantly decreased in association with myocardial infarct size and cardiac function.
24217898 Obestatin positive effects on glucose and lipid metabolism candidate this peptide as a potential therapeutic tool in pathological conditions such as insulin resistance and diabetes. [Review]
24194510 Studies suggest that dysregulation in the components of the ghrelin system including ghrelin, ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) and ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase can lead to or influence the development and/or progression of highly concerning pathologies.
24190680 Compared with decreased sleep, increased sleep duration in school-age children resulted in lower reported food intake, lower fasting leptin levels, and lower weight; however, there were no differences in fasting ghrelin.
24184592 Plasma ghrelin in euthyroidism was significantly higher than in hyperthyroidism, and correlated positively with ghrelin levels in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
24155252 an update view of the reproductive effects of leptin and ghrelin, with a major emphasis on the actions of these 2 key hormones upon
24147986 Confirm ghrelin localisation in Leydig and Sertoli cells and find that ghrelin is expressed in rete testis, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles, as well as the localisation of obestatin in almost all tracts of the male reproductive system.
24132517 Association of the GHRL Leu72Met polymorphism and resistance to diabetic nephropathy in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
24111557 this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding--{review}
24106000 Obestatin stimulates cell proliferation, lipolysis and adipogenesis.
24098650 Serum ghrelin; a new surrogate marker of gastric mucosal alterations in upper gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.
24083436 This review identifies ghrelin as a hormone that promotes axonal regeneration after nerve injury and repair.
24012997 PYY and ghrelin are reciprocally associated during a period of weight stability, but not following weight loss
24011638 The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of vertical banded gastroplasty on peripheral blood concentrations of some adipocytokines and hormones involved in the control of food intake and energy turnover.
24001751 Basal and stimulated hunger and satiety hormones in lean PCOS patients are not different from lean healthy women, except for a lower meal-stimulated ghrelin response.
23994275 Pericardial ghrelin content is negatively influenced by left ventricular hypertrophy and insulin resistance.
23981480 In ankylosing spondylitis patients undergoing periodical treatment with anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody-infliximab a link between insulin resistance and serum ghrelin concentration was observed.
23971025 Based upon the aforementioned relationships, it appears that fasting levels of serum ghrelin are related to both verbal learning and adiposity in healthy, fit older adults.
23965296 Our data provide new experimental evidence for the role of ghrelin in gastric motility disorder in diabetes.
23964904 Data suggest plasma GHRL concentrations are down-regulated in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive subjects, whereas arterial stiffness is increased; thus, ghrelin may play active role in pathophysiological process of arterial stiffness.
23950037 besides regulating cell proliferation and survival, obestatin has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, both in vitro, in pancreatic beta-cells and adipocytes, and in vivo
23867619 FTO regulates ghrelin, a key mediator of ingestive behavior.
23865468 Helicobacter pylori infection is associates with a mucosal downregulation of ghrelin.
23816797 In the posterior segment, the ghrelin-GHSR-1a system interferes with the development of oxygen-induced retinopathy, being protective in the vaso-obliterative phase and deleterious in the vaso-proliferative stage of the disease. (Review)
23806576 Ghrelin lvels are elevated in the serum in obesity compared with healthy control serum.
23804549 Ghrelin modulates bone cell function, and couples bone metabolism with energy metabolism. [Review]
23768444 we report the increased levels of plasma obestatin in non-morbidly obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after sleeve gastrectomy
23744028 Gpr83 modulates ghrelin action and Gpr83 regulates systemic metabolism through other ghrelin-independent pathways.
23744005 Demonstrate tight negative association of des-acyl ghrelin levels with lower eGFR, impairment of the normal postprandial ghrelin suppression to feeding in CKD and ESRD, and showed that hemodialysis returns DG toward normal.
23728548 The preproghrelin 3056TT genotype is associated with feelings of hunger in Helicobacter pylori-negative functional dyspepsia patients.
23724093 Role of the vagus nerve on gastric motility, was investigated using conscious suncus-a motilin- and ghrelin-producing small animal.
23702397 Data suggest that ghrelin, a hormone produced in the stomach, is a major factor affecting growth hormone release from the pituitary, and thus ghrelin can have effects on musculoskeletal function in aging. [REVIEW]
23652420 low active ghrelin ratio may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms in multiple system atrophy
23632965 the intrinsic apoptosis is triggered via proteasome inhibition with concomitant autophagy induction, thus contributing to clarify the growing and debated literature on ghrelin effect on cancer cells.
23584608 The distribution of pancreatic epsilon cells in adult human and rat islets by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation
23571102 Ghrelin attenuates collagen production in lesional fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis
23567762 Plasma ghrelin levels were increased, and TNF-a and IL-6 were decreased in obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without coronary heart disease.
23524619 The correlation between serum and CSF concentrations in multiple sclerosis, but not in controls, suggests a differential regulation of blood-to-brain transport mechanisms for ghrelin in multiple sclerosis.
23509106 Data suggest that plasma ghrelin is influenced similarly by high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal; plasma ghrelin is significantly associated with changes in hunger which in turn correlates with energy intake.
23501042 the ghrelin-leptin network had an impact on serum YKL-40 levels in obese prepubertal children; upregulation of YKL-40 secretion seems to be a consequence of reduced ghrelin rather than elevated leptin concentrations
23489688 The differences in gastric ghrelin cells and ghrelin levels in serum between women and men, indicate that secretion of hormone can be under control sex hormones or other unknown factors.
23485550 mRNA of preproghrelin expression is a proof of ghrelin gene-derived peptide presence in thyroid tissues
23430445 Adiponectin and ghrelin levels are significantly increased in patients with lung cancer.
23415825 Energy deficits are at least partially offset by neuroendocrine mechanisms involving ghrelin and leptin; in addition, ghrelin and leptin exert influences on spatially and functionally-related mechanisms regulating reproductive function. [REVIEW]
23391977 Ghrelin may play an important role in pathophysiology of some endocrine diseases.
23333252 An AMPT-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms, providing evidence for a catecholamine-related involvement of ghrelin in the modulation of mood.
23321590 The ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism was protective against type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. No association was found between the ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism and type 2 diabetes risk in the overall population. [Meta-analysis]
23313276 REVIEW: Dysfunctions of leptin, ghrelin, BDNF and endocannabinoids in eating disorders
23296465 increased levels of ghrelin in hyperemesis gravidarum might be a compensatory mechanism to restore the energy metabolism of the pregnant women
23259466 Data show that the leptin/ghrelin ratio was significantly higher in Takayasu arteritis (TA) than controls, but no statistical difference in adiponectin levels between TA and controls.
23257630 Female Japanese minor homozygotes for preproghrelin gene polymorphisms were light eaters, did not prefer fat or protein, and apparently had a poor appetite, although they were predisposed to obesity.
23257416 We report serum obestatin concentrations in infants and confirm the presence of correlations between ghrelin and obestatin in lactating mothers and breast milk.
23199168 Compared with day workers within the same BMI range, night workers presented a disrupted control of ghrelin and xenin, associated with behavioural changes in diet and sleep and increased adiposity and related metabolic alterations.
23179778 As obestatin affects NREM sleep, we suggest that increased plasma levels contribute to the disrupted sleep-state control in narcolepsy.
23147274 Only a minority of human neuroendocrine tumors express ghrelin and obestatin.
23142314 Low acyl ghrelin and high des-acyl ghrelin concentrations were associated with cirrhosis severity, whereas low leptin concentration was associated with undernourishment in children and adolescents with cirrhosis
23084284 this study showed that the rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) polymorphism in the preproghrelin gene may be associated with increased risk of panic disorder.
23076509 Data suggest that the response to oral glucose is lower ghrelin levels in plasma in frail elderly women versus non-frail elderly women; fasting plasma ghrelin levels are also lower.
23056203 Data indicate the presence of a certain amount of alpha-helical structure in both human and mouse obestatin.
23029165 results suggest that except for postmenopausal women, high circulating ghrelin level is associated with lower insulin resistance in the general population
22974102 Both diabetic and pre-diabetic abstinent alcoholics exhibit elevated ghrelin levels.
22954902 Circulating concentrations of PYY were inversely associated with circulating concentrations of ghrelin over 24 h in normal weight, premenopausal women. PYY may contribute to the modulation of the secretion of GHR in normal weight, premenopausal women.
22954236 Data from patients with benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors suggest that ghrelin expression progressively declines from benign group toward malignant group; obestatin expression did not change. No association was found with recurrence.
22936258 This study compares ghrelin concentrations with IGF-I/IGFBP3 molar ratio in children with growth hormone deficiency, neurosecretory dysfunction, and idiopathic short stature. Ghrelin was significantly higher in children with lower IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio.
22876551 Despite the major role of ghrelin in growth and appetite regulation, our results indicate that mutations in ghrelin and GHSR do not explain short stature and weight regulation disorders in children in our population.
22869322 Acylated and desacyl ghrelin reduce TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human visceral adipocytes.
22763970 The aim of this study was to assess the impact of laparoscopic gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on the concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides in plasma in patients with obesity.
22740095 Data suggest that GHRL is detectable in fetal/maternal serum; here, significant correlation between maternal GHRL and fetal GHRL serum concentrations, but no correlation with glycemic control in type 1 diabetic pregnant women at parturition.
22706426 ghrelin was no associated with nicotine withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving in smokers with acute nicotine withdrawal
22657566 Data suggest a positive association between plasma ghrelin and both bone mineral density (BMD) and plasma estradiol; plasma ghrelin is significantly decreased in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in comparison to premenopausal women.
22635094 Ghrelin concentration is elevated in growth hormone deficiency and neurosecretory dysfunction children.
22632858 Deregulation of GHRL/GHRL receptor signaling can lead to either development of obesity or anorexia nervosa. [REVIEW]
22632857 In addition to modulating the release of growth hormone and regulating gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin plays crucial role in controlling gastrointestinal secretions and protecting stomach and colon. [REVIEW]
22632856 Ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor signaling plays biologically/clinically relevant roles by influencing energy metabolism, growth hormone secretion, inflammatory responses, cardiovascular performance, and behavior. [REVIEW]
22611317 Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia.
22601779 results provide evidence of a novel role for obestatin in adipocyte function and glucose metabolism
22588952 The decline of ghrelin maybe a protection mechanism for endothelial function in adolescents with family history of diabetes
22544849 [review] Ghrelin levels and actions have been assessed in various female reproductive system disorders, the findings of which could lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders.
22523830 The ghrelin/GHS-R/GOAT system has been studied extensively in view of its association with several endocrine diseases and the potential of developing an effective treatment.
22481313 Data from overweight subjects in Alabama suggest that fasting/postprandial ghrelin in serum are higher in European Americans versus African Americans; these differences were not affected by habituation to diets either high or low in fat/carbohydrate.
22477150 Data suggest that reductions in ghrelin levels and elevations in HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) levels associated with fever may be important parameters in clinical evaluation and follow-up of treatments with vaccines (here, swine flu/H1N1 vaccine).
22442280 The consumption of food for pleasure was characterized by increased peripheral levels of both the peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol.
22441120 Leu72Met polymorphism of the preproghrelin gene was not associated with T2DM in Chinese population. However, it may have some roles in the etiology of insulin resistance
22369141 These four GHRL gene SNPs were not associated with schizophrenia in this Chinese Han population
22366529 Report differential expression of ghrelin mrna/protein in stomach regions.
22315469 Ghrelin inhibits the central nervous system response to ingested lipids.
22311236 Breast milk active ghrelin levels were higher than the infant and maternal serum active ghrelin at the 1st and 4th months
22306927 Ghrelin levels were higher in Rett girls with respect to healthy controls, and negatively associated with both Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound parameters.
22300359 Suggest that a bout of aerobic exercise maintains the meal-induced suppression of hunger via suppression of plasma acylated ghrelin.
22260823 Rikkunshito improves upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia, accompanied by an increase in the levels of acylated ghrelin.
22252944 We conclude that higher ghrelin and lower leptin secretion in amenorrheic athletes related to lower fat mass may contribute to altered LH pulsatility and amenorrhea.
22180062 Low level of serum GHRL protein is associated with the risk of developing squamous cell esophageal carcinoma.
22174388 Helicobacter pylori infection may influence the ghrelin seminal concentrations, probably as a response to a negative effect of infection on the semen quality.
22171144 Increased serum leptin before treatment may predict non-sustained virological response (SVR), especially in HCV genotype-1 infected patients, whereas increased ghrelin may predict SVR in genotype-1.
22167137 Adipokines and ghrelin play an important role in ischemic stroke, but their function in stroke subtypes seems to be different and sex influenced.
22143318 A negative correlation is detected between active ghrelin levels and birth weight in preterm infants.
22087538 Immunohistochemical staining revealed expression of ghrelin and GHSR1alpha both in glandular endometrioid epithelium and in some stromal cells, particularly in some fibroblasts, blood vessels and infiltrating leukocytes.
22074572 This review highlights the role of ghrelin in the regulation of energy balance and cardiovascular function.
22067021 Loss of ghrelin is associated with recurrence in invasive breast cancer.
22005651 One single nucleotide polymorphism of GHRL showed a marginal association with age of Alzheimer's disease
21930173 The studies do not support the hypothesis of ghrelin polymorphisms being significant contributors of obesity risk, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus risk, eating disorders, or height determination. (Review)
21924713 Serum/follicular fluid ghrelin levels are reflective of embryo development, possibly through interactions with follicular fluid insulin in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.
21906630 There was no significant correlation between insulin and ghrelin, and between insulin and leptin in all age groups in healthy children
21889930 The present study aims to establish the levels of acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin, obestatin and preptin, during pregnancy and the postpartum period in pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and healthy pregnancy women.
21855160 In this study of patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin was associated with a significant decrease in serum ghrelin levels.
21804576 Ghrelin significantly enhances the generation of beating cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells, which is likely mediated via an unidentified subtype of ghrelin receptor rather than GHS-R1alpha.
21784109 The present study is the first in literature to evaluate the levels of obestatin in adults with chronic renal failure and in renal transplant recipients.
21782925 Results describe the role of ghrelin in Rett syndrome (RTT) and suggest this peptide as a novel biological marker in patients with RTT.
21761369 these data indicate that ghrelin promotes the progression of endometrial cancer cells in vitro
21742599 Data suggest that in hyperthyroid patients, plasma ghrelin levels are lower and serum resistin levels and insulin resistance parameters are higher than in control subjects; all values normalize with antithyroid treatment (i.e., carbimazole).
21722955 Data suggest that hyperphagia in Prader-Willi syndrome is not related to a lower postprandial GLP-1 or PYY response, and that elevated ghrelin levels are consistent with increased hunger and are unrelated to insulin levels.
21693726 Low baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of (non-cardia) gastric & E-G junctional adenocarcinoma, suggesting a potential role for gastric hormones in carcinogenesis.
21667437 Data suggest that plasma obestatin (and acyl ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin) is higher in restricting-type anorexia nervosa patients than in control subjects; therapy leading to increase in energy intake decreases plasma obestatin in these patients.
21667426 These data suggest that ghrelin is a physiological regulator of growth hormone (GH) in the post-oral glucose state, and the decreased ghrelin secretion could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the altered GH secretion in obesity.
21616122 Human ghrelin axis-derived molecules, ghrelin receptors and RNA transcripts, many of which may play important roles in health and disease, are reviewed.
21616120 This review will focus on the autocrine/paracrine role of ghrelin in cancer, and the actions of ghrelin that may promote cancer progression.
21614024 ghrelin and its promoter variant are associated with cardiac hypertrophy indexes independent of blood pressure.
21598092 Plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin concentrations were not directly related to bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts in contrast to untrained controls.
21565248 A role for ghrelin as an anti-inflammatory agent and immunoregulatory hormone/cytokine and its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and injury, is reviewed.
21554911 Increased serum prolactin and nesfatin-1 concentrations, decreased ghrelin concentrations could be used as markers to identify patients that have suffered a recent epileptic seizure or other paroxysmal event (psychogenic).
21539509 In diet-induced obesity, ghrelin exacerbates hyperglycemia and promotes a diabetic phenotype.
21504941 Ghrelin as a novel potential therapeutic agent for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
21502892 Examine changes in fasting total peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin in nonobese premenopausal women after an exercise and diet program with and without weight loss. Neither fasting ghrelin nor PYY changed in response to exercise in the absence of weight loss.
21478211 The present paper will give an overview of the main cardiovascular actions of the ghrelin gene-derived peptides and of GHRH.
21474128 Report the presence of obestatin in human semen and its relationship with sperm concentration and motility, suggesting a possible role of the peptide in controlling cell proliferation and survival.
21459126 The following review examines the evidence suggesting that endogenous ghrelin may be a key regulator of GH peak amplitude.
21459124 The controversies associated with the discovery of obestatin and explore emerging central and peripheral roles of obestatin, which includes adipogenesis, pancreatic homeostasis and cancer, are reviewed.
21458527 Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone secretagogues and/or ghrelin include lowering of peripheral resistance, either direct at the vascular level and/or by modulating sympathetic nervous activity.
21458525 This review summarises the impact of gastrointestinal disease on ghrelin synthesis and secretion and the potential use of ghrelin and its mimetics for the treatment of these diseases.
21453750 The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior.
21453749 Available data also demonstrate that sex steroid hormones and gonadotropins may in turn regulate the gonadal effect of ghrelin, as documented by studies performed in females with the polycystic ovary syndrome and in hypogonadal men.
21449093 in overweight, postmenopausal women, changes in energy homeostasis peptides ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin relate to both concurrent and future weight change
21448464 Associations with the ghrelin gene haplotypes and increased sucrose consumption, were found.
21419192 This review will report the evidence for the role of ghrelin in the clustering of the components of the metabolic syndrome.
21386753 Data suggest that serum acylated ghrelin (AG)levels are highest in children with poor weight gain compared with children with short stature or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, suggesting the possibility of resistance to AG in underweight children.
21370247 Ghrelin activated and phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt.
21368060 Transgenic mice demonstrate a potential mechanism by which the ghrelin transgene inhibits neurons in the solitary tract nucleus through a pathway whose responsiveness is increased during fasting.
21358603 A difference in leptin plasma levels between healthy volunteers and patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; apelin decreases and obestatin remains unchanged .
21354462 Ghrelin and other agonists of the growth hormone secretegogue receptor (GHSR-1a) also exhibit additional properties that may further benefit specific underlying diseases associated with cachexia.
21349316 ghrelin appears to be related to memory and to be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders, particularly depression.
21345363 Ghrelin levels are in general reduced in obese individuals and in subjects with insulin resistance.
21340501 Ghrelin immunopositivity does not serve as a biomarker of biologic behavior, prognosis and therapeutic responsiveness in pituitary adenomas.
21318058 Serum ghrelin concentrations might be affected by low hair Zn concentrations in children.
21294754 Comparison of alcoholic normal glucose tolerance patients to alcoholic type 2 diabetes mellitus patients finds no difference in plasma ghrelin levels.
21274374 Data suggest that elevated plasma gastrin and suppression of fasting ghrelin in patients with gastric cancer indicate a close relationship between these two hormones in gastric carcinogenesis.
21274325 Decreased appetite and feeding problems in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty were not related to depressed ghrelin levels
21225542 Snack fat content was found to be inversely correlated with plasma ghrelin levels.
21195705 results suggest that a C allele at position 408 of the ghrelin gene is associated with genetic susceptibility to ischemic heart failure in Chinese elders
21178976 Protein-energy wasting modifies the association of ghrelin with inflammation, leptin, and mortality in hemodialysis patients.
21176234 Adolescent boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty had significantly lower leptin and higher ghrelin than normal controls. Ghrelin was negatively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone
21169422 Ghrelin regulates central and peripheral lipid metabolism through specific control of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical metabolic gauge regulating both cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis.(Review)
21165813 The plasma Gh and Ob levels differ depending on the thyroid function.
21121713 Cord blood ghrelin levels did not correlate overall with birth size or postnatal catch-up growth in concordant and discordant twin pairs, but did so in selected subsets.
21113212 Ghrelin is expressed in tubular epithelial cells in normal kidney. Less is made in proliferative glomerulopathies, which may be, in part, responsible for interstitial accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in these cases.
21075359 Ghrelin was mainly expressed in human parotid and submandibular gland. Saliva ghrelin level was correlated with serum ghrelin level and BMI.
21050078 Delayed ghrelin suppression may contribute to obesity in patients with craniopharyngioma and hypothalamic obesity .
21047193 SNPs Arg51Gln, Leu72Met and Gln90Leu not associated with eating disorders
21047193 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
21040709 These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca(2+) channel
20963666 ghrelin is an essential factor in monocyte functional activity regulation during pregnancy.
20945961 increased fasting ghrelin in anorexia and, but not in bulimia nervosa patients
20921904 Ghrelin and IGFBP-3 may play a role in the bone metabolism in the inflammatory bowel disease.
20920174 A joint analysis of the two populations indicated that the T allele of rs27647 SNP exerted a protective borderline effect (Ptrend = 0.004).
20920174 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20861603 Idiopathic short stature patients exhibited a higher level of ghrelin (1,458 +/- 137 vs. 935 +/- 55 pg/ml, p < 0.01) and similar IGF-I levels (-0.66 +/- 1.29 vs. -0.32 +/- 0.78 SDS) compared to controls
20858966 Ghrelin and neurotensin expression systems are markedly altered in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients.
20813143 The concentration of apelins, ghrelins and nesfatin-1 in serum and milk in gestational diabetic lactating women was lower than in control samples.
20804798 Expression of myocardial ghrelin and GHSR-1a is directly associated with myocardial function: CHF hearts exhibit an impaired ghrelin production which might reflect maladaptive processes and an - probably compensatory - increase in GHSR-1a expression.
20734087 Results indicate that total but not acyl ghrelin is influenced by low glomerular filtration rate in children with chronic kidney disease and suggest that ghrelin activation may be impaired in these patients.
20734064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20688108 Data suggests that there are disturbances of ghrelin and obestatin in the circulating plasma of humans and the ghrelin/obestatin system might play a role in blood pressure regulation.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20616368 Report low expression of ghrelin and GHSR in mid-secretory endometria of women with unexplained infertility.
20602615 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20595321 The present review summarizes the newest findings on acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, and obestatin expression in pancreatic islets and the role of these peptides on beta-cell development, survival, and function.
20586762 the ghrelin gene might explain some of the heritability of the disease, as this gene was found to be associated with paternal alcohol dependence, which is one of the largest risk factors for developing alcohol dependence.
20586762 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20585204 Data suggest that total and acylated ghrelin levels are influenced by body mass index, showing an impairment in childhood obesity that can be improved through weight loss.
20581789 This review summarizes the effects of ghrelin on bone and cartilage metabolism.
20580037 no differences in obestatin levels were found in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
20553778 investigation of conformation of obestatin {1-23} and two peptide fragments (obestatins {1-10} and {11-23}); investigation of metabolic response to feeding obestatin/peptides in mouse model of obesity/diabetes
20537572 Low ghrelin levels in obese polycystic ovarian syndrome patients correlated with insulin resistance as demonstrated by glucose loading
20517652 The Leu72Met polymorphism of ghrelin gene is not associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children.
20517652 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20509935 Ghrelin plays a significant autocrine and paracrine role in the maintenance of relaxation in the myometrium during pregnancy.
20503481 Data show that normal and diabetic subjects display similar levels of circulating obestatin in fasting , but diabetic patients do not exhibit the inhibitory effect of meal on obestatin secretion.
20472480 sprint exercise suppresses total ghrelin concentrations
20468064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20466571 These results show sustained ghrelin suppression, and suggest greater satiety with ingestion of a meal containing glycomacropeptide compared with amino acids.
20453000 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20421852 The 3056 T-->C single nucleotide polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is related to the probability and the rate of recovery of normal body weight from restricting-type anorexia nervosa.
20411479 The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in ghrelin levels (acyl and des-acyl) during early treatment of anorexia nervosa.
20382189 REVIEW: overview of the expression and putative role of ghrelin and its receptor in cancer
20379614 Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
20376885 Carotid intima-media thickness in the Prader-Willi syndrome group did not differ from those in the controls, although total ghrelin levels were higher in the PWS children (p = 0.003).
20367557 cirrhotic patients have significantly higher circulating levels of both acylated and total ghrelin
20339027 Very low ghrelin levels and increased anorexigenic to orexigenic peptide ratios suggest either a lack of adaptation to a starvation state or a higher facility to cope with undernutrition
20338210 Ghrelin covaried with motilin in plasma in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in plasma from healthy subjects. This suggests the two peptides act together in IBS.
20298456 results suggest that ghrelin plays a dual time-dependent role in modulating hypothalamic lipid metabolism
20195769 These findings suggest that the liver could be involved in the regulation of circulating ghrelin.
20194708 When applied to the nutrient study, the sandwich assays for plasma ghrelin levels are better able to distinguish the different responses to different nutrients than are radioimmunoassays.
20188316 In healthy elderly people relatively large amounts of fat increase the satiety signal from GLP-1 and lower the acylated to desacylated ratio of ghrelin, consequently decreasing hunger. This condition may lead to a reduction in calorie intake.
20185531 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20184601 Data show that acylated ghrelin is markedly increased in alcoholic cirrhosis.
20180161 Ghrelin mRNA expression in placental tissue was higher in subjects with gestational diabetes compared to normal glucose tolerance subjects.
20172008 Ghrelin and CgA concentrations were greater in PGE patients previously or currently treated with drugs, and in patients with simple or complex partial epilepsy (PE) previously or currently treated with drugs, than in healthy normal controls.
20164039 The presence of ghrelin was shown in the glandular part of the pituitary and CNS during the whole period of intrauterine life.
20157287 Our findings suggest that fasting serum total ghrelin levels measured at one time point might not have predictive value for the development of abnormalities in glucose tolerance.
20152820 Brazilian pregnant women carrying the rare 51-Gln allele of ghrelin have a 5-fold lower risk of developing gestational diabetes .
20152820 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20150876 Gsp mutations may upregulate the expression of GHSR-1a mRNA and have no effect on ghrelin mRNA levels in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
20145424 Preprandial oral dose of sitagliptin does not affect circulating ghrelin, but it decreased ghrelin levels after meal loading.
20096985 results demonstrate an altered active to total ghrelin ratio, as well as a tendency towards lower both total and active fasting serum ghrelin levels in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome, more pronounced in the more severe forms of the syndrome.
20010782 statistical evidence for association between ghrelin SNPs and risk of hypertension.
20010782 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20004655 Normal eating speed appears to be beneficial for maintaining the optimal blood glucose and ghrelin levels.
19965946 these findings suggest that leptin and ghrelin play a role in clinical manifestations observed in systemic lupus erythematosus; ghrelin levels of SLE patients were lower than those of normal healthy controls
19955759 acylated and nonacylated GRLN, as well as obestatin, play a major role in regulating peripheral metabolism and it is not by chance that their secretion is mostly under metabolic regulation--REVIEW
19952806 This study demonstrates that, despite inducing a moderate energy deficit, an acute bout of subjectively paced brisk walking does not elicit compensatory responses in acylated ghrelin, appetite, or energy intake
19916170 gastric ghrelin may have a gastroprotective role at the stage of non-atrophic gastritis in H pylori positive patients
19914322 Overweight and obese subjects have a reduction in the number of obestatin-positive cells in gastric body mucosa.
19913442 study reports high des-acyl ghrelin and leptin levels and low acyl ghrelin levels in hemodialysis patients, a finding potentially associated with inflammation and food intake
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19899406 Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group
19888469 PPARgamma as a molecular target of ghrelin signaling in macrophages
19885611 Review: ghrelin in gastrointestinal diseases and disorders: a possible role in the pathophysiology and clinical implications.
19884263 Women with anorexia nervosa have an increased suppression of serum ghrelin by hyperinsulinemia; this phenomenon might lead to an increased and more rapid feeling of satiety
19876004 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19863750 We hypothesize an association between ghrelin and metabolic control in T1DM following regular physical activity in children and adolescents.
19845749 These findings suggest changes in the regulation of GH and ghrelin secretion dynamics in early stage Huntington's disease patients that could become more prominent in the later stages of the disease.
19841105 Circulating ghrelin exists in both lipoprotein bound and free forms
19834878 low ghrelin serum levels are significantly associated with advanced carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
19811274 adiponectin, ghrelin and visfatin levels were higher in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than in controls
19797396 Depressed levels of ghrelin in children with adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy lead to decreased appetite and insufficient energy
19773372 Acylated-ghrelin excess may negatively modulate insulin action in obese and nonobese children, and may contribute to the association of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
19770497 Suggest that ghrelin might play a role in the compensation of intrauterine undernutrition, promoting postnatal growth in intrauterine growth restricted neonates.
19722179 In comparison with control values, leptin levels were significantly decreased in purging disorder, as well as in bulimia nervos. Plasma ghrelin levels did not differ significantly across groups.
19705241 Ghrelin levels were significantly higher in cachectic patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms.
19670151 Ghrelin mRNA levels were detected in all human tissues with the highest levels in stomach, pituitary, and small intestine.
19666068 There was disturbance of circulating ghrelin and obestatin in the chronic heart failure (CHF) patients especially those with cachexia, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of cardiac cachexia in CHF.
19665916 Studies indicate that alternative splicing and the use of alternative post-translational cleavages sites may give rise to novel ghrelin gene-derived peptides.
19628676 The presence of PC and GOAT in the cells, as well as n-octanoic acid in the culture medium, was necessary to produce n-octanoyl ghrelin.
19617874 Infants with failure to thrive have higher circulating ghrelin concentrations but paradoxically lower appetite scores.
19601914 Plasma ghrelin levels were high both in active and inactive patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. It is shown that ghrelin may play significant role of the pathogenesis of FMF.
19589259 Serum and saliva ghrelin and obestatin levels in the end-stage renal disease patients were significantly higher compared with controls, while saliva ghrelin and obestatin levels in all study participants were significantly higher than serum levels.
19587265 i.v. administration of oxytocin decreases circulating levels of ghrelin during fasting, as well as following LPS-induced endotoxemia in healthy men
19560502 A positive correlation between the plasma obestatin concentration and the mean arterial pressure was observed in normal pregnant women and pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension.
19521111 This is the first comparison of ghrelin secretion patterns in patients with major depression and healthy controls. Surprisingly, no relevant differences were ascertained between the two groups.
19491387 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19491251 Serum ghrelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels are elevated in patients with CHD whether acyanotic or cyanotic. Increased ghrelin levels represent malnutrition and growth retardation in these patients
19453261 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19433492 Systemically administered ghrelin elicits a GH pulse independent of somatostatin, but only in the presence of growth hormone-releasing hormone.
19424595 There was no statistical difference in total or active ghrelin between irritable bowel syndrome patients and controls, regarding tissue extracts or plasma.
19419933 The aim of this paper was assessment of location, expression and role of ghrelin in the development and maturation of human fetal adrenal glands and paraadrenal nerve ganglions.
19408254 Ghrelin value was statistically significantly higher in patients with active disease than in patients in remission.
19406177 Ghrelin could protect the heart against I/R injury, at least in part, through inhibiting myocardial endoplasm reticulum stress.
19397477 The genetics, structure, processing, and function of ghrelin and its receptor, with emphasis on glucose metabolism are reviewed. Review.
19393347 The results of this investigation indicate that the influence of the two distinct isoforms of ghrelin on bone density is mediated by specific body composition parameters in obese and control healthy children.
19385031 Meal-related changes in ghrelin are correlated with the intermeal interval in normal weight subjects only, independent of diet. Ghrelin concentrations may need to reach a certain threshold level before the next meal is initiated.
19369431 fiber intake is an important regulator of ghrelin levels both in fasting and in hyperinsulinemic conditions
19367093 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19352215 Mutant obestatin frequencies were 1% in panic disorder patients, 9.2% in major depressive disorder patients, and 5% in the controls
19339394 Advanced age determines a poorer ghrelin postprandial recuperation phase.
19337009 ghrelin concentration decreased during puberty in physically inactive boys, while in regularly physically active boys it remained relatively unchanged.
19327128 Results indicate that KLF4 positively regulates human ghrelin expression via binding to a KLF-responsive region in the promoter.
19325538 Report increased carbohydrate induced ghrelin secretion in obese vs. normal-weight adolescent girls.
19324904 ghrelin functions in an autocrine and paracrine capacity to regulate proinflammatory cytokine expression in human and murine T cells
19318377 Non-obese prepubertal children born large for gestational age have lower ghrelin levels when compared with age and BMI matched AGA children. Birth weight seems to have the only significant effect on the reduced ghrelin levels.
19289536 Obestatin and ghrelin immunoreactivity always occurred in the same endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa but these cells only occasionally co-expressed VMAT-2, opposite to the findings in tumours.
19282046 increased serum levels in non-small cell lung cancer patients
19262995 low ghrelin and especially the dramatically elevated nesfatin-1 levels might contribute to the pathophyisology of epilepsy.
19262695 beta-arrestins and c-Src are implicated in the activation of Akt in response to ghrelin through the GHS-R1a
19261663 Circulating ghrelin level was elevated in children with congenital cyanotic and acyanotic heart disease, and was associated with a decrease in BMI
19246923 Acylated ghrelin might play an important role in the pathophysiology of postprandial distress syndrome patients through its effect on gastric emptying.
19213003 Plasma ghrelin concentration is a signal of decreased fat free mass in healthy elderly females
19199214 Ghrelin did not appear to have a direct influence on BMD in young male competitive swimmers.
19198916 in healthy adults, plasma ghrelin concentrations are not significantly influenced by age or energy intake per se, but relate to skeletal muscle mass
19193342 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-gene interaction, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
19191138 Polymorphisms of the LEPR and GHRL seem unlikely to be associated with asthma or BMI in our sample.
19191138 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19165163 Common polymorphisms in ghrelin and its receptor genes are not major contributors to the development of polygenic obesity, although common variants may alter body weight and eating behavior.
19165163 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19160571 Low ghrelin is associated with metablolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the presence of insulin and leptin resistance; Ghrelin-leptin relation is associated with early atherosclerosis.
19154949 The ghrelin gene may play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors
19139783 Ghrelin was markedly elevated in renal failure due to its decrease in excretion. Negative correlation between ghrelin and fat composition was detected in dialysis patients
19120912 Restored tissue levels of ghrelin and improved status of appetite was achieved with gastric ulcer healing and H. pylori eradication.
19112387 Ghrelin gene is expressed in somatotroph adenomas, both treated and untreated with octreotide LAR before the surgery, and also in other types of pituitary adenomas (prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas).
19106245 Visceral fat mass is a strong predictor of basal ghrelin concentrations and also attenuates the suppressive effect of insulin on ghrelin concentrations
19100004 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19077438 findings show that genetic variation in GHRL may have a modest impact on body mass index in European Americans
19077438 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19073905 Report effects of exercise on energy-regulating hormone ghrelin and appetite in men and women.
19059729 Plasma ghrelin levels across the night were significantly lower in insomnia patients.
19058789 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19057526 Obestatin and ghrelin are directly correlated and share the same patterns of association with participant characteristics. Modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, such as BMI, are associated with fasting levels of leptin, obestatin, and ghrelin.
19054628 ghrelin expression in renal cell carcinoma tissues is always lower than that in normal kidney or is absent
19054012 Ghrelin suppresses the secretion of FSH in humans.
19049992 No association was found between Leu72Met and Arg51Gln polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population.
19049992 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19041092 Plasma des-acyl ghrelin, but not plasma HMW adiponectin, is a useful cardiometabolic marker for predicting atherosclerosis in elderly hypertensive patients.
19039650 Data suggest that depressed expression of ghrelin, but not obestatin, is specific to papillary carcinoma, and this difference might constitute a diagnostic tool to differentiate papillary carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue.
19031219 In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, a strong negative correlation was observed between ghrelin values and the clinical (body mass index, waist circumference) and hormonal indices of insulin resistance.
19028051 Ghrelin inhibits homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries and human endothelial cells.
19022392 Peripherally administered ghrelin stimulated the cortisol axis in summer flounder.
19011469 PYY and ghrelin play a major role in pathogenesis of anorexia-cachexia syndrome in pediatric ALL patients.
19004538 adiponectin revealed a positive correlation with leptin and ghrelin suggesting an interaction between these hormones in the placenta in small for gestational age infants.
18996292 Results describe an inverse association between the circulating fasting total ghrelin level and metabolic syndrome among hemodialysis patients.
18996102 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
18992263 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18987287 Ghrelin and PYY may regulate appetite during and after exercise.
18979162 it appears that the influence of plasma ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin levels on bone mineral mass and bone mineral density values is mediated or confounded by the specific body composition parameters in healthy postmenopausal women
18976754 endometriosis is associated with increased peritoneal ghrelin levels
18973889 In patients with PCOS, an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone increases ghrelin levels but not leptin levels in a 3-month period. Ghrelin might be related to the metabolic and androgenic changes in patients with PCOS.
18945286 Variants of the ghrelin and GHSR genes are not major contributors to height variation in a French population.
18945286 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18848536 Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes; there is no association between the variant and atherosclerotic disease or ghrelin concentrations
18848536 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18831996 results revealed that preoperative levels of ghrelin in saliva and serum were significantly decreased with respect to post-op in patients undergoing appendectomy
18828808 An association is found with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the GHS-R1A gene as well as with several common haplotypes in both pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes and an increase in weight and body mass index in heavy alcohol drinkers.
18828808 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18809976 investigated the plasma concentration of total ghrelin and other hormones involved in appetite regulation in children with preterminal chronic renal failure
18797403 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18728162 Underweight anorexia nervosa patients are characterized by increased concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin and a higher ghrelin to obestatin ratio: No such changes occur in women wigh bulimia nervoa.
18714814 The Leu72Met polymorphism of ghrelin is associated with metabolic syndrome in the Han Nationality Chinese.
18714814 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18703566 Preterm children have higher ghrelin levels at prepubertal ages regardless of the magnitude of their catch up growth
18700166 Results indicate that ghrelin inhibits both basal and TNF-alpha-induced PAI-1 production via NF-kappaB pathway in HepG2 cells.
18697865 An estrogenic milieu augments synthesis and/or acylation of ghrelin peptide without altering its metabolic clearane rate.
18677577 there does not appear to be a significant correlation between circulating ghrelin and clinical or laboratory markers of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis
18667202 Ghrelin inhibits contraction and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells by cAMP/PKA pathway activation
18665387 Report the influence of increased training volume on ghrelin concentration in college level male rowers.
18663995 increased production of ghrelin may represent a compensatory hypotensive mechanism in preeclamptic women
18636124 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18624998 Adiponectin and ghrelin may not be causally involved in the development of obesity. Adiponectin is independently associated with decreased risk of incident impaired glucose tolerance.
18622896 data demonstrate a relation of plasma obestatin levels to body weight, gender and food intake, but not to age and are compatible with a potential role of obestatin in nutrient regulation
18616714 Ghrelin was expressed in human abdominal-subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both OGT and DSG (ghrelin isoforms) mediate fat deposition, while DSG affected lipolysis, lipogenesis and leptin secretion.
18611262 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18602197 Results indicate that the major instability of obestatin peptides, as currently used in biomedical investigations, should be taken into account in the interpretation of the obtained results.
18595130 Results showed that serum ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and IGF-I play important roles in cachexia-related gastric cancers.
18588931 Data show that plasma obestatin and ghrelin are lower in chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects, ghrelin to obestatin ratio is decreased, and a relationship exists between atrophy and decreased obestatin.
18584199 Ghrelin appears to be a further biochemical parameter in addition to the sex steroids which correlated with different digit-length ratios at least in boys.
18567824 The impaired cholinergic regulation of the postprandial drop in ghrelin concentrations and rise in PYY concentrations might be part of the deregulated food intake in obese subjects
18563283 elderly Italian men serum ghrelin was significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density
18561093 Ghrelin levels are lowered by growth hormone and somatostatin analogues
18552514 The appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin seems to be associated with traits of eating behavior in the context of psychiatric disorders.
18550870 Suppression of ghrelin by intraduodenal glucose in healthy males is apparently independent of the glucose load and unrelated to blood glucose or insulin levels.
18547344 Ghrelin is higher in old men in comparison to women and decreases over time with a steeper decline in subjects with metabolic syndrome; moreover, in these subjects ghrelin/IGF-I correlation is lost.
18534636 Ghrelin was significantly lower premeal and postmeal in obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) as compared to a nonBED group.
18510797 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18492761 Ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor were associated with number of metabolic syndrome components cross-sectionally, consistent with the hypothesis that these adipokines may have a central role in cardiometabolic risk.
18480381 The findings indicate that obestatin is present at very low levels compared with ghrelin in both rat and human, and has no acute effect on feeding behavior.
18466078 thyroid status influences serum ghrelin concentrations
18461271 Results show that oxytocin modulates the NPY response to ghrelin, whereas it is unable to produce direct inhibitions of basal circulating NPY levels.
18452507 Results suggest that tissue ghrelin levels do not correlate with gastric emptying rate in adult celiac disease patients and in controls.
18450953 A new role of ghrelin signaling for eNOS activation.
18448790 Ghrelin and leptin interact in the central nervous system and affect energy metabolism.[REVIEW]
18425803 The dysregulation of reactivity of T cells induced by ghrelin is associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease.
18419786 results provide evidence that acute exercise affects acylated ghrelin independent of adiposity and exercise performance
18416474 Anatomically and physiologically, the duodenum compensatively promotes ghrelin recovery and accordingly enhances BMI after gastrectomy.
18404598 After large abdominal surgery, ghrelin shows itself as an acute-phase reactant. The significant correlation between ghrelin and inflammatory cytokines supposes their regulatory role in this period.
18401836 Exercise-induced increase in appetite during the later stages of recovery coinciding with the postprandial state cannot be explained by changes in the plasma concentration of total ghrelin.
18401204 data suggest the existence of a feedback link among ghrelin, glucocorticoids and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis
18398047 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18397989 Evidence that H. pylori status affects leptin and ghrelin homeostasis, presumably via intragastric interactions.
18380540 Impairments in ghrelin secretion may in concert with other factors play an important role in the development of both obesity and anorexia nervosa
18375957 Authors observed evidence for association of GHRL polymorphisms with circulating IGF-I levels and with breast cancer risk.
18375957 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18362297 Ghrelin mRNA expression in PBMCs suggests an autocrine role for ghrelin within an immune microenvironment.
18350633 Data show that in obese children with insulin resistance, ghrelin levels decrease with advancing pubertal stage, and that baseline ghrelin levels after OGTT did not correlate with the degree of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity.
18343535 Regulation of ghrelin structure and membrane binding by phosphorylation is reported.
18329818 Ghrelin exhibited distinct sleep effects, which tended to be enhanced by both growth hormone releasing hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
18308399 Data show that Ghrelin as one the most potent orexigens affects feeding via the central circuitry.
18299465 long-term eradication of H. pylori infection is associated with a significant increase in BMI, lean and fat mass along with a significant decrease in circulating ghrelin levels and an increase in leptin levels
18283260 Serum ghrelin levels in men decline with age, is lower than in women and correlate negatively with fasting insulin levels. Serum testosterone levels in men correlate with total ghrelin levels.
18280066 Menopause stages and FSH changes are associated with changes in levels of the metabolically active adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and ghrelin and these changes may be related to selected health outcomes observed in women at mid-life.
18274638 Ghrelin, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 may have roles in cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease in children
18271694 in healthy young women that plasma obestatin concentrations decrease similarly to ghrelin after a high-carbohydrate breakfast
18271692 Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies
18250617 In both obese and polycystic ovary syndrome obese patients, leptin levels are not influenced by ghrelin administration. The GH response after ghrelin administration is blunted. Ghrelin exerts glucose- enhancing and insulin-lowering effects.
18249219 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18246525 Significantly lower ghrelin mRNA expression is associated with pheochromocytomas and aldosterone-secreting adenomas
18239581 the results of our study do not support a significant role for genetic variations in GHRL in the differences of body fat and serum lipid profiles in the Newfoundland Labrador population
18239581 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18239577 Abnormal ghrelin secretion did not contribute to the development of obesity.
18205273 lower ghrelin levels in obese subjects may be the result of obesity and hyperinsulinemia, which is very common in obese subjects, moreover, ghrelin may regulate human reproductive physiology indirectly
18198306 tested the hypothesis that gender and BMI interact to produce differences in postprandial secretion of selected humoral markers implicated in hunger and satiety(blood glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon)
18182091 Ghrelin may have a role in GH secretion and controlling growth. Lower ghrelin levels, but not ghrelin/obestatin polymorphism, might contribute to GHD.
18178497 A concurrence of elevated GH levels and decreased IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and total ghrelin levels during the early burn injury period.
18166814 Data show the first evidence that umbilical cord acylated ghrelin levels are lower than in maternal blood and support the hypothesis that the acylation process in the fetus is partly affected by cortisol and the placenta may play a role in this process.
18075283 women with polycystic ovary syndrome had lower fasting ghrelin and decreased insulin sensitivity independently of their body mass index
18071345 observations suggest a protective role of the Met72 variant and of -604 T allele of ghrelin gene in modulating insulin resistance. These SNPs or an unknown functional variant in linkage disequilibrium could increase ghrelin levels and insulin sensitivity.
18071345 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18070755 peripheral administration of obestatin did not modify food intake in rats or obese mice or gastric motor function in rats.
18070417 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18070417 In the Caucasian population, variations in the ghrelin gene could play a role in genetic determination of plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol, but they have no effect on BMI or waist hip ratio.
18064390 Our results suggested that in the cardiovascular system, ghrelin not only has an anti-inflammatory effect, but also has a significant immunoregulatory effect that may be mediated through the GHSR-1a receptor.
18055420 obesity and insulin resistance may play an important role in the release of ghrelin as well as in the negative correlation between ghrelin and leptin
18051927 In prepubertal, insulin-resistant obese children, ghrelin is significantly suppressed shortly after glucose intake.
18049109 Ghrelin is an independent marker for abnormalities in glucose homeostasis after kidney trransplantation.
18001718 Elevated ghrelin level in women of normal weight with amenorrhea is related to disordered eating.
17992644 Ten minutes of endurance exercise significantly decreased plasma ghrelin in normal men.
17992641 Regression analysis indicated the change leptin influence on acylated ghrelin level from positive in normal-weight to negative in obese women without insulin-resistance; in obese women with insulin resistance leptin was not associated with ghrelin.
17957159 Ghrelin concentrations are a function of body mass indes rather than feeding status in obese girls.
17957153 Total cord ghrelin and leptin are not directly related to milk intake or feed frequency in the first week of life. Circulating insulin concentrations may have a role in the initiation of feeding behavior.
17952858 Ghrelin is expressed in the medulla of human and rat adrenal glands and also expressed in human pheochromocytomas.
17952631 Results support the possibility that ghrelin is co-released from neuroendocrine tumors and exerts an orexigenic effect in these patients, helping to maintain their body mass index despite widely disseminated disease.
17949242 Report changes in hormone secretion and response of isolated ovarian tissue from transgenic animals to FSH and ghrelin.
17923797 in healthy women basal Ghr level is regulated by multiple factors, mainly by insulin sensitivity, leptin, and adrenal glands activity
17893689 Current evidence in this review suggests that ghrelin controls glucose metabolism, and that most of the actions of ghrelin could contribute to the metabolic syndrome.
17890503 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
17884293 In conclusion, ECT treatment seems to be associated with decreased ghrelin levels and increased cholesterol levels but not leptin levels.
17884032 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17884032 data indicate that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese population; however, the Leu72Met variant is associated with BMI among CAD patients
17869379 concentration of obestatin circulating in blood was measured in the same cohort of women and was significantly lower in obese and obese diabetic women compared to control
17766711 that the imbalance of ghrelin and obestatin may have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity
17727735 first demonstration of putative obestatin and C-ghrelin specific transcripts and these findings suggest that these ghrelin gene-derived peptides may also be produced independently of preproghrelin
17719561 ghrelin has a role in human endothelial cell apoptosis induced by high glucose
17717076 basal Ghrelin receptor internalization occurs independently of beta-arrestins
17711921 ghrelin secretion is negatively affected by autoimmune gastritis
17709151 The plasma levels of obestatin in metabolically obese, normal-weight men were significantly decreased compared to normal subjects. .
17689128 Low levels of ghrelin in fibromyalgia are not related to the changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-IGF-1 axis.
17688884 Gastric cancer affects the production of ghrelin in the gastric mucosa
17667848 Demonstrate substantial genetic component in variation in serum ghrelin and evidence of strong linkage signal on chromosome 1p36.
17666475 Plasma ghrelin might be part of the complex immuno-neuroendocrine mechanisms activated by systemic infection and inflammation in humans
17652221 Obesity could alter circulating ghrelin profile, and relative Acylated-Ghr excess could contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome
17646723 Data show that there is a slight decrease in ghrelin levels with age in older men aged 70 yr or more, although the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear.
17635077 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17616856 Ghrelin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than in obese women.
17616759 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17609506 acute negative energy balance induced by specific maximal short-term exercise elicits a metabolic response with opposite changes in ghrelin and leptin concentrations in elite male athletes
17601657 These findings demonstrate in a defined system that unacylated ghrelin does not antagonize activation of the GHS-R by ghrelin.
17596538 naturally occurring GHSR mutations affect a wide range of pharmacologic properties
17595255 The upper small intestine is an important source of ghrelin. Ghrelin and motilin are cosecreted.
17587401 Serum ghrelin levels among men aged 40-49 are significantly higher in Caucasian Americans than in the Japanese in Japan.
17562288 Ghrelin could potentially play interesting physiological roles in teeth.
17556836 Anorexia is highly prevalent among hemodialysis patients and des-acyl ghrelin could be involved in its pathogenesis.
17551399 association with ghrelin levels and iron deficiency and to see whether changes seen in iron deficiency (ID) are explained by ghrelin levels.
17544318 In addition to stimulation of GH release, ghrelin stimulates appetite & food intake, enhancing fat mass deposition & weight gain. [review]
17543279 ghrelin inhibits ASK1-mediated apoptosis and ASK1 activation by a mechanism involving induction of HSP70
17530417 ghrelin's endocrine, paracrine and autocrine effects play a role in its physiological and pathophysiological functions--REVIEW
17495198 effects of acute and chronic consumption of higher dietary protein on energy expenditure, macronutrient use, appetite, and appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, during weight loss in women.
17494105 This study demonstrates the cyclical expression of GHS-R and ghrelin in human endometrium.
17449920 This suggests that even though insulin sensitivity to ghrelin is well maintained, an increase in the baseline ghrelin levels is characteristic of PWS.
17436104 Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms could be associated with leptin and ghrelin expression in the gastric mucosa.
17405826 Acylated and unacylated ghrelin are potential auto/paracrine factors acting through an antiapoptotic pathway to stimulate adrenocortical tumor cell growth.
17389697 Common genetic variation within GHRL is not responsible for variation in adult stature in type 2 diabetes patients
17347386 These results indicate that repeated bouts of exercise cause enhanced fat metabolism compared with a single bout of prolonged exercise of equivalent total exercise duration.
17344504 In liver cirrhosis, altered postprandial glucose and ghrelin are associated with reduced energy intake and weight loss.
17336462 Ghrelin might ameliorate neuropathic pain by diminishing proinflammatory cytokines and regulating the pain system.
17324965 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
17324965 specific haplotypes of the ghrelin ligand and its receptor act epistatically to affect susceptibility or tolerance to myocardial infarction and/or corony heart disease.
17317872 These results indicate that repeated bouts of exercise cause enhanced fat metabolism compared with a single bout of prolonged exercise of equivalent total exercise duration.
17317021 In contrast to GHRH, ghrelin's stimulatory effects were apparently not counteracted (GH), and enhanced (cortisol), respectively, by high CRH in the second half of night.
17311892 Novel pharmacokinetics of ghrelin. BMI and HDL correlate positively with mean residence time of infused ghrelin. Supraphysiological ghrelin levels impair insulin sensitivity.
17289852 Ghrelin interacts via its N- and C-terminal parts with HDLs and VHDLs
17280594 ghrelin stimulates ACTH secretion directly from human tumoural corticotrophs, as well as normal rat pituitary; marked ACTH release elicited by ghrelin in patients with Cushing's disease is due, at least in part, to its action on the pituitary tumour
17258885 Gastrin and ghrelin serum levels were respectively slightly higher and significantly lower in colon cancer patients than in controls. Gastrin levels were higher in left colon cancer and H. pylori infection while ghrelin levels were lower in both groups
17197106 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17187020 this is the first demonstration of a ghrelin-NPY interaction in humans, which may suggest a possible mediation of ghrelin action by NPY in humans
17184731 This is the first demonstration that ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in human microvascular endothelial cells and that ghrelin stimulates HMVEC proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through activation of ERK2 signaling.
17167339 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17167339 Leu72Met ghrelin gene variant may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to binge eating disorder.
17138722 Cholecystokinin mediated the effect of intraduodenal fat on GHRL secretion.
17119003 Fasting total (acetylated and desacyl) ghrelin concentrations were lower in overweight (600 +/- 33 pg/ml) compared with normal weight (764 +/- 33 pg/ml, P < 0.05) boys and were not affected by exercise
17113048 Dense networks of ghrelin-IR axons were observed in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial, ventromedial and infundibular nuclei and in the periventricular area. Ghrelin-IR axons appeared in the pituitary stalk.
17079741 Expression of ghrelin by Leydig cells is inversely correlated with serum testosterone, & we propose that ghrelin has an indirect effect on spermatogenesis.
17074331 High ghrelin in women with FHA may be linked to abnormal dietary behaviors, as reflected in high EAT scores yet characterized by normal caloric intake.
17068144 Acylated(AG) and unacylated(UAG) ghrelin promote survival of both beta-cells and human islets. Effects are independent of ghrelin receptor and are likely mediated by AG/UAG binding sites.
16979415 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16959833 GPR39 is probably not the obestatin receptor
16957407 This data questions the significance of the role of peripheral ghrelin in the regulation of appetite in humans and suggests an important role for central ghrelin in the pathogenesis of obesity in humans.
16954444 Expressed in Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, indicating the presence of autocrine/paracrine loops.
16954159 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16949080 findings suggest a role of ghrelin in the control of endothelial cell migration and its possible involvement in vascular changes present in disorders characterized by low plasma ghrelin.
16942934 Several ghrelin gene variations were associated with blood pressure levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.
16929151 Increased plasma ghrelin level has been reported in patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease and in their disease animal model.
16929150 Ghrelin significantly attenuated the inflammatory stimuli imposed after H. pylori and endows the stomach the protective effect from exogenous damages.
16921495 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16868147 basal and postprandial ghrelin increases with reduced fat free mass, specifically appendicular skeletal muscle mass
16865101 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16839485 Weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery occurs in spite of the absence of significant changes in plasma ghrelin levels
16793966 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16793966 preproghrelin 72Met carrier status may be used as a marker predicting a lower chance of developing renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy
16759313 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
16735961 Components of the energy balance (ie: energy intake and/or expenditure) influence ghrelin circulating levels.
16734390 Ghrelin may be associated with bone turnover, but there is no evidence for an association with bone mineral density (BMD) or short-term change in BMD in older adults
16720664 lower suppression of ghrelin in African-American youth, but not the lower peptide YY levels, correlates with insulinemia and insulin resistance
16718628 profiles of ghrelin are not only associated with the energy content of specific meals, but also with the accumulated calories prior to a subsequent meal, suggesting a role in the modulation of acute energy homeostasis
16606630 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16601073 Ghrelin has the potential to amplify dopamine signaling selectively in neurons that coexpress D1R and GHS-R.
16563563 the effects of intraduodenal fatty acids on ghrelin, PYY and GLP-2 secretion are dependent on their chain length
16552751 our results strongly suggest that ghrelin may be a proinflammatory peptide in the colon. Ghrelin may participate in the pathophysiology of colonic inflammation by inducing PKC-dependent NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 production at the colonocyte level.
16549524 Results suggest a role for ghrelin in mechanisms involved in attenuation of fetal lung hypoplasia, most likely through a growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a-independent pathway.
16538179 The ghrelin SNPs Glm90Leu, Leu72Met, and Arg51Gln, do not appear to be related to anorexia or bulimia nervosa in Europeans.
16527811 Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor have roles in astrocytoma motility
16483881 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16483881 preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with serum creatinine levels.
16476508 The differential interactions of obestatin, adiponectin, and ghrelin with the BBB illustrate their distinctive physiological interactions with the CNS.
16472909 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16459454 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16423919 We conclude that the actions of CCK and ghrelin are mediated by a common population of vagal afferent neurons.
16420657 High levels of peptide yy and low levels of ghrelin in ICU patients compared to healthy controls.
16391832 down-regulation of ghrelin gene transcription in adrenals could be associated with the reported decrease in adrenal DNA synthesis and mitogenic activity during aging
16384853 Weight loss is associated with an improved postprandial plasma ghrelin response to a carbohydrate meal, whereas the response to a fat meal is not modified.
16363872 performed molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water and in a DMPC-lipid bilayer/water system in order to structurally characterize this highly flexible peptide and its lipid binding properties
16340041 gastric H. pylori infection resulted in significant reduction in serum ghrelin levels and significant elevation of gastrin as compared to those who were gastric H. pylori negative
16322288 High expression of ghrelin is associated with prostate cancer
16284174 obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene suppresses food intake; two peptide hormones with opposing action in weight regulation are derived from the same ghrelin gene; each activates distinct receptors
16210421 The present findings show that the orexigenic action of exogenous ghrelin is not diminished by a chronic hyperghrelinemia and indicate that the food ingestive pathway of the GHS-R is not susceptible to desensitization.
16207498 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16204371 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16204371 Mutations in GHRL may confer risk for the metabolic syndrome.
16204363 Ghrelin levels are influenced by lifestyle factors. The inverse association between endogenous ghrelin and the metabolic syndrome is largely explained by the strong ghrelin-body mass index association.
16198134 tere is not a significant relationship between ghrelin serum levels and parameters of the GH/IGF-I axis
16191452 ghrelin levels in colostrum, transitional and mature milk were elevated concomitantly with increasing plasma ghrelin after delivery
16189175 Hypercortisolism in humans is associated with impaired ghrelin secretion and action. Total ghrelin secretion in Cushing's disease is not reduced despite increased body mass index, insulin and glucose levels.
16188911 In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that ghrelin requires postgastric feedback, which may not be regulated through insulin.
16187069 expression of ghrelin thyroid and parathyroid glands is highly suggestive of a conserved role of this molecule in the regulation of thyroid and parathyroid cell function
16182310 Persistent decline of serum ghrelin and body weight was observed commonly after total gastrectomy
16181346 reduced serum levels in H. pylori infection independent of sex and BMI.
16131812 in women with eating disorders, ghrelin concentrations best reflect nutritional status rather than specific patterns of disordered eating behavior
16108842 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16014402 The reduced appetite observed with increased dietary protein appears not to be mediated by ghrelin homeostasis.
15998770 Ghrelin secretion predicts bone density independent of body composition, the GH-IGF-I axis, cortisol, or estradiol in healthy girls but not in those with anorexia nervosa.
15998659 in healthy humans the presence of fat in the small intestine suppresses ghrelin secretion, and fat-induced suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on fat digestion
15972581 Changes observed in circulating ghrelin and PYY concentrations in response to a test meal do not indicate a central role for these gut hormones in the control of appetite and the pathogenesis of obesity in these patients.
15956087 IGF-I or GH/IGF axis deficiency appears to be unrelated to observed ghrelin-expressing cells increases in the stomach of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.
15955378 The link between atypical antipsychotic treatment and elevated serum ghrelin levels is unknown so far, but a dysregulation of the central feedback mechanism can be hypothesised.
15894681 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15890737 In PCOS, circulating ghrelin and androgens are inversely related and it is possible that this peptide is involved in steroidal synthesis and/or action.
15863960 results demonstrate the existence of active-form ghrelin in fetal and neonatal circulation
15855322 Postprandial suppression of ghrelin is attenuated by as yet unknown mechanisms that are related to body weight but not to insulin or type 2 diabetes.
15824975 Plasma ghrelin levels rise significantly after exposure to cold
15820771 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15820771 Variation in the preproghrelin gene is not associated with juvenile-onset obesity, type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes among the examined Danish Caucasian subjects.
15795476 plasma ghrelin concentration has no significant effect on the fasting-induced attenuation of heart rate during exercise.
15786542 Helicobacter pylori infection influences plasma ghrelin dynamics and its interaction with diverse bioactive peptides involved in energy balance, growth and neuroendocrine function.
15775713 Ghrelin does not play a causal role in the GH response to pharmacological glucagon administration, which suppresses ghrelin levels starting a few minutes after injection.
15758554 Ghrelin, as well as AM, may play an important role as vasodilator local hormones and regulation of blood pressure during hemodialysis, especially the occurrence of episodic hypotension.
15752580 Measurements of ghrelin in saliva is non-invasive, simple, and generally much preferred by patients and thus may be an acceptable alternative to plasma sampling.
15745452 Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure
15699539 Increases food intake and is a valuable tool for investigating effects on eating behavior in humans.
15688209 Megative and independent association between ghrelin and IGF-I concentrations in middle-aged subjects, which is modified by obesity.
15657368 Gastric emptying in Willie Prader syndrome (WPS) is reduced despite higher ghrelin levels, and that the voracious appetite associated with PWS is related to another mechanism.
15648019 serum ghrelin was inversely correlated with body mass index and with glomerular filtration rate
15604212 structural differences between the rat and human ghrelin core promoters may account in part for the differences in their transcriptional regulation
15585547 Ghrelin levels increase with weight loss achieved without reduced food intake during an exercise program.
15579749 Serum ghrelin may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by acting as a hormonal marker of increased energy efficiency.
15564328 endogenous ghrelin stimulates erythroleukemic cell proliferation by an autocrine pathway involving an unidentified receptor
15538935 Decreased plasma ghrelin significantly associated with abdominal adiposity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance may suppress plasma ghrelin in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
15522942 No evidence that ghrelin stimulates GH release during fasting, but showed a marked diurnal rhythm.
15522935 The lowest postprandial blood levels in the obese were no different to the nadir in normal-weight volunteers after 1000-, 2000-, and 3000-kcal meals.
15476444 High circulating ghrelin and low leptin levels in patients with Huntington disease suggest a state of negative energy balance
15472212 circulating ghrelin concentrations are decreased by sham feeding as they are by real feeding in humans.
15382608 Review. Ghrelin has a clear role in the GH secretion, food intake, energy homeostasis, obesity, anorexia and bulimia
15292475 study showed that the adaptive response of ghrelin to body weight loss was already impaired 6 weeks after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP)
15292338 In a model of severe undernutrition, rhIGF-I and estrogen individually increase ghrelin levels.
15292337 Ghrelin secretion may receive positive direct or indirect input from catecholamines.
15292322 There may be a suppressive (or up-regulating) controlling mechanism of ghrelin secretion in obese (or lean) Prader-Willi syndrome children.
15292316 Lower cord ghrelin levels are associated with slower weight gain from birth to 3 months of age.
15256494 five cleavage sites in ghrelin between residues -Ser(2)-(acyl)Ser(3)- (stomach and liver), -(acyl?)Ser(3)-Phe(4)- (stomach, liver, and kidney), -Phe(4)-Leu(5)- (stomach and kidney), -Leu(5)-Ser(6)- and -Pro(7)-Glu(8)- (kidney).
15254759 ghrelin significantly enhances apoptotic deletion in tumor cell lines
15248833 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15248833 Our present findings do not support the hypothesis that the ghrelin gene polymorphisms have a relevant impact in the secretion of total and acylated ghrelin.
15248831 The rapid fall in plasma ghrelin concentration in obese children after glucose load suggests a mechanism for the control of appetite after food intake.
15248830 plasma ghrelin levels are decreased under endogenously or exogenously induced hypercortisolism, making ghrelin an unlikely candidate for causing the changes in energy balance or body composition characteristic of Cushing's disease.
15231997 the blunting of the nocturnal rise of ghrelin is a biological feature of human obesity.
15192277 Hyperghrelinemia in Prader-Willi syndrome and pituitary stalk interruption not related to growth hormone secretion.
15181097 after an overnight fast, ghrelin release depends on the ingested macronutrients and is most likely not a major regulator of acute food intake, although it is of greater importance for the recurrence of hunger and subsequent meal size.
15181083 low fasting Ghr predicts ad libitum food intake suggesting that the role of endogenous ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis remains uncertain.
15181038 ghrelin responds in a compensatory manner to changes in energy homeostasis in healthy young women, and exhibits particular sensitivity to changes in body weight.
15142980 potential role for upstream stimulatory factor transcription factors in the regulation of human ghrelin expression.
15132729 Fasting plasma adiponectin and ghrelin levels were found to be associated with central obesity or insulin resistance. Plasma adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations were not associated with each other in elderly Korean women.
15126574 Ghrelin secretion is under cholinergic, namely muscarinic, control in humans.
15126531 Confirms relationship of fasting ghrelin with food intake in disease-associated malnutrition. In presence of anorexia, hyperghrelinemia might ndicate compensatory mechanism stimulating food intake, ineffective in physiological range.
15117840 Ghrelin inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production, mononuclear cell binding, and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human endothelial cells in vitro. It could play a modulatory role in atherosclerosis.
15090637 negative relationship observed between post-biliopancreatic diversion changes in insulin resistance values and changes in serum ghrelin concentration supported the role of insulin in the modulation of ghrelin production
15075452 There is now increasing evidence that ghrelin stimulates motor activity in the gastrointestinal tract, as highlighted in this review.
15070937 Significant reduction in total ghrelin after meal. Significant relation between total ghrelin and respiratory quotient at onset of diet.
15070936 The hyperghrelinemia in prader-willi syndrome adults is therefore not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and relative hypoinsulinemia.
15070928 Food intake inhibits ghrelin secretion in adults but not in children. Ghrelin refractoriness to inhibition by food intake in children would reflect a peculiar functional profile of the ghrelin system in childhood.
15070922 In obese individuals, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are inversely associated with ghrelin concentrations.
15057671 Assuming that sensitivity of growth hormone(GH) neuroendocrine/metabolic regulation of GH is unaltered, ghrelin does not participate in regulation of GH response to exercise in healthy males.
15057670 Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) women have higher ghrelin levels than controls. Ghrelin negatively correlates with BMI and insulin levels in PCOS group. A relation between ghrelin and SHBG was observed. Ghrelin could be possible link in PCOS etiology.
15057669 Regulation of ghrelin system involved in orexigenic effects of peptide is operative during childhood, although it progressively deteriorates and is absent in adulthood when hyperphagia and obesity progressively worsen.
15052530 data confirm in primary biliary cirrhosis patients that serum bound leptin levels are increased and show a parallel decrease in serum ghrelin concentrations acting as a physiological counterpart to leptin
15001628 the depth of postprandial ghrelin suppression is proportional to ingested caloric load but that recovery of plasma ghrelin is not a critical determinant of intermeal interval.
14962995 Although deletion of either NPY or agouti-related protein caused only a modest or nondetectable effect, ablation of both ligands completely abolished the orexigenic action of ghrelin.
14871884 During the first hours of sleep, ghrelin might promote sleep-associated hGH secretion and contribute to the promotion of slow-wave sleep
14764817 Obesity is associated with impairment of entire ghrelin system. Ghrelin is further decreased in cases of abnormal energy. Relationship between ghrelin activity and energy balance in obesity.
14724664 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
14715878 results demonstrate that ghrelin and the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor are expressed in adult human testis and testicular tumors
14715869 data do not support a role for regulation of circulating ghrelin by leptin levels independently of changes in adiposity
14681862 Leptin, ghrelin, and proinflammatory cytokines may have nutritional impact in uremia. Review.
14671163 data are consistent with the hypotheses that insulin may negatively regulate ghrelin and that high-density lipoprotein may be a carrier particle for circulating ghrelin
14671152 Insulin resistance is a major factor controlling ghrelin levels in subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
14614562 Type 1 diabetes is associted with abnormal ghrelin secretion
14602798 Plasma ghrelin changes were significantly associated with hunger changes so circulating ghrelin is differently suppressed by diet manipulations.
14602792 ghrelin may contribute to fetal and neonatal growth.
14585085 a low-dose i.v. glucose bolus reduces ghrelin both in controls and in type II diabetes mellitus subjects and therefore that early insulin response does not affect plasma ghrelin.
14559725 Reduced ghrelin, impaired growth hormone(GH) response to GHRH by excess FFA, and increased somatostatin tone contribute to reduced GH secretion in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy.
14521948 Circulating levels of C-terminal pro-ghrelin peptides are altered in patients with cadiovascular diseases.
14514639 Low ghrelin associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin concentration, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Might have role in etiology of type 2 diabetes and regulation of blood pressure. The ghrelin Arg51Gln mutation associated with low plasma ghrelin.
12974878 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12931038 Umbilical cord concentrations of ghrelin are similar in Caucasian and Asian newborns, suggesting that ghrelin does not cause differences in body composition and growth hormone metabolism in these neonates.
12907757 ghrelin receptor is highly constitutively active and that this activity could be of physiological importance in its role as a regulator of both GH secretion and appetite control
12892652 results suggest that both body mass index and the presence of binge-eating/purging may have some influence on fasting plasma ghrelin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa
12851720 the involvement of ghrelin in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of human adrenal growth
12829648 insulin reduces plasma ghrelin in nondiabetic patients and, to a lesser extent, in type 2 diabetic patients before insulin therapy;findings indicate an indirect effect of insulin via ghrelin on the suppression of hunger sensation and appetite
12824869 hyperghrelinemia in anorectic patients is caused at least partly by increased secretion of active ghrelin and that glucose ingestion suppresses active ghrelin release in these patients.
12739020 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12732215 Cloning and characterization of the 5(')-flanking region of the ghrelin gene.
12727993 ghrelin is a novel paracrine/autocrine factor that is involved in cross-talk between the endometrium and embryo during embryonal implantation
12727973 study showed that 1) ghrelin secretion is sexually dimorphic in humans with women in the late follicular stage having higher levels than men; 2) ghrelin secretion is suppressed by somatostatin; and 3) growth hormone has no influence over ghrelin secretion
12727951 lowered serum levels of ghrelin in active acromegaly rise with postsurgery normalization of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I and improved insulin resistance but long-acting octreotide therapy persistently suppressed serum ghrelin levels
12679456 acute plasma ghrelin response to food intake, which in healthy individuals is independent of meal caloric value, is impaired in women with anorexia nervosa
12679444 plasma ghrelin increases after gastric bypass surgery in patients experiencing active weight loss
12679442 fat restriction avoids the increase in ghrelin levels caused by dietary energy restriction
12656662 Helicobacter pylori has no effect on plasma ghrelin concentration
12576449 plasma levels are increased in lung cancer cachexia; increased ghrelin may represent a compensatory mechanism under catabolic-anabolic imbalance in cachectic patients with lung cancer
12566947 ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion was severely blunted in patients with active Cushing's syndrome, in addition to a remarkable hyper-response in ACTH and cortisol secretion
12553549 human ghrelin levels decrease by almost 50% under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp conditions but constant lipid infusion failed to change plasma ghrelin
12547722 Expressed in fetal thyroid tissue: expression affects thyroid tumor growth.
12531885 Ghrelin can bind to a species of high density lipoprotein associated with paraoxonase
12519848 ghrelin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome are significantly elevated compared with BMI-matched obese controls; elevated levels may play a role as an orexigenic factor driving the insatiable appetite and obesity found in PWS
12519838 ghrelin is increased in anorexia nervosa and constitutionally thin subjects who display very low BMI but different eating behaviors, suggesting that not only is ghrelin dependent on body fat mass, but it is also influenced by nutritional status
12429880 plasma ghrelin and growth hormone levels are both reciprocally related with body mass index, but no causative relationship could be demonstrated between low ghrelin levels and the hyposomatropism in human obesity
12414809 Data suggest that the stomach is the major source of circulating ghrelin and that other tissues compensate for the loss of ghrelin production after gastrectomy.
12364482 study shows that somatostatin and cortistatin strongly inhibit ghrelin secretion and inhibition persists even after stopping the infusion of SRIF or CST
12364442 ghrelin levels are decreased in polycystic ovary syndrome women and are highly correlated to the degree of insulin resistance
12181387 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12161552 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12161552 A variation in the ghrelin gene increases weight and decreases insulin secretion in tall, obese children.
12153739 patients with active acromegaly show low levels of circulating ghrelin that are not further reduced by oral glucose tolerance test
12107502 expression of ghrelin in endocrine growths of the stomach and endocrine tumours of the pancreas, intestine and lung
12107501 Characterisation of gastric ghrelin cells in man and other mammals in adult and fetal tissues
12091883 Elevated plasma levels in Prader Willi syndrome
12050239 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12050239 identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students
11724768 ghrelin inhibited Akt kinase activity as well as up-regulated gluconeogenesis. These findings raise the possibility that ghrelin modulates insulin activities in humans
11502844 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)

AA Sequence


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24302008 2014 Hyperglycemia abolishes meal-induced satiety by a dysregulation of ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 in healthy overweight/obese humans.
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23994275 2013 Characterization of pericardial and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease.
23981480 Correlation between insulin resistance and serum ghrelin in non-diabetic ankylosing spondylitis patients undergoing anti-TNF-? therapy.
23971025 2013 Serum ghrelin is associated with verbal learning and adiposity in a sample of healthy, fit older adults.
23965296 2013 Effects of ghrelin on gastric distention sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus and gastric motility in diabetic rats.
23964904 2013 Reciprocal relationship between plasma ghrelin level and arterial stiffness in hypertensive subjects.
23950037 2013 The role of obestatin in glucose and lipid metabolism.
23867619 2013 A link between FTO, ghrelin, and impaired brain food-cue responsivity.
23865468 2013 Helicobacter pylori infection associates with a mucosal downregulation of ghrelin, negative regulator of Th1-cell responses.
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23768444 2013 Differential influences of gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on plasma nesfatin-1 and obestatin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
23744028 2013 The orphan receptor Gpr83 regulates systemic energy metabolism via ghrelin-dependent and ghrelin-independent mechanisms.
23744005 2013 Association of plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels with CKD.
23728548 2013 The preproghrelin 3056 TT genotype is associated with the feeling of hunger and low acylated ghrelin levels in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori-negative functional dyspepsia.
23724093 2013 The role of the vagus nerve in the migrating motor complex and ghrelin- and motilin-induced gastric contraction in suncus.
23702397 2013 Growth hormone axis and aging.
23652420 2013 Abnormal ghrelin secretion contributes to gastrointestinal symptoms in multiple system atrophy patients.
23632965 2013 Ghrelin induces apoptosis in colon adenocarcinoma cells via proteasome inhibition and autophagy induction.
23584608 2013 Different ghrelin localisation in adult human and rat endocrine pancreas.
23571102 2013 Ghrelin attenuates collagen production in lesional fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis.
23567762 2013 Plasma ghrelin and pro-inflammatory markers in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and stable coronary heart disease.
23524619 2013 Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ghrelin in patients with multiple sclerosis.
23509106 2013 Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety.
23501042 2013 Ghrelin-leptin network influences serum chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) levels in obese prepubertal children.
23489688 Comparative evaluation of gastric ghrelin cells and levels of hormone in the serum of healthy women and men.
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23415825 2013 Neuroendocrine alterations in the exercising human: implications for energy homeostasis.
23391977 2012 Influence of ghrelin on energy balance and endocrine physiology.
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23321590 2013 Association between the ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism and type 2 diabetes risk: a meta-analysis.
23313276 2013 Dysfunctions of leptin, ghrelin, BDNF and endocannabinoids in eating disorders: beyond the homeostatic control of food intake.
23296465 2013 Ghrelin and motilin levels in hyperemesis gravidarum.
23292319 2014 Ghrelin levels in chronic periodontitis patients.
23259466 2012 Ghrelin and adipokines as circulating markers of disease activity in patients with Takayasu arteritis.
23257630 2013 Preproghrelin gene polymorphisms in obese Japanese women. Minor homozygotes are light eaters, do not prefer protein or fat, and apparently have a poor appetite.
23257416 2012 Ghrelin and obestatin in infants, lactating mothers and breast milk.
23199168 2013 Appetite-regulating hormones from the upper gut: disrupted control of xenin and ghrelin in night workers.
23179778 2013 Plasma obestatin and autonomic function are altered in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, but ghrelin is unchanged.
23147274 2013 Ghrelin and obestatin in human neuroendocrine tumors: expression and effect on obestatin levels after food intake.
23142314 2013 Ghrelin, leptin and insulin in cirrhotic children and adolescents: relationship with cirrhosis severity and nutritional status.
23084284 2013 A possible association between panic disorder and a polymorphism in the preproghrelingene.
23076509 2012 Frailty status and altered dynamics of circulating energy metabolism hormones after oral glucose in older women.
23056203 2012 The NMR structure of human obestatin in membrane-like environments: insights into the structure-bioactivity relationship of obestatin.
23029165 2012 Serum acylated ghrelin is negatively correlated with the insulin resistance in the CODING study.
22974102 2013 The effects of alcohol abstinence on BDNF, ghrelin, and leptin secretions in alcohol-dependent patients with glucose intolerance.
22954902 2012 24-hour profiles of circulating ghrelin and peptide YY are inversely associated in normal weight premenopausal women.
22954236 2012 Ghrelin and obestatin expression in serous ovarian tumours.
22936258 2012 Ghrelin concentration is correlated with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio but not with GH secretion in children with short stature.
22876551 2012 Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) genes are not commonly involved in growth or weight abnormalities in an Israeli pediatric population.
22869322 2012 The ghrelin O-acyltransferase-ghrelin system reduces TNF-?-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human visceral adipocytes.
22763970 2012 The influence of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss, plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids.
22740095 2013 Ghrelin concentrations in maternal and cord blood of type 1 diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies at term.
22706426 2012 Circulating ghrelin levels are not associated with craving and withdrawal symptoms in acute nicotine withdrawal.
22657566 2012 Association between ghrelin levels and BMD: a cross sectional trial.
22635094 2012 High concentration of ghrelin in children with growth hormone deficiency and neurosecretory dysfunction.
22632858 2012 The role of NPY and ghrelin in anorexia nervosa.
22632857 2012 Ghrelin and motilin in the gastrointestinal system.
22632856 2012 The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-R).
22611317 2012 Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia.
22601779 2012 Obestatin regulates adipocyte function and protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.
22588952 2012 The study of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and ghrelin in adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes.
22544849 2012 Ghrelin: new insights into female reproductive system-associated disorders and pregnancy.
22523830 2012 Paediatric endocrine aspects of ghrelin.
22481313 2012 Effects of habitual diet on ethnic differences in serum total ghrelin.
22477150 2012 The effects of fever on hormone ghrelins, immunoglobulins, and heat shock protein 70 expression after swine flu vaccinations.
22442280 2012 Hedonic eating is associated with increased peripheral levels of ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol in healthy humans: a pilot study.
22441120 2012 Association of ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.
22369141 2012 Association between ghrelin gene (GHRL) polymorphisms and clinical response to atypical antipsychotic drugs in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients.
22366529 2012 Differential expression of ghrelin mRNA according to anatomical portions of human stomach.
22315469 2012 Functional neuroimaging demonstrates that ghrelin inhibits the central nervous system response to ingested lipid.
22311236 2012 The relationship between ghrelin and adiponectin levels in breast milk and infant serum and growth of infants during early postnatal life.
22306927 2012 The relationship between serum ghrelin and body composition with bone mineral density and QUS parameters in subjects with Rett syndrome.
22300359 2012 Combined effects of aerobic exercise and high-carbohydrate meal on plasma acylated ghrelin and levels of hunger.
22260823 Rikkunshito improves the symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia, accompanied by an increase in the level of plasma ghrelin.
22252944 2012 Higher ghrelin and lower leptin secretion are associated with lower LH secretion in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and controls.
22180062 2012 Serum ghrelin is inversely associated with risk of subsequent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
22174388 Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on levels of ghrelin and obestatin in human semen.
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21782925 2011 Ghrelin levels are reduced in Rett syndrome patients with eating difficulties.
21761369 2010 Expression and in vitro functions of the ghrelin axis in endometrial cancer.
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21722955 2011 In adults with Prader-Willi syndrome, elevated ghrelin levels are more consistent with hyperphagia than high PYY and GLP-1 levels.
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21667437 2011 Increase in energy intake leads to a decrease in obestatin in restricting-type of anorexia nervosa.
21667426 2011 Growth hormone, ghrelin and peptide YY secretion after oral glucose administration in healthy and obese women.
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21616120 2011 Ghrelin and cancer.
21614024 2012 Ghrelin and its promoter variant associated with cardiac hypertrophy.
21598092 2011 Plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts.
21565248 2011 The effects of ghrelin on inflammation and the immune system.
21554911 2011 Time-dependent changes in the serum levels of prolactin, nesfatin-1 and ghrelin as a marker of epileptic attacks young male patients.
21539509 2011 A recent update on the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis.
21504941 2011 Ghrelin ameliorates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via phospho-GSK3 ?/?-catenin signaling in neonatal rats.
21502892 2011 Ghrelin but not peptide YY is related to change in body weight and energy availability.
21478211 2011 Cardiovascular actions of the ghrelin gene-derived peptides and growth hormone-releasing hormone.
21474128 2011 Detection of obestatin in seminal plasma and its relationship with ghrelin and semen parameters.
21459126 2011 The role of ghrelin in GH secretion and GH disorders.
21459124 2011 The expanding roles of the ghrelin-gene derived peptide obestatin in health and disease.
21458527 2011 Ghrelin in cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis.
21458525 2011 Ghrelin in gastrointestinal disease.
21453750 2011 Ghrelin in eating disorders.
21453749 2011 Ghrelin and reproductive disorders.
21449093 2011 Ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and insulin levels and concurrent and future weight change in overweight, postmenopausal women.
21448464 2011 The ghrelin signalling system is involved in the consumption of sweets.
21419192 2011 Ghrelin in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.
21386753 2011 Total and acylated ghrelin levels in children with poor growth.
21370247 2011 Ghrelin inhibits AGEs-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells involving ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways.
21368060 2011 Ghrelin inhibits visceral afferent activation of catecholamine neurons in the solitary tract nucleus.
21358603 2011 Leptin, obestatin and apelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.
21354462 2011 Ghrelin and cachexia: will treatment with GHSR-1a agonists make a difference for patients suffering from chronic wasting syndromes?
21349316 2011 Ghrelin in mental health, sleep, memory.
21345363 2011 Ghrelin in obesity and endocrine diseases.
21340501 2011 Ghrelin immunoexpression in pituitary adenomas.
21318058 2008 The relationship between serum ghrelin levels and hair zinc concentrations in children.
21294754 2011 The change of plasma ghrelin and leptin levels by the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with alcohol dependence.
21274374 2011 Ghrelin and gastrin in advanced gastric cancer before and after gastrectomy.
21274325 2010 Ghrelin levels in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty.
21225542 2011 Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals.
21195705 2011 The association of ghrelin polymorphisms with coronary artery disease and ischemic chronic heart failure in an elderly Chinese population.
21178976 2011 Protein-energy wasting modifies the association of ghrelin with inflammation, leptin, and mortality in hemodialysis patients.
21176234 2010 Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.
21169422 2011 Ghrelin and lipid metabolism: key partners in energy balance.
21165813 2011 Thyroid hormones affect plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels.
21121713 2011 Ghrelin levels in cord blood from concordant and discordant twin pairs: association with birth weight and postnatal catch-up growth.
21113212 2010 Renal immunoexpression of ghrelin is attenuated in human proliferative glomerulopathies.
21075359 2011 Expression of ghrelin in human salivary glands and its levels in saliva and serum in Chinese obese children and adolescents.
21050078 2011 Delayed ghrelin suppression following oral glucose tolerance test in children and adolescents with hypothalamic injury secondary to craniopharyngioma compared with obese controls.
21047193 2011 No association of the neuropeptide Y (Leu7Pro) and ghrelin gene (Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, Gln90Leu) single nucleotide polymorphisms with eating disorders.
21040709 2010 Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca2+ channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells.
20963666 Ghrelin regulation of in vitro human monocyte functional activity.
20945961 2011 Changes of plasma obestatin, ghrelin and NPY in anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients before and after a high-carbohydrate breakfast.
20921904 2011 Role of ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the development of osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease.
20920174 2010 Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to colorectal cancer risk: a two-step gene-wide case-control study.
20861603 2011 Ghrelin plasma levels in patients with idiopathic short stature.
20858966 2010 Expression of the ghrelin and neurotensin systems is altered in the temporal lobe of Alzheimer's disease patients.
20813143 2010 The presence of the peptides apelin, ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the human breast milk, and the lowering of their levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.
20804798 2010 Altered myocardial expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) in patients with severe heart failure.
20734087 2010 Plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.
20734064 2010 A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause.
20688108 2010 Circulating ghrelin and ghrelin to obestatin ratio are low in patients with untreated mild-to-moderate hypertension.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20616368 2010 Diminished endometrial expression of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor contributes to infertility.
20602615 2010 Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol?
20595321 2010 Unraveling the role of the ghrelin gene peptides in the endocrine pancreas.
20586762 2010 Genetic variation of the ghrelin signaling system in females with severe alcohol dependence.
20585204 2011 Acylated ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal obese children at diagnosis and after weight reduction: effect of oral glucose ingestion.
20581789 2010 Ghrelin, another factor affecting bone metabolism.
20580037 2011 Serum levels of vaspin, obestatin, and apelin-36 in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
20553778 2010 Metabolic and structural properties of human obestatin {1-23} and two fragment peptides.
20537572 2010 Characteristics of polycystic ovarian syndrome and relationship with ghrelin in adolescents.
20517652 2010 Plasma ghrelin levels and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children and adolescents.
20509935 2010 Ghrelin in the human myometrium.
20503481 2010 Circulating obestatin levels in normal and Type 2 diabetic subjects.
20472480 2010 Brief, high intensity exercise alters serum ghrelin and growth hormone concentrations but not IGF-I, IGF-II or IGF-I bioactivity.
20468064 2010 Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa.
20466571 2010 Breakfast with glycomacropeptide compared with amino acids suppresses plasma ghrelin levels in individuals with phenylketonuria.
20453000 2010 A Large-scale genetic association study of esophageal adenocarcinoma risk.
20421852 2010 A ghrelin gene variant may predict crossover rate from restricting-type anorexia nervosa to other phenotypes of eating disorders: a retrospective survival analysis.
20411479 2010 Changes in acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, and ratio of acyl ghrelin to total ghrelin with short-term refeeding in female inpatients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa.
20382189 2010 Ghrelin: a potential therapeutic target for cancer.
20379614 Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.
20376885 2010 Correlation between hyperghrelinemia and carotid artery intima-media thickness in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.
20367557 2010 Total and acylated ghrelin in liver cirrhosis: correlation with clinical and nutritional status.
20339027 2010 Ghrelin and obestatin circadian levels differentiate bingeing-purging from restrictive anorexia nervosa.
20338210 2010 Covariation of plasma ghrelin and motilin in irritable bowel syndrome.
20298456 2010 Influence of ghrelin and growth hormone deficiency on AMP-activated protein kinase and hypothalamic lipid metabolism.
20195769 2010 Acylated and des acyl ghrelin in human portal and systemic circulations.
20194708 2010 Comparison of competitive radioimmunoassays and two-site sandwich assays for the measurement and interpretation of plasma ghrelin levels.
20188316 2010 The quantity of meal fat influences the profile of postprandial hormones as well as hunger sensation in healthy elderly people.
20185531 2010 Contrasting association of a non-synonymous leptin receptor gene polymorphism with Wegener's granulomatosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome.
20184601 2010 Dysregulation of plasma ghrelin in alcoholic cirrhosis.
20180161 2010 Ghrelin in gestational diabetes: serum level and mRNA expression in fat and placental tissue.
20172008 2010 Alteration in chromogranin A, obestatin and total ghrelin levels of saliva and serum in epilepsy cases.
20164039 2009 Assessment of ghrelin, GHS-R, GH, and neurohormones in human fetal pituitary glands and central nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.
20157287 Serum ghrelin and the prediction of the development of impaired glucose regulation and Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged subjects.
20152820 2010 The ghrelin gene allele 51Q (rs34911341) is a protective factor against the development of gestational diabetes.
20150876 2010 Elevation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression in human growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma harboring G protein alpha subunit mutation.
20145424 2010 Preprandial single oral dose of sitagliptin does not affect circulating ghrelin and gastrin levels in normal subjects.
20096985 2010 Decreased active, total and altered active to total ghrelin ratio in normal weight women with the more severe form of polycystic ovary syndrome.
20010782 2010 Influence of ghrelin gene polymorphisms on hypertension and atherosclerotic disease.
20004655 2010 Significant impact of pace of eating on serum ghrelin and glucose levels.
19965946 2010 Leptin and ghrelin in Korean systemic lupus erythematosus.
19955759 2010 Endocrine and metabolic actions of ghrelin.
19952806 2010 Influence of brisk walking on appetite, energy intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin.
19916170 2009 Gastric ghrelin in relation to gender, stomach topography and Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.
19914322 2010 Decreased gastric body mucosa obestatin expression in overweight and obese patients.
19913442 2010 Are ghrelin and leptin involved in food intake and body mass index in maintenance hemodialysis?
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19899406 2009 Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.
19888469 2009 A concerted kinase interplay identifies PPARgamma as a molecular target of ghrelin signaling in macrophages.
19885611 2009 Ghrelin in gastrointestinal diseases and disorders: a possible role in the pathophysiology and clinical implications (review).
19884263 2010 Increased suppression of serum ghrelin concentration by hyperinsulinemia in women with anorexia nervosa.
19876004 2010 Obesity-related polymorphisms and their associations with the ability to regulate fat oxidation in obese Europeans: the NUGENOB study.
19863750 2010 The influence of physical activity on ghrelin and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 levels in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
19845749 2010 Growth hormone and ghrelin secretion are associated with clinical severity in Huntington's disease.
19841105 2009 Circulating ghrelin exists in both lipoprotein bound and free forms.
19834878 2010 Visfatin (nampt) and ghrelin as novel markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
19811274 2009 Serum adipokine levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
19797396 2010 Do children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy have lower IGF-1 and ghrelin levels than the normal children?
19773372 2009 Acylated and nonacylated ghrelin levels and their associations with insulin resistance in obese and normal weight children with metabolic syndrome.
19770497 2009 The role of IGF-1 and ghrelin in the compensation of intrauterine growth restriction.
19722179 2010 Psychobiology of purging disorder: reduction in circulating leptin levels in purging disorder in comparison with controls.
19705241 2009 Ghrelin and leptin levels in cachectic patients with cancer of the digestive organs.
19670151 2009 Expression of ghrelin and its receptor in human tissues.
19666068 2009 Disturbance of circulating ghrelin and obestatin in chronic heart failure patients especially in those with cachexia.
19665916 2009 New insights into the molecular complexity of the ghrelin gene locus.
19628676 2009 Production of n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin in cultured cells requires prohormone processing protease and ghrelin O-acyltransferase, as well as n-octanoic acid.
19617874 2009 Elevated circulating acylated and total ghrelin concentrations along with reduced appetite scores in infants with failure to thrive.
19601914 2009 Plasma ghrelin levels in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.
19589259 Ghrelin and obestatin levels in end-stage renal disease.
19587265 2009 Systemic administration of oxytocin reduces basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced ghrelin levels in healthy men.
19560502 2009 Association of obestatin with blood pressure in the third trimesters of pregnancy.
19521111 2009 Ghrelin plasma levels are not altered in major depression.
19491387 2009 Severe obesity is associated with novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the ESR1 and PPARgamma locus in Han Chinese.
19491251 2009 Serum levels of ghrelin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in infants and children with congenital heart disease.
19453261 2009 High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men.
19433492 2009 Interactions of ghrelin signaling pathways with the GH neuroendocrine axis: a new and experimentally tested model.
19424595 2009 Ghrelin in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
19419933 2009 Expression of ghrelin in human fetal adrenal glands and paraadrenal nerve ganglions.
19408254 2009 Obestatin/ghrelin ratio: a new activity index in inflammatory bowel diseases.
19406177 2009 Inhibition of endoplasm reticulum stress by ghrelin protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat heart.
19397477 2009 Novel factors as therapeutic targets to treat diabetes. Focus on leptin and ghrelin.
19393347 2009 Relationships of acylated and des-acyl ghrelin levels to bone mineralization in obese children and adolescents.
19385031 2009 Postprandial ghrelin responses are associated with the intermeal interval in time-blinded normal weight men, but not in obese men.
19369431 2009 Fiber intake predicts ghrelin levels in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.
19367093 2009 Association study between candidate genes and obesity-related phenotypes using a sample of lumberjacks.
19352215 2009 Association between the obestatin and BDNF gene polymorphism and panic disorder, and depressive disorder.
19339394 2009 Effect of age and frailty on ghrelin and cholecystokinin responses to a meal test.
19337009 2009 Effect of pubertal development and physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in boys.
19327128 2009 KLF4 positively regulates human ghrelin expression.
19325538 2009 Increased carbohydrate induced ghrelin secretion in obese vs. normal-weight adolescent girls.
19324904 2009 Reduction of T cell-derived ghrelin enhances proinflammatory cytokine expression: implications for age-associated increases in inflammation.
19318377 2009 Ghrelin levels are decreased in non-obese prepubertal children born large for gestational age.
19289536 2009 Obestatin/ghrelin cells in normal mucosa and endocrine tumours of the stomach.
19282046 2009 Increased serum levels of ghrelin at diagnosis mediate body weight loss in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
19262995 2009 Nesfatin-1 and ghrelin levels in serum and saliva of epileptic patients: hormonal changes can have a major effect on seizure disorders.
19262695 2009 c-Src regulates Akt signaling in response to ghrelin via beta-arrestin signaling-independent and -dependent mechanisms.
19261663 2009 Ghrelin levels in children with congenital heart disease.
19246923 2009 Comparison of gastric emptying and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with functional dyspepsia and non-erosive reflux disease.
19213003 Plasma ghrelin concentration is a signal of decreased fat free mass in healthy elderly females.
19199214 2009 Influence of puberty on ghrelin and BMD in athletes.
19198916 2009 Fasting ghrelin is related to skeletal muscle mass in healthy adults.
19193342 2008 Multiple genetic factors in olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients: a cohort study.
19191138 2009 Are genes associated with energy metabolism important in asthma and BMI?
19165163 2009 Association studies on ghrelin and ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms with obesity.
19160571 2008 Interactions between ghrelin, leptin and IGF-I affect metabolic syndrome and early atherosclerosis.
19154949 2009 Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.
19139783 2009 The relation between dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurement of body fat composition and plasma ghrelin in patients with end-stage renal disease.
19120912 2008 The influence of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori on gastric ghrelin, appetite, and body mass index in patients with peptic ulcer disease.
19112387 2008 The expression of ghrelin in somatotroph and other types of pituitary adenomas.
19106245 2009 Visceral fat mass is a strong predictor of circulating ghrelin levels in premenopausal women.
19100004 2008 [Relationship between Ghrelin polymorphism and serum lipoprotein levels in Han Chinese with or without coronary heart disease risk factors].
19077438 2009 Analysis of 30 genes (355 SNPS) related to energy homeostasis for association with adiposity in European-American and Yup'ik Eskimo populations.
19073905 2009 Effects of exercise on energy-regulating hormones and appetite in men and women.
19059729 2009 Nocturnal levels of ghrelin and leptin and sleep in chronic insomnia.
19058789 2009 A common variant in DRD3 receptor is associated with autism spectrum disorder.
19057526 2009 Characteristics associated with fasting appetite hormones (obestatin, ghrelin, and leptin).
19054628 2009 Ghrelin expression in normal kidney tissue and renal carcinomas.
19054012 2009 Ghrelin suppresses secretion of FSH in males.
19049992 2009 No association of the Arg51Gln and Leu72Met polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene and polycystic ovary syndrome.
19041092 2009 Plasma des-acyl ghrelin, but not plasma HMW adiponectin, is a useful cardiometabolic marker for predicting atherosclerosis in elderly hypertensive patients.
19039650 2009 Expression of obestatin and ghrelin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
19031219 2008 Serum ghrelin level in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relationship with endocrine and metabolic parameters.
19028051 2009 Growth hormone-releasing peptide ghrelin inhibits homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries and human endothelial cells.
19022392 2009 Ghrelin in the summer flounder: immunolocalization to the gastric glands and action on plasma cortisol levels.
19011469 2008 Serial plasma concentrations of PYY and ghrelin during chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
19004538 2009 Gene expression of placental hormones regulating energy balance in small for gestational age neonates.
18996292 2008 Fasting serum total ghrelin level inversely correlates with metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients.
18996102 2009 Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone.
18992263 2009 Colon tumor mutations and epigenetic changes associated with genetic polymorphism: insight into disease pathways.
18987287 2009 Influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin, and peptide YY in healthy males.
18979162 2008 The influence of ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin on bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women.
18976754 2009 Elevated ghrelin levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis: associations with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cytokines.
18973889 2009 The effects of oral contraceptives including low-dose estrogen and drospirenone on the concentration of leptin and ghrelin in polycystic ovary syndrome.
18945286 2009 A genetic study of the ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) genes and stature.
18848536 2009 The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes.
18831996 2009 Changes in appetite hormone (ghrelin) levels of saliva and serum in acute appendicitis cases before and after operation.
18828808 2008 Association of pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with heavy alcohol use and body mass.
18809976 2009 Ghrelin and other appetite-regulating hormones in paediatric patients with chronic renal failure during dialysis and following kidney transplantation.
18797403 2008 Ghrelin gene polymorphism is associated with depression, but not panic disorder.
18728162 2008 Plasma obestatin, ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio are increased in underweight patients with anorexia nervosa but not in symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa.
18714814 2008 Association of ghrelin polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Han Nationality Chinese.
18703566 2008 Elevated ghrelin levels in preterm born children during prepubertal ages and relationship with catch-up growth.
18700166 2008 Ghrelin attenuates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in HepG2 cells via NF-kappaB pathway.
18697865 2008 Estrogen elevates the peak overnight production rate of acylated ghrelin.
18677577 2008 Ghrelin and obestatin levels in rheumatoid arthritis.
18667202 2009 Ghrelin inhibits contraction and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells by cAMP/PKA pathway activation.
18665387 2008 The influence of increased training volume on cytokines and ghrelin concentration in college level male rowers.
18663995 2008 Serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations of maternal serum, arterial and venous cord blood in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women.
18636124 2008 Polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 and vitamin C and matrix metalloproteinase gene families are associated with susceptibility to lymphoma.
18624998 2009 Impact of adiponectin and ghrelin on incident glucose intolerance and on weight change.
18622896 2008 Relation of plasma obestatin levels to bmi, gender, age and insulin.
18616714 2009 Ghrelin and the differential regulation of des-acyl (DSG) and oct-anoyl ghrelin (OTG) in human adipose tissue (AT).
18611262 2008 Genetic variation in candidate obesity genes ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1 and risk for breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II.
18602197 2008 In vitro metabolic stability of obestatin: kinetics and identification of cleavage products.
18595130 2008 Adipokines and ghrelin in gastric cancer cachexia.
18588931 2008 Plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis.
18584199 2008 Relationships between finger-length ratios, ghrelin, leptin, IGF axis, and sex steroids in young male and female swimmers.
18577758 2008 Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.
18567824 2008 Cholinergic regulation of ghrelin and peptide YY release may be impaired in obesity.
18563283 2008 The relationship of ghrelin and adiponectin with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in elderly men.
18561093 2009 Serum leptin and ghrelin levels in active and inactive acromegalic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test.
18552514 2008 Ghrelin and eating disturbances in psychiatric disorders.
18550870 2008 Effect of small intestinal glucose load on plasma ghrelin in healthy men.
18547344 2009 Relationship between ghrelin and the metabolic syndrome in the elderly: a longitudinal population-based study.
18534636 2008 Appetite-related gut peptides, ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 in obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED).
18510797 2008 No association of defined variability in leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, proopiomelanocortin and ghrelin gene with food preferences in the Czech population.
18492761 2008 Circulating ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in a community-based sample.
18480381 2008 Characterization of obestatin in rat and human stomach and plasma, and its lack of acute effect on feeding behavior in rodents.
18466078 2008 Serum leptin and ghrelin levels in premenopausal women with stable body mass index during treatment of thyroid dysfunction.
18461271 2008 Oxytocin inhibits the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on circulating neuropeptide Y levels in humans.
18452507 2008 Tissue ghrelin level and gastric emptying rate in adult patients with celiac disease.
18450953 2008 Molecular mechanisms of ghrelin-mediated endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation.
18448790 2008 Central nervous system regulation of energy metabolism: ghrelin versus leptin.
18425803 2008 Phenotypical and functional study of ghrelin and its receptor in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease.
18419786 2008 Acylated ghrelin decreases during acute exercise in the lean and obese state.
18416474 2008 Role of the duodenum in regulation of plasma ghrelin levels and body mass index after subtotal gastrectomy.
18404598 2008 Ghrelin as an acute-phase reactant during postoperative stress response.
18401836 2008 Effect of moderate-intensity exercise session on preprandial and postprandial responses of circulating ghrelin and appetite.
18401204 2008 Acute ghrelin response to intravenous dexamethasone administration in idiopathic short stature or isolated idiopathic growth hormone-deficient children.
18398047 2008 Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and the risk of esophageal cancers.
18397989 2008 Leptin and ghrelin in relation to Helicobacter pylori status in adult males.
18380540 2009 The role of ghrelin in the regulation of food intake in patients with obesity and anorexia nervosa.
18375957 2008 Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
18362297 2008 Expression of ghrelin gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma ghrelin concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome.
18350633 2008 Changes of ghrelin following oral glucose tolerance test in obese children with insulin resistance.
18343535 2008 Regulation of ghrelin structure and membrane binding by phosphorylation.
18329818 2008 Ghrelin alone or co-administered with GHRH or CRH increases non-REM sleep and decreases REM sleep in young males.
18325633 2008 Obestatin: its physicochemical characteristics and physiological functions.
18308399 2008 Ghrelin in the CNS: from hunger to a rewarding and memorable meal?
18299465 2008 Long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on circulating ghrelin and leptin concentrations and body composition in prepubertal children.
18283260 2008 Ghrelin - growth hormone releasing and orexigenic hormone in men declines with age, insulin and with decrease in testosterone concentration.
18280066 2008 Change in adipocytokines and ghrelin with menopause.
18274638 2007 The levels of Ghrelin, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.
18271694 2008 Simultaneous decrease of plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels after a high-carbohydrate breakfast in healthy women.
18271692 2008 Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.
18250617 2007 Effects of ghrelin administration on endocrine and metabolic parameters in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
18249219 2008 Interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL with physical activity on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and changes in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
18246525 2008 Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
18239581 2008 Lack of association of ghrelin precursor gene variants and percentage body fat or serum lipid profiles.
18239577 2008 Meal-related changes in ghrelin, peptide YY, and appetite in normal weight and overweight children.
18205273 2008 Factors associated with fasting plasma ghrelin levels in children and adolescents.
18198306 2007 Influence of BMI and gender on postprandial hormone responses.
18182091 2008 Polymorphisms of the ghrelin/obestatin gene and ghrelin levels in Chinese children with short stature.
18178497 2008 Changes in total ghrelin within the somatotropic axis in severe burn patients: comparison of those with inhalation injury and those without inhalation injury.
18166814 2008 Ghrelin and acyl ghrelin in preterm infants and maternal blood: relationship with endocrine and anthropometric measures.
18075283 2007 Total ghrelin levels during acute insulin infusion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
18071345 2008 A new variation in the promoter region, the -604 C>T, and the Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene are associated with protection to insulin resistance.
18070755 2007 Preproghrelin-derived peptide, obestatin, fails to influence food intake in lean or obese rodents.
18070417 2007 Variants within the ghrelin gene--association with HDL-cholesterol, but not with body mass index.
18064390 2007 Effect of exogenous ghrelin on cell differentiation antigen 40 expression in endothelial cells.
18055420 Ghrelin and leptin levels in obese adolescents. Relationship with body fat and insulin resistance.
18051927 2007 Ghrelin serum levels during oral glucose tolerance test in prepubertal obese children with insulin resistance.
18049109 2007 Ghrelin, glucose homeostasis, and carotid intima media thickness in kidney transplantation.
18001718 2008 Elevated ghrelin level in women of normal weight with amenorrhea is related to disordered eating.
17992644 2007 Acute incremental exercise decreases plasma ghrelin level in healthy men.
17992641 2007 Serum acylated ghrelin, adiponectin and leptin levels in normal-weight and obese premenopausal women.
17957159 2007 Ghrelin concentrations reflect body mass index rather than feeding status in obese girls.
17957153 2007 Milk intake and feeding behavior in the first week of life and its relationship to cord blood ghrelin, leptin, and insulin concentrations.
17952858 2008 Ghrelin localization in the medulla of rat and human adrenal gland and in pheochromocytomas.
17952631 2007 Elevated serum ghrelin exerts an orexigenic effect that may maintain body mass index in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors.
17949242 2008 Some endocrine traits of transgenic rabbits. II. Changes in hormone secretion and response of isolated ovarian tissue to FSH and ghrelin.
17923797 2007 Not insulin but insulin sensitivity, leptin, and cortisol are major factors regulating serum acylated ghrelin level in healthy women.
17893689 2007 Ghrelin, obesity and diabetes.
17890503 2007 Genes, fat intake, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Quebec Family Study.
17884293 2007 The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on ghrelin, leptin and cholesterol levels in patients with mood disorders.
17884032 2008 Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in Chinese subjects with coronary artery disease and controls.
17869379 2007 Obestatin and ghrelin in obese and in pregnant women.
17766711 2007 Circulating obestatin levels and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio in obese women.
17727735 2007 Revised genomic structure of the human ghrelin gene and identification of novel exons, alternative splice variants and natural antisense transcripts.
17719561 2007 Effect of ghrelin on human endothelial cells apoptosis induced by high glucose.
17717076 2007 Importance of constitutive activity and arrestin-independent mechanisms for intracellular trafficking of the ghrelin receptor.
17711921 2007 Serum ghrelin as a marker of atrophic body gastritis in patients with parietal cell antibodies.
17709151 2008 Decreased obestatin in plasma in metabolically obese, normal-weight men with normal glucose tolerance.
17689128 2007 Serum ghrelin levels but not GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels are altered in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.
17688884 2007 Clinical significance of ghrelin concentration of plasma and tumor tissue in patients with gastric cancer.
17667848 2007 Genome-wide scan for serum ghrelin detects linkage on chromosome 1p36 in Hispanic children: results from the Viva La Familia study.
17666475 2007 Bacterial endotoxin induces biphasic changes in plasma ghrelin in healthy humans.
17652221 2007 Relationships between desacylated and acylated ghrelin and insulin sensitivity in the metabolic syndrome.
17646723 2007 The role of ghrelin in the energy homeostasis of elderly people: a population-based study.
17635077 2007 Ghrelin variants influence development of body mass index and plasma levels of total cholesterol in dialyzed patients.
17616856 2007 The relationship between metabolic status and levels of adiponectin and ghrelin in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
17616759 2007 Variations in the preproghrelin gene correlate with higher body mass index, fat mass, and body dissatisfaction in young Japanese women.
17609506 2007 Plasma ghrelin is altered after maximal exercise in elite male rowers.
17601657 2007 Unacylated ghrelin is not a functional antagonist but a full agonist of the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R).
17596538 2007 Four missense mutations in the ghrelin receptor result in distinct pharmacological abnormalities.
17595255 2007 Ghrelin and motilin are cosecreted from a prominent endocrine cell population in the small intestine.
17587401 2007 Serum ghrelin levels are higher in Caucasian men than Japanese men aged 40-49 years.
17562288 2007 Ghrelin is present in teeth.
17556836 2007 Anorexia in hemodialysis patients: the possible role of des-acyl ghrelin.
17551399 2007 Plasma ghrelin levels in various stages of development of iron deficiency anemia.
17544318 2008 Ghrelin: a new peptide regulating growth hormone release and food intake.
17543279 2007 Ghrelin inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 activity via upregulating heat-shock protein 70.
17530417 2007 Ghrelin in neuroendocrine organs and tumours.
17495198 2007 Effects of acute and chronic protein intake on metabolism, appetite, and ghrelin during weight loss.
17494105 2007 Facilitation of decidualization by locally produced ghrelin in the human endometrium.
17449920 2007 Marked suppression of ghrelin concentration by insulin in Prader-willi syndrome.
17436104 2007 Correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastric leptin and ghrelin expression in patients with gastritis.
17405826 2007 Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway.
17392603 2007 Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin during an oral glucose tolerance test in obese children.
17389697 2007 Examining the candidacy of ghrelin as a gene responsible for variation in adult stature in a United Kingdom population with type 2 diabetes.
17347386 2007 Exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin in humans.
17344504 2007 Altered postprandial glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin in liver cirrhosis: correlations with energy intake and resting energy expenditure.
17336462 2007 Ghrelin may attenuate proinflammatory cytokine-mediated neuropathic pain.
17324965 2007 Epistatic interaction between haplotypes of the ghrelin ligand and receptor genes influence susceptibility to myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease.
17317872 2007 Enhancement of fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise.
17317021 2007 Ghrelin administered in the early morning increases secretion of cortisol and growth hormone without affecting sleep.
17311892 2007 Constant intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men: clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolic effects.
17289852 2007 Ghrelin interacts with human plasma lipoproteins.
17280594 2007 Ghrelin stimulates adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion by human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro.
17258885 Circulating gastrin and ghrelin levels in patients with colorectal cancer: correlation with tumour stage, Helicobacter pylori infection and BMI.
17201814 2007 Ghrelin does not regulate the GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in children but could be involved in the regulation of cortisol secretion.
17197106 2007 Family trios analysis of common polymorphisms in the obestatin/ghrelin, BDNF and AGRP genes in patients with Anorexia nervosa: association with subtype, body-mass index, severity and age of onset.
17187020 2006 Effects of ghrelin on circulating neuropeptide Y levels in humans.
17184731 2007 Ghrelin stimulates angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells: Implications beyond GH release.
17167339 2007 The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is significantly associated with binge eating disorder.
17138722 2007 Effect of CCK-1 receptor blockade on ghrelin and PYY secretion in men.
17119003 2007 Regulation of appetite in lean and obese adolescents after exercise: role of acylated and desacyl ghrelin.
17113048 2006 Distribution of ghrelin-immunoreactive neuronal networks in the human hypothalamus.
17079741 Ghrelin expression in human testis and serum testosterone level.
17074331 2006 Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is associated with elevated ghrelin and disordered eating.
17068144 2007 Acylated and unacylated ghrelin promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and human islets: involvement of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-Kinase/Akt signaling.
16979415 2006 Sequencing analysis of ghrelin gene 5' flanking region: relations between the sequence variants, fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations, and body mass index.
16959833 2007 GPR39 signaling is stimulated by zinc ions but not by obestatin.
16957407 Potential role of hypothalamic ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.
16954444 2006 Gastrointestinal stromal tumors express the orexigen ghrelin.
16954159 2006 Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene are associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and not with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans.
16949080 2007 Ghrelin inhibits angiotensin II-induced migration of human aortic endothelial cells.
16942934 2006 Association between ghrelin gene variations and blood pressure in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.
16929151 2006 [Ghrelin - a novel appetite-stimulating hormone which also affects gastrointestinal functions].
16929150 2006 [Ghrelin; influences on Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases].
16921495 2006 Possible role of preproghrelin gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to bulimia nervosa.
16868147 2006 Is ghrelin a signal of decreased fat-free mass in elderly subjects?
16865101 2006 Preproghrelin Leu72Met variant contributes to overweight in middle-aged men of a Japanese large cohort.
16839485 2006 Is ghrelin the culprit for weight loss after gastric bypass surgery? A negative answer.
16793966 2006 Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism predicts a lower rate of developing renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
16759313 2006 Association of the Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene with the risk of Type 2 diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
16754659 2006 Stable association between G alpha(q) and phospholipase C beta 1 in living cells.
16735961 2006 Lifestyle behaviours and components of energy balance as independent predictors of ghrelin and adiponectin in young non-obese women.
16734390 2006 Ghrelin and bone: is there an association in older adults?: the Rancho Bernardo study.
16720664 2006 Ghrelin and peptide YY in youth: are there race-related differences?
16718628 2006 Meal energy content is related to features of meal-related ghrelin profiles across a typical day of eating in non-obese premenopausal women.
16641997 2006 The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3.
16606630 2006 Polymorphisms in genes involved in GH1 release and their association with breast cancer risk.
16601073 2006 Ghrelin amplifies dopamine signaling by cross talk involving formation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor/dopamine receptor subtype 1 heterodimers.
16563563 2006 Effect of fatty acid chain length on suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of PYY, GLP-2 and PP secretion in healthy men.
16552751 2006 Ghrelin stimulates interleukin-8 gene expression through protein kinase C-mediated NF-kappaB pathway in human colonic epithelial cells.
16549524 2006 Ghrelin expression in human and rat fetal lungs and the effect of ghrelin administration in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
16538179 2006 Case-control and combined family trios analysis of three polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene in European patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
16527811 2006 Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility.
16511605 2006 Loss of constitutive activity of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in familial short stature.
16491079 2006 Ghrelin controls hippocampal spine synapse density and memory performance.
16483881 2006 Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
16476508 2006 Differential BBB interactions of three ingestive peptides: obestatin, ghrelin, and adiponectin.
16472909 2006 No association of the Arg51Gln and Leu72Met polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.
16459454 2005 Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in obese Korean children.
16423919 2006 Ghrelin receptors in rat and human nodose ganglia: putative role in regulating CB-1 and MCH receptor abundance.
16420657 2006 Changes in appetite related gut hormones in intensive care unit patients: a pilot cohort study.
16394173 2006 Ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin stimulate human osteoblast growth via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways in the absence of GHS-R1a.
16391832 2006 Age-dependent decrease in the ghrelin gene expression in the human adrenal cortex: a real-time PCR study.
16384853 2006 Influence of weight loss on plasma ghrelin responses to high-fat and high-carbohydrate test meals in obese women.
16363872 2006 Conformational flexibility of the peptide hormone ghrelin in solution and lipid membrane bound: a molecular dynamics study.
16341674 2005 Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.
16340041 2005 Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and its implications for gastric infection, periodontal health, immunology and dyspepsia.
16322325 2005 Expression and function of the ghrelin axis, including a novel preproghrelin isoform, in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines.
16322288 2005 Ghrelin and a novel preproghrelin isoform are highly expressed in prostate cancer and ghrelin activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in prostate cancer.
16284174 2005 Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake.
16210421 2006 Effect of chronic hyperghrelinemia on ingestive action of ghrelin.
16207498 2005 Ghrelin precursor gene polymorphism and methamphetamine dependence in the Korean population.
16204371 2005 Variants in the ghrelin gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Old Order Amish.
16204363 2005 Ghrelin and the metabolic syndrome in older adults.
16198134 2005 Plasma levels of active and total ghrelin in renal failure: a relationship with GH/IGF-I axis.
16191452 2006 Ghrelin is present in human colostrum, transitional and mature milk.
16189175 2005 The negative association between total ghrelin levels, body mass and insulin secretion is lost in hypercortisolemic patients with Cushing's disease.
16188911 2006 Effects of gastric emptying on the postprandial ghrelin response.
16187069 2006 Ghrelin localization in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours.
16182310 2006 Postoperative ghrelin levels and delayed recovery from body weight loss after distal or total gastrectomy.
16181346 2005 Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with reduced circulating ghrelin levels independent of body mass index.
16131812 2005 Plasma ghrelin in anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder: relations with eating patterns and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones.
16108842 2005 Large-scale studies of the Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene in relation to the metabolic syndrome and associated quantitative traits.
16014402 2005 The satiating effect of dietary protein is unrelated to postprandial ghrelin secretion.
15998770 2005 Ghrelin and bone metabolism in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and healthy adolescents.
15998659 2005 Fat digestion is required for suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide secretion by intraduodenal lipid.
15972581 2005 Is there a role for ghrelin and peptide-YY in the pathogenesis of obesity in adults with acquired structural hypothalamic damage?
15956087 2005 Increased density of ghrelin-expressing cells in the gastric fundus and body in Prader-Willi syndrome.
15955378 2005 Correlation of serum ghrelin levels with body mass index and carbohydrate metabolism in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.
15894681 2005 Polymorphisms in ghrelin and neuropeptide Y genes are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
15890737 2005 Comparative study of plasma ghrelin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, in hyperandrogenic women and in normal controls.
15863960 2005 Concentration of the n-octanoylated active form of ghrelin in fetal and neonatal circulation.
15855322 2005 Differential association of basal and postprandial plasma ghrelin with leptin, insulin, and type 2 diabetes.
15824975 2005 The effect of short-term cold and hot exposure on total plasma ghrelin concentrations in humans.
15820771 2005 Mutation analysis of the preproghrelin gene: no association with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
15795476 2005 Effect of moderate incremental exercise, performed in fed and fasted state on cardio-respiratory variables and leptin and ghrelin concentrations in young healthy men.
15786542 2005 Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on ghrelin and various neuroendocrine hormones in plasma.
15775713 2005 Ghrelin is suppressed by glucagon and does not mediate glucagon-related growth hormone release.
15758554 2005 Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and ghrelin in hemodialysis patients with sustained and episodic hypotension.
15752580 2005 A comparison of leptin and ghrelin levels in plasma and saliva of young healthy subjects.
15745452 2005 Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure.
15699539 2005 Growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), like ghrelin, increases food intake in healthy men.
15688209 2005 The negative association between plasma ghrelin and IGF-I is modified by obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
15657368 2005 Hyperghrelinemia does not accelerate gastric emptying in Prader-Willi syndrome patients.
15648019 2005 Leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin dysregulation in chronic kidney disease.
15604212 2005 Characterization and regulation of the rat and human ghrelin promoters.
15585547 2005 Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one-year exercise program.
15579749 2004 Relationship between ghrelin and energy expenditure in healthy young women.
15576457 2005 The endogenous growth hormone secretagogue (ghrelin) is synthesized and secreted by chondrocytes.
15572208 2004 Ghrelin inhibits FGF-2-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
15564328 2005 Ghrelin is produced by the human erythroleukemic HEL cell line and involved in an autocrine pathway leading to cell proliferation.
15538935 2004 Circulating levels of active ghrelin is associated with abdominal adiposity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
15531532 2004 Plasma levels of intact and degraded ghrelin and their responses to glucose infusion in anorexia nervosa.
15522942 2005 Fasting unmasks a strong inverse association between ghrelin and cortisol in serum: studies in obese and normal-weight subjects.
15522935 2005 Postprandial plasma ghrelin is suppressed proportional to meal calorie content in normal-weight but not obese subjects.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15476444 2004 Circulating and cerebrospinal fluid ghrelin and leptin: potential role in altered body weight in Huntington's disease.
15472212 2004 Effects of modified sham feeding on ghrelin levels in healthy human subjects.
15382608 [Role of ghrelin in the pathophysiology of eating behaviour].
15350694 2004 Ghrelin enhances the growth of cultured human adrenal zona glomerulosa cells by exerting MAPK-mediated proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effects.
15340161 2004 Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.
15292475 2004 Short-term effects of gastric bypass surgery on circulating ghrelin levels.
15292338 2004 Effects of estrogen and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on ghrelin secretion in severe undernutrition.
15292337 2004 Morning preprandial plasma ghrelin and catecholamine concentrations in patients with phenylketonuria and normal controls: evidence for catecholamine-mediated ghrelin regulation.
15292322 2004 Correlation between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and age, body mass index (BMI), BMI percentiles, and 24-hour plasma ghrelin profiles in Prader-Willi syndrome.
15292316 2004 Low cord ghrelin levels in term infants are associated with slow weight gain over the first 3 months of life.
15256494 2004 Ghrelin degradation by serum and tissue homogenates: identification of the cleavage sites.
15254759 2004 Effect of ghrelin on the apoptotic deletion rate of different types of cells cultured in vitro.
15248833 2004 Ghrelin gene polymorphisms and ghrelin, insulin, IGF-I, leptin and anthropometric data in children and adolescents.
15248831 2004 Effect of oral glucose administration on ghrelin levels in obese children.
15248830 2004 Endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids decrease plasma ghrelin in humans.
15232612 2004 Ghrelin inhibits leptin- and activation-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes and T cells.
15231997 2004 Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity.
15192277 2004 Hyperghrelinemia is a common feature of Prader-Willi syndrome and pituitary stalk interruption: a pathophysiological hypothesis.
15181097 2004 Postprandial response of plasma ghrelin levels to various test meals in relation to food intake, plasma insulin, and glucose.
15181083 2004 Negative relationship between fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations and ad libitum food intake.
15181038 2004 Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise program in normal-weight young women.
15158140 2004 Growth hormone releasing peptide (ghrelin) is synthesized and secreted by cardiomyocytes.
15142980 2004 Genomic structure and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human ghrelin gene.
15132729 2004 The associations between plasma adiponectin, ghrelin levels and cardiovascular risk factors.
15126574 2004 Acetylcholine regulates ghrelin secretion in humans.
15126531 2004 Plasma ghrelin concentrations, food intake, and anorexia in liver failure.
15117840 2004 Ghrelin inhibits proinflammatory responses and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human endothelial cells.
15090637 2004 Changes in serum ghrelin concentration following biliopancreatic diversion for obesity.
15075452 2003 Central and peripheral mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates gut motility.
15070937 2004 Fasting and postprandial total ghrelin remain unchanged after short-term energy restriction.
15070936 2004 Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in prader-willi syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and insulin resistance.
15070928 2004 Ghrelin secretion in childhood is refractory to the inhibitory effect of feeding.
15070922 2004 Plasma ghrelin concentrations are decreased in insulin-resistant obese adults relative to equally obese insulin-sensitive controls.
15057671 2004 Acute exercise has no effect on ghrelin plasma concentrations.
15057670 2004 Elevated ghrelin plasma levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
15057669 2004 Maintenance of a normal meal-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.
15052530 2004 Ghrelin/Leptin-imbalance in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
15039149 2004 Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time- and food-related cues.
15001628 2004 Postprandial suppression of plasma ghrelin level is proportional to ingested caloric load but does not predict intermeal interval in humans.
14962995 2004 Orexigenic action of peripheral ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein.
14871884 2004 Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects.
14764817 2004 The relationship between active ghrelin levels and human obesity involves alterations in resting energy expenditure.
14763915 2004 Expression of ghrelin and biological activity of specific receptors for ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in human prostate neoplasms and related cell lines.
14724664 2004 Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity.
14715878 2004 Expression of ghrelin and its functional receptor, the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor, in normal human testis and testicular tumors.
14715869 2004 Ghrelin levels are not regulated by recombinant leptin administration and/or three days of fasting in healthy subjects.
14681862 2003 Leptin, ghrelin, and proinflammatory cytokines: compounds with nutritional impact in chronic kidney disease?
14671163 2003 Ghrelin levels correlate with insulin levels, insulin resistance, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with gender, menopausal status, or cortisol levels in humans.
14671152 2003 Low ghrelin concentrations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are related to insulin resistance.
14614562 2004 Abnormal ghrelin secretion in new onset childhood Type 1 diabetes.
14602798 2003 Differential responses of circulating ghrelin to high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal in healthy women.
14602792 2003 Ghrelin concentration in cord and neonatal blood: relation to fetal growth and energy balance.
14585085 2003 Acute plasma glucose increase, but not early insulin response, regulates plasma ghrelin.
14559725 2004 Metabolic regulation of growth hormone by free fatty acids, somatostatin, and ghrelin in HIV-lipodystrophy.
14551671 2004 Serum ghrelin concentrations in patients receiving olanzapine or risperidone.
14530511 2003 Evidence that growth hormone exerts a feedback effect on stomach ghrelin production and secretion.
14527669 2003 Ghrelin, a widespread hormone: insights into molecular and cellular regulation of its expression and mechanism of action.
14521948 2003 C-terminal pro-ghrelin peptides are present in the human circulation.
14514639 2003 Low plasma ghrelin is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
12975309 2003 The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.
12974878 2003 Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
12931038 2003 Umbilical cord ghrelin concentrations in Asian and Caucasian neonates.
12907757 2003 High constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor--identification of a potent inverse agonist.
12892652 2003 Fasting plasma ghrelin levels in subtypes of anorexia nervosa.
12887287 2003 Circulating levels of ghrelin in human fetuses.
12851720 2003 Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone-secretagogue receptor, is expressed in the human adrenal cortex.
12829648 2003 Insulin-dependent modulation of plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations is less pronounced in type 2 diabetic patients.
12824869 2003 Plasma levels of active form of ghrelin during oral glucose tolerance test in patients with anorexia nervosa.
12739020 2003 Ghrelin Arg51Gln mutation is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension in a random sample of middle-aged subjects.
12732215 2003 Cloning and characterization of the 5(')-flanking region of the human ghrelin gene.
12727993 2003 Ghrelin is involved in the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.
12727973 2003 Ghrelin secretion in humans is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by somatostatin, and not affected by the ambient growth hormone levels.
12727951 2003 Serum ghrelin levels in acromegaly: effects of surgical and long-acting octreotide therapy.
12679456 2003 Loss of meal-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa.
12679444 2003 Plasma acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin before and after weight loss induced by gastric bypass surgery in morbidly obese subjects.
12679442 2003 Roles of leptin and ghrelin in the loss of body weight caused by a low fat, high carbohydrate diet.
12663466 2003 Ghrelin directly interacts with neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus: Ca2+ signaling via protein kinase A and N-type channel-dependent mechanisms and cross-talk with leptin and orexin.
12656662 2003 Helicobacter pylori has no effect on plasma ghrelin levels.
12606621 2003 Interaction of the growth hormone-releasing peptides ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 with the motilin receptor in the rabbit gastric antrum.
12576449 2003 Increased plasma ghrelin level in lung cancer cachexia.
12566947 2002 Ghrelin is no longer able to stimulate growth hormone secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome but instead induces exaggerated corticotropin and cortisol responses.
12553549 2002 Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, but not lipid infusion, decreases circulating ghrelin levels in humans.
12547722 2003 Ghrelin in fetal thyroid and follicular tumors and cell lines: expression and effects on tumor growth.
12531885 2003 Ghrelin can bind to a species of high density lipoprotein associated with paraoxonase.
12519848 2003 Serum ghrelin levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, age, and insulin concentrations in normal children and are markedly increased in Prader-Willi syndrome.
12519838 2003 Balance in ghrelin and leptin plasma levels in anorexia nervosa patients and constitutionally thin women.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12429880 2002 Ghrelin and the hyposomatotropism of obesity.
12414809 2003 Structural divergence of human ghrelin. Identification of multiple ghrelin-derived molecules produced by post-translational processing.
12364482 2002 Ghrelin secretion is inhibited by either somatostatin or cortistatin in humans.
12364442 2002 Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
12181387 2002 Role of ghrelin polymorphisms in obesity based on three different studies.
12161552 2002 A variation in the ghrelin gene increases weight and decreases insulin secretion in tall, obese children.
12161511 2002 Endocrine activities of cortistatin-14 and its interaction with GHRH and ghrelin in humans.
12153739 2002 Circulating ghrelin levels in basal conditions and during glucose tolerance test in acromegalic patients.
12133904 2002 Ghrelin expression in fetal, infant, and adult human lung.
12107502 2002 Ghrelin expression in gut endocrine growths.
12107501 2002 Characterisation of gastric ghrelin cells in man and other mammals: studies in adult and fetal tissues.
12050285 2002 The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GHS-R, in humans.
12050239 2002 Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students.
11815627 2002 Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase.
11788653 2002 Plasma ghrelin levels in lean and obese humans and the effect of glucose on ghrelin secretion.
11549663 2001 GH, GH receptor, GH secretagogue receptor, and ghrelin expression in human T cells, B cells, and neutrophils.
11502844 2001 Mutations in the preproghrelin/ghrelin gene associated with obesity in humans.
11314756 2001 Binding of 125I-labeled ghrelin to membranes from human hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
11306336 2001 Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor.
11227737 2001 Cortistatin, but not somatostatin, binds to growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptors of human pituitary gland.
11196643 2001 A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.
11159851 2001 Ghrelin, a novel placental-derived hormone.
11158061 2001 The expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin in normal and abnormal human pituitary and other neuroendocrine tumors.
11089560 2000 Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans.
11061542 2000 Growth hormone secretagogue binding sites in peripheral human tissues.
10930375 2000 Identification and characterization of a novel gastric peptide hormone: the motilin-related peptide.
10604470 1999 Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach.
10461027 1999 Restricted presence of the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor to somatotropes in rat and human pituitaries.
1619020 1992 Growth hormone-releasing hormone-like messenger ribonucleic acid and immunoreactive peptide are present in human testis and placenta.