Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 45
PubMed Score 69.71
PubTator Score 58.01

Knowledge Summary


No data available



  Differential Expression (6)

Disease log2 FC p
adrenocortical carcinoma -1.128 1.3e-03
non-small cell lung cancer -1.365 1.2e-12
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (... -1.100 1.3e-04
lung adenocarcinoma -1.100 1.7e-05
lung carcinoma -1.600 1.3e-19
invasive ductal carcinoma -1.200 4.5e-02

 IMPC Phenotype (1)

Protein-protein Interaction (2)

Gene RIF (30)

25937185 FSTL3 is a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation
24700053 Elevated FSTL-3 concentrations were attributable to preeclampsia and were associated with increased likelihood of later developing preeclampsia, suggesting further study as a biomarker prior to clinically evident disease.
24475769 The elevation of Follistatin-like-3 was demonstrated in late second trimester of pregnancy destined to developing preeclampsia, suggesting its causal role in the pathogenesis and prediction of preeclampsia.
22915069 Suggest FSTL3 has a role in paracrine communication between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts.
22568578 Data suggest that serum levels of FSTL3 are higher in pre-eclampsia than in controls; placental expression of FSTL3 is also increased in pre-eclampsia compared with controls; no differences were observed between mild and severe pre-eclampsia.
22476926 Resistance exercise resulted in a significant downregulation of MSTN and FBXO32 mRNA expression and a significant upregulation in FSTL3 and SMURF1 mRNA expression, and carbohydrate and protein feeding have little influence on the these markers expression.
22395277 After eccentric exercise, postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT) expressed higher levels of follistatin-like protein 3 while postmenopausal women using HT showed a significant increased expression over controls.
22122995 Maternal and placental FSTL3 concentrations were reduced in GDM women compared with normally pregnant women, suggesting FSTL3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes
22052913 Structure of myostatin.follistatin-like 3: N-terminal domains of follistatin-type molecules exhibit alternate modes of binding.
21829661 GDF9 decreases basal and activin A-induced FST and FSTL3 expression, and this explains, in part, its enhancing effects on activin A-induced inhibin beta(B)-subunit mRNA expression and inhibin B production in hGL cells
20063262 FLRG can be successfully detected in maternal plasma in the first trimester of pregnancy but its levels are not significantly altered in the presence of Down syndrome fetuses.
20007937 First-trimester FSTL3 levels are associated with glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes later in pregnancy.
19740438 FLRG expression was regulated in the epithelial cytoplasm and nucleus of the malignant breast tissue.
18768470 analysis of the structure of the FSTL3.activin A complex
18617621 Elevated myocardial expression of FST-like genes is a feature of heart failure, and may be linked to both disease severity and mechanisms underlying recovery.
17959243 Hypoxia enhances the expression of FSTL3 and its release from PHT cells.
17868029 Data show that the nuclear isoform of FLRG lacks an intrinsic transactivation domain, but enhances AF10-mediated transcription, probably through promoting the homo-oligomerization of AF10, thus facilitating the recruitment of co-activators.
17671190 Overexpression of FLRG, an antagonist of activin is associated with increased breast tumor cell growth
17395406 TNFalpha activates FLRG expression at the transcriptional level.
17296189 Ovarian endometriotic lesions show a deranged expression of activin A-binding proteins FLRG and follistatin, which may result in an altered effect of activin A on angiogenesis and/or endometrial differentiation.
16935389 Follistatin-like 3 expression was low in normal but enhanced in malignant rat liver. in human normal liver, in contrast, it was abundantly expressed but downregulated in liver cancer
16627583 the differential biological actions among the FST isoforms and FSTL3 are primarily dependent on their relative cell-surface binding ability and ligand specificity
16338475 IGFBP1 and Follistatin-like 3 are highly up-regulated in intrauterine growth restriction in the placenta.
16150905 comparison of the kinetics of FST isoform and FSTL3 biosynthesis, trafficking, and secretion
15451575 review discusses differences between signal targets of follistatin and FLRG and distinct functions and mechanisms for these two proteins in the human hematopoietic system
15130517 Data report the endometrial mRNA and peptide expression of follistatin-related gene (FLRG), a protein that binds activin-A, preventing its interaction.
14739256 likely to be a local regulator of activin action in gonadal development and gametogenesis
12531697 Follistatin and FLRG proteins downmodulate the effects of activin A and BMP2 on erythroid maturation.
12397211 our present data suggest that protein kinase C and A signal transduction pathways differently regulate the expression of FLRG in human ovarian granulosa-luteal cells
11948405 Transcription activation of FLRG and follistatin by activin A, through Smad proteins, participates in a negative feedback loop to modulate activin A function

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (47)

PMID Year Title
26091039 2015 A Single Kinase Generates the Majority of the Secreted Phosphoproteome.
25937185 2015 Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening.
24700053 2015 Follistatin-like 3 across gestation in preeclampsia and uncomplicated pregnancies among lean and obese women.
24475769 2014 Serum Follistatin-like-3 was elevated in second trimester of pregnant women who subsequently developed preeclampsia.
22915069 2012 Follistatin-like 3 mediates paracrine fibroblast activation by cardiomyocytes.
22568578 2012 Alterations of maternal serum and placental follistatin-like 3 and myostatin in pre-eclampsia.
22476926 2013 Effects of pre-exercise feeding on serum hormone concentrations and biomarkers of myostatin and ubiquitin proteasome pathway activity.
22395277 2012 Hormone therapy and maximal eccentric exercise alters myostatin-related gene expression in postmenopausal women.
22122995 2012 Decreased maternal and placental concentrations of follistatin-like 3 in gestational diabetes.
22052913 2012 Structure of myostatin·follistatin-like 3: N-terminal domains of follistatin-type molecules exhibit alternate modes of binding.
21829661 2011 Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) suppresses follistatin and follistatin-like 3 production in human granulosa-lutein cells.
20063262 2010 Maternal plasma levels of follistatin-related gene protein in the first trimester of pregnancies with Down syndrome.
20007937 2010 First-trimester follistatin-like-3 levels in pregnancies complicated by subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus.
19740438 2009 Differential expression of follistatin and FLRG in human breast proliferative disorders.
18768470 2008 The structure of FSTL3.activin A complex. Differential binding of N-terminal domains influences follistatin-type antagonist specificity.
18617621 2008 Expression of follistatin-related genes is altered in heart failure.
17959243 2008 Hypoxia enhances the expression of follistatin-like 3 in term human trophoblasts.
17878677 2007 Characterization of follistatin-related gene as a negative regulatory factor for activin family members during mouse heart development.
17868029 2007 AF10-dependent transcription is enhanced by its interaction with FLRG.
17671190 2007 Silencing of FLRG, an antagonist of activin, inhibits human breast tumor cell growth.
17395406 2007 Identification of NF-kappaB responsive elements in follistatin related gene (FLRG) promoter.
17296189 2007 Deranged expression of follistatin and follistatin-like protein in women with ovarian endometriosis.
16935389 2006 Deregulation of the activin/follistatin system in hepatocarcinogenesis.
16627583 2006 Biological activity of follistatin isoforms and follistatin-like-3 is dependent on differential cell surface binding and specificity for activin, myostatin, and bone morphogenetic proteins.
16338475 IGFBP1 and Follistatin-like 3 genes are significantly up-regulated in expression profiles of the IUGR placenta.
16336961 2006 A novel role for fibronectin type I domain in the regulation of human hematopoietic cell adhesiveness through binding to follistatin domains of FLRG and follistatin.
16150905 2005 Differential biosynthesis and intracellular transport of follistatin isoforms and follistatin-like-3.
15574124 2005 FLRG, a new ADAM12-associated protein, modulates osteoclast differentiation.
15527507 2004 An enigmatic fourth runt domain gene in the fugu genome: ancestral gene loss versus accelerated evolution.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15451575 2004 FLRG, member of the follistatin family, a new player in hematopoiesis.
15340161 2004 Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.
15130517 2004 Human endometrium and decidua express follistatin-related gene (FLRG) mRNA and peptide.
14739256 2004 Overexpression of follistatin-like 3 in gonads causes defects in gonadal development and function in transgenic mice.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12975309 2003 The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.
12970321 2003 Follistatin-related gene (FLRG) expression in human endometrium: sex steroid hormones regulate the expression of FLRG in cultured human endometrial stromal cells.
12697670 2003 Differential binding and neutralization of activins A and B by follistatin and follistatin like-3 (FSTL-3/FSRP/FLRG).
12531697 2003 Regulation of human erythropoiesis by activin A, BMP2, and BMP4, members of the TGFbeta family.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12397211 2002 Regulation of follistatin-related gene (FLRG) expression by protein kinase C and prostaglandin E(2) in cultured granulosa-luteal cells.
12194980 2002 The myostatin propeptide and the follistatin-related gene are inhibitory binding proteins of myostatin in normal serum.
11948405 2002 Transcription activation of FLRG and follistatin by activin A, through Smad proteins, participates in a negative feedback loop to modulate activin A function.
11571638 2001 FLRG, an activin-binding protein, is a new target of TGFbeta transcription activation through Smad proteins.
11459787 2001 Human follistatin-related protein: a structural homologue of follistatin with nuclear localization.
10737800 2000 Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags.
9671416 1998 FLRG (follistatin-related gene), a new target of chromosomal rearrangement in malignant blood disorders.