Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 99
PubMed Score 1100.78
PubTator Score 189.57

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (23)

Disease log2 FC p
psoriasis -1.300 2.2e-20
osteosarcoma 1.222 3.0e-03
glioblastoma 2.700 8.4e-03
cystic fibrosis 3.000 4.0e-04
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor 3.200 1.4e-03
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.100 1.1e-02
primitive neuroectodermal tumor 2.600 4.7e-03
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1.988 2.9e-07
acute quadriplegic myopathy 3.278 2.3e-08
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 1.351 1.4e-04
autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscul... 1.822 3.6e-04
juvenile dermatomyositis 1.249 4.3e-09
Atopic dermatitis -1.100 4.4e-03
non-small cell lung cancer 2.026 3.2e-07
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (... -1.900 3.8e-03
lung cancer 3.900 1.7e-05
pediatric high grade glioma 2.600 5.2e-04
pilocytic astrocytoma 1.800 1.5e-03
sonic hedgehog group medulloblastoma 1.100 3.1e-02
Breast cancer -1.400 1.5e-03
ulcerative colitis 1.500 1.4e-02
ovarian cancer 1.800 7.3e-03
pituitary cancer -1.400 3.5e-02

Protein-protein Interaction (2)

Gene RIF (77)

26844494 serum concentrations positively associated with serum free thyroxine levels in hyperthyroid or euthyroid patients
26652766 Circulating follistatin may be a marker of the glucagon-to-insulin tone on the liver
26415587 Study shows that INHBA and FST are induced by seminal fluid in cervical tissues and thus, may contribute to regulation of the post-coital response in women.
26086422 Adenomyotic tissues express high levels of myostatin, follistatin, and activin type II receptors.
25885021 Two angiogenic factors, follistatin (and HGF) are associated with prognosis in esophageal cancer patients.
25565002 changes in Follistatin levels during pregnancy contribute to the control of the activin A system
25361680 We report here an original observation that activin-B is upregulated in the human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung.
24885241 higher than normal serum values common in H1N1 infection but found no association with the severity of respiratory failure
24763182 Circulating follistatin levels are reduced in gestational diabetes mellitus and are positively associated with fetal growth and neonatal adiposity.
24667650 ERRbeta signalling leads to BCAS2-mediated blockage of the G1/S transition and inhibition of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition through FST-mediated regulation of E-cadherin
24577120 data strongly support that up-regulation of FST in chondrocytes by skeletal dysplasia-inducing TRPV4 mutations contributes to disease pathogenesis.
24332943 These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.
24232707 an imbalance between activin-A and follistatin contributes to the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD
24204752 Follistatin, by its ability to neutralize the actions of activin A may be of value as an antifibrotic for radiation induced fibrosis.
23564759 Plasma follistatin is moderately elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes.
23523567 FOXL2 expression is required for GDF-9 stimulation of follistatin transcription.
23432377 It is considered to have a significant role during tumor progression by influencing angiogenesis and metastasis. Thus, it serum level is a good tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.
23304117 Serum measurements of activin A, B, or follistatin cannot discriminate risk for type 2 diabetes in individual patients, but the activins display a positive relationship with clinical parameters of the disease.
23265961 methylation levels of CpG sites in the FST promoter and 5'-UTR are not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome
23249626 The intrinsic PK/PD properties of native FST315 are poorly suited for acting as a parentally administered biotherapeutic with broad systemic effects.
23171678 In cultured endometrioma stromal cells, Il-1beta and TNF-alpha induced follistatin mRNA and protein.
23113792 study found that causative mutations in the coding region of the FST gene are rare in Chinese women with idiopathic premature ovarian failure
23023351 The occurrence of the exonic variants of follistatin gene seems to be dependent on the ethnic background of the subjects under study and its role in the polycystic ovary syndrome pathophysiology cannot be established with hitherto available evidence.
23010638 FST is known to be an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which, coupled with the ability of TGF-beta2 to upregulate FST levels, may indicate a possible role of FST in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.
22809401 Binding of a specific ligand to FS288 differentially regulates its affinity and behavior for heparin molecules.
22693174 Myostatin may have a role in abdominal obesity, androgen and follistatin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
22685544 Findings suggest a function for breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) as a regulator of follistatin (FST) expression and function in ovarian cells.
22416010 The present study demonstrated that serum follistatin is not significantly altered in peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis and has limited diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of ovarian endometrioma.
22395277 After eccentric exercise, postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT) expressed higher levels of follistatin while postmenopausal women using HT showed a significant increased expression over controls.
21900845 LIR was able to induce gains in 1RM and quadriceps CSA similar to those observed after traditional HI. These responses may be related to the concomitant decrease in MSTN and increase in FLST isoforms, GASP-1, and SMAD-7 mRNA gene expression.
21846490 Follistatin showed highly significant positive associations to the intrafollicular concentrations of antimullerian hormone and inhibin B.
21829661 GDF9 decreases basal and activin A-induced FST and FSTL3 expression, and this explains, in part, its enhancing effects on activin A-induced inhibin beta(B)-subunit mRNA expression and inhibin B production in hGL cells
21496809 Disturbed expression of endometrial activin A, cripto , and follistatin suggests a dysfunction of the activin pathway in endometriosis/endometrioma.
21350111 increased follistatin levels occurred with inflammation, reduced muscle strength, and low bone mineral density, suggesting an involvement of a mechanism including follistatin in the uremic wasting process
21222045 analysis of candidate genes revealed four genes that influence fertility: CGB/LHB gene cluster (p = 0.0036), FSHR (p = 0.023), FST (p = 0.023), and INHB; none of the independent SNPs in these genes predicted mortality
21068158 Changes in hepatically metabolised follistatin during and after exercise are reported.
20926007 Protein levels of activin A and follistatin were assessed in glioblastoma and normal brain tissues in this study.
20843798 Nucleolar follistatin promotes cancer cell survival under glucose-deprived conditions through inhibiting cellular rRNA synthesis.
20801187 Effects of training and androgens on MYOPRO and FOLLI concentrations in blood and skeletal muscle, were investigated.
20734064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20634891 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20628624 Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20623366 In prostate cancer patients the serum concentrations of FLST significantly correlated with the presence of bone metastases or increased PSA levels
20093255 Follistatin seems more sensitive than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein alone to represent the aggravated low-grade inflammatory status after oral contraceptive treatment in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
19740438 Follistatin was detected in the epithelial cytoplasm and nucleus in normal, benign and malignant breast tissue.
19597895 Data suggest inhibition of BMP-7, by Drm (Gremlin), follistatin, and Noggin and upregulation of BMP-4 may play an integral role in the development of nonunions.
19520047 the overexpression of the follistatin in normal human myoblasts improved in vitro their proliferation and differentiation rate
19470636 Follistatin is a new adipokine important for adipogenesis.
19460752 Knockdown of follistatin (FST) by shRNA library screening inhibits HIV-1 replication in cultured Jurkat T-cells
19453261 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19346981 MSTN 2379 A > G and FST -5003 A > T were associated with baseline muscle strength and size among African Americans only.
19346981 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19106105 FoxL2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate follistatin gene transcription.(
19011242 several genes that are known to be regulated by DNA methylation were up-regulated dramatically by integrin alpha6beta4 expression, including S100A4, FST, PDLIM4, CAPG, and Nkx2.2.
18319260 These results reveal a key role of GLI2 in activation of the activin/BMP antagonist FST in response to hedgehog (HH) signaling.
18245525 FST plays a critical role in the production of multiple-organ metastasis, predominantly by inhibiting the angiogenesis when transfected into SCID mice.
18184649 intron 1 of the follistatin gene has a critical role in mediating Smad-dependent effects of activin and regulating the expression level of this gene
18001154 Inhibin/activin BA subunit, follistatin, and activin receptor proteins and mRNAs are present in the human fetal palate.
17893249 myostatin blockade by FS I-I has a therapeutic potential for muscular dystrophy
17644811 Endometrial expression of follistatin mRNA is lower in women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
17347381 These results indicate that haplotype structure at the ACVR2B and follistatin loci may contribute to interindividual variation in skeletal muscle mass and strength, although these data indicate sex-specific relationships.
17296189 Ovarian endometriotic lesions show a deranged expression of activin A-binding proteins FLRG and follistatin, which may result in an altered effect of activin A on angiogenesis and/or endometrial differentiation.
17284512 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17284512 it is concluded that FST is not a susceptibility locus for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, the SNP rs3797297 from FST gene was associated with androgenic markers for PCOS and may be of importance in the hyperandrogenaemia of the disease
17053951 mRNA expressed in human granulosa-luteal cells at oocyte retrieval
16935389 Follistatin was overexpressed while both activin subunits were downregulated in the majority of rat and human liver tumours
16627583 the differential biological actions among the FST isoforms and FSTL3 are primarily dependent on their relative cell-surface binding ability and ligand specificity
16150905 comparison of the kinetics of FST isoform and FSTL3 biosynthesis, trafficking, and secretion
15296481 Whilst follistatin expression is unchanged, follistatin-related gene is down-regulated in endometrial carcinoma
15064726 follistatin is secreted by melanoma cells
14578849 Blocked activin signaling and its biologic functions in vitro. Significant correlation between serum follistatin levels and liver weight.
14563935 A continuous sequence comprising the N-terminal domain and followed by FS domains 1 and 2 fulfills the minimum structural requirement for activin binding and FS bioactivity.
12720540 Circulatory concentrations of follistatin is elevated in patients diagnosed with septicemia, consistent with potential role in the systemic inflammatory response
12651901 Results quantify the relative expression of inhibin alpha, inhibin/activin beta(A), beta(B), beta(C), follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan genes in placental tissue of term pre-eclamptic patients.
12531697 Follistatin and FLRG proteins downmodulate the effects of activin A and BMP2 on erythroid maturation.
11948405 Transcription activation of FLRG and follistatin by activin A, through Smad proteins, participates in a negative feedback loop to modulate activin A function
11232039 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (102)

PMID Year Title
26844494 2016 Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism.
26652766 2016 Circulating Follistatin Is Liver-Derived and Regulated by the Glucagon-to-Insulin Ratio.
26415587 2015 Seminal fluid factors regulate activin A and follistatin synthesis in female cervical epithelial cells.
26086422 2015 Myostatin, follistatin and activin type II receptors are highly expressed in adenomyosis.
25885021 2015 Association of angiogenic factors with prognosis in esophageal cancer.
25565002 2015 Longitudinal analysis of maternal serum Follistatin concentration in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.
25361680 2014 Upregulation of activin-B and follistatin in pulmonary fibrosis - a translational study using human biopsies and a specific inhibitor in mouse fibrosis models.
24927181 2014 Genome-wide association study identifies three novel susceptibility loci for severe Acne vulgaris.
24885241 2014 Serum activin A and B, and follistatin in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection.
24763182 2014 Serum activin A and follistatin levels in gestational diabetes and the association of the Activin A-Follistatin system with anthropometric parameters in offspring.
24667650 2014 ERR? signalling through FST and BCAS2 inhibits cellular proliferation in breast cancer cells.
24577120 2014 Follistatin in chondrocytes: the link between TRPV4 channelopathies and skeletal malformations.
24332943 2014 FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors.
24232707 2014 Role of activin-A in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD.
24204752 2013 Follistatin is induced by ionizing radiation and potentially predictive of radiosensitivity in radiation-induced fibrosis patient derived fibroblasts.
23564759 2013 Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes: relationship to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and systemic low-grade inflammation.
23523567 2013 Essential but differential role of FOXL2wt and FOXL2C134W in GDF-9 stimulation of follistatin transcription in co-operation with Smad3 in the human granulosa cell line COV434.
23432377 2013 Prognotic impact of serum follistatin in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
23304117 2012 Correlation between blood activin levels and clinical parameters of type 2 diabetes.
23265961 2013 Quantitative analysis of follistatin (FST) promoter methylation in peripheral blood of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
23249626 2013 An engineered human follistatin variant: insights into the pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamic relationships of a novel molecule with broad therapeutic potential.
23171678 2013 Follistatin is induced by IL-1? and TNF-? in stromal cells from endometrioma.
23113792 2013 Mutational analysis of the FST gene in Chinese women with idiopathic premature ovarian failure.
23023351 Does follistatin gene have any direct role in the manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women?
23010638 2012 The effects of transforming growth factor-?2 on the expression of follistatin and activin A in normal and glaucomatous human trabecular meshwork cells and tissues.
22809401 2012 Analysis of the interaction between heparin and follistatin and heparin and follistatin-ligand complexes using surface plasmon resonance.
22693174 2012 Myostatin and its association with abdominal obesity, androgen and follistatin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
22685544 2012 BRCA1 regulates follistatin function in ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells.
22416010 2012 Diagnostic value of serum activin A and follistatin levels in women with peritoneal, ovarian and deep infiltrating endometriosis.
22395277 2012 Hormone therapy and maximal eccentric exercise alters myostatin-related gene expression in postmenopausal women.
21900845 2012 Strength training with blood flow restriction diminishes myostatin gene expression.
21846490 2012 Concentration of activin A and follistatin in follicular fluid from human small antral follicles associated to gene expression of the corresponding granulosa cells.
21829661 2011 Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) suppresses follistatin and follistatin-like 3 production in human granulosa-lutein cells.
21496809 2011 Altered expression of activin, cripto, and follistatin in the endometrium of women with endometrioma.
21350111 2011 Circulating follistatin in patients with chronic kidney disease: implications for muscle strength, bone mineral density, inflammation, and survival.
21222045 2011 The relationship between fertility and lifespan in humans.
21068158 2011 Exercise induces a marked increase in plasma follistatin: evidence that follistatin is a contraction-induced hepatokine.
20926007 Expression of activin A and follistatin in glioblastoma and their effects on U87 in vitro.
20860622 2010 DIP2 disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A (Drosophila) is a candidate receptor for follistatin-related protein/follistatin-like 1--analysis of their binding with TGF-? superfamily proteins.
20843798 2010 Nucleolar follistatin promotes cancer cell survival under glucose-deprived conditions through inhibiting cellular rRNA synthesis.
20801187 2010 Analysis of the effects of androgens and training on myostatin propeptide and follistatin concentrations in blood and skeletal muscle using highly sensitive immuno PCR.
20734064 2010 A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause.
20634891 2010 Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia.
20628624 2010 Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "hot-spot".
20623366 2010 Serum follistatin in patients with prostate cancer metastatic to the bone.
20093255 2010 Increased follistatin levels after oral contraceptive treatment in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
19740438 2009 Differential expression of follistatin and FLRG in human breast proliferative disorders.
19644449 2009 The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding.
19597895 2009 Levels of expression for BMP-7 and several BMP antagonists may play an integral role in a fracture nonunion: a pilot study.
19520047 2009 Overexpression of follistatin in human myoblasts increases their proliferation and differentiation, and improves the graft success in SCID mice.
19470636 2009 Role of follistatin in promoting adipogenesis in women.
19453261 2009 High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men.
19346981 2009 Myostatin and follistatin polymorphisms interact with muscle phenotypes and ethnicity.
19106105 2009 FoxL2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate follistatin gene transcription.
19054851 2008 Human protein factory for converting the transcriptome into an in vitro-expressed proteome,.
19011242 2009 Integrin alpha6beta4 controls the expression of genes associated with cell motility, invasion, and metastasis, including S100A4/metastasin.
18319260 2008 GLI2-specific transcriptional activation of the bone morphogenetic protein/activin antagonist follistatin in human epidermal cells.
18245525 2008 Follistatin suppresses the production of experimental multiple-organ metastasis by small cell lung cancer cells in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.
18184649 2008 A Smad-binding element in intron 1 participates in activin-dependent regulation of the follistatin gene.
18001154 Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues.
17991437 2007 Identification and characterization of follistatin as a novel angiogenin-binding protein.
17893249 2008 Transgenic expression of a myostatin inhibitor derived from follistatin increases skeletal muscle mass and ameliorates dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.
17644811 2007 Activin A and follistatin in menstrual blood: low concentrations in women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
17409095 2007 Structural and biophysical coupling of heparin and activin binding to follistatin isoform functions.
17347381 2007 Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations with muscle mass and strength in humans.
17296189 2007 Deranged expression of follistatin and follistatin-like protein in women with ovarian endometriosis.
17284512 2007 Polymorphism of the follistatin gene in polycystic ovary syndrome.
17053951 Expression of inhibin-activin subunits, follistatin and smads in granulosa-luteal cells collected at oocyte retrieval.
16935389 2006 Deregulation of the activin/follistatin system in hepatocarcinogenesis.
16627583 2006 Biological activity of follistatin isoforms and follistatin-like-3 is dependent on differential cell surface binding and specificity for activin, myostatin, and bone morphogenetic proteins.
16198295 2005 The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding.
16150905 2005 Differential biosynthesis and intracellular transport of follistatin isoforms and follistatin-like-3.
15574124 2005 FLRG, a new ADAM12-associated protein, modulates osteoclast differentiation.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15472207 2004 Differential distribution of follistatin isoforms: application of a new FS315-specific immunoassay.
15451575 2004 FLRG, member of the follistatin family, a new player in hematopoiesis.
15340161 2004 Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.
15296481 2004 Follistatin-related gene expression, but not follistatin expression, is decreased in human endometrial adenocarcinoma.
15064726 2004 Melanoma cells secrete follistatin, an antagonist of activin-mediated growth inhibition.
14578849 2003 Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of follistatin enlarges intact liver of adult rats.
14563935 2004 The role of follistatin domains in follistatin biological action.
12720540 2003 Serum concentrations of activin and follistatin are elevated and run in parallel in patients with septicemia.
12702211 2003 Activin-A up-regulates type I activin receptor mRNA levels in human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells.
12697670 2003 Differential binding and neutralization of activins A and B by follistatin and follistatin like-3 (FSTL-3/FSRP/FLRG).
12651901 2003 Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan gene expression in the placental tissue of patients with pre-eclampsia.
12531697 2003 Regulation of human erythropoiesis by activin A, BMP2, and BMP4, members of the TGFbeta family.
12514121 2003 Control of pelage hair follicle development and cycling by complex interactions between follistatin and activin.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12242034 2002 cDNA cloning and expression of human activin betaE subunit.
11948405 2002 Transcription activation of FLRG and follistatin by activin A, through Smad proteins, participates in a negative feedback loop to modulate activin A function.
11580864 2001 Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons.
11232039 2001 Evidence for association of polycystic ovary syndrome in caucasian women with a marker at the insulin receptor gene locus.
10702675 1999 Assignment of ACVR2 and ACVR2B the human activin receptor type II and IIB genes to chromosome bands 2q22.2-->q23.3 and 3p22 and the human follistatin gene (FST) to chromosome 5q11.2 by FISH.
10411917 1999 Thirty-seven candidate genes for polycystic ovary syndrome: strongest evidence for linkage is with follistatin.
9828086 1998 Defective whisker follicles and altered brainstem patterns in activin and follistatin knockout mice.
9799587 1998 Follistatin: a multifunctional regulatory protein.
8836491 Activin and follistatin as local regulators in the human ovary.
8536619 1996 Follistatin-activin complexes in human serum and follicular fluid differ immunologically and biochemically.
8288705 1994 Local production and action of follistatin in human placenta.
7887917 1995 The heparin binding site of follistatin is involved in its interaction with activin.
3380788 1988 Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization.
2036994 1991 Follistatin binds to both activin and inhibin through the common subunit.