Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 100
PubMed Score 350.59
PubTator Score 242.93

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (20)

Disease log2 FC p
astrocytic glioma -1.300 9.4e-03
ependymoma -2.100 8.5e-13
oligodendroglioma -1.200 1.8e-02
osteosarcoma 2.099 5.8e-07
glioblastoma -1.800 2.8e-07
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor -1.800 4.0e-05
primitive neuroectodermal tumor -1.300 4.7e-02
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -1.207 1.9e-06
acute quadriplegic myopathy -2.313 7.7e-10
adrenocortical carcinoma -2.471 1.3e-08
pediatric high grade glioma -1.800 1.8e-05
group 4 medulloblastoma 1.200 1.0e-04
pilocytic astrocytoma -1.700 3.3e-08
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma -2.427 6.2e-03
lung carcinoma 1.400 3.8e-22
gastric carcinoma -1.900 2.0e-02
ductal carcinoma in situ -1.100 4.4e-03
invasive ductal carcinoma -1.300 1.0e-02
pituitary cancer 2.000 3.5e-06
psoriasis -1.600 7.1e-32

Gene RIF (88)

26975541 Sprint training for 4weeks significantly decreased the resting serum irisin concentration, despite different training programs
26799325 regulates glucose uptake and promotes lipolysis in adipocytes
26790404 The compositions of skeletal muscle and visceral fat play key roles in the association between circulating irisin and a patient's metabolic phenotype.
26774404 A potential role for FNDC5 acting locally in muscle in a low growth hormone state.
26769830 Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women
26752184 Serum irisin might exert antagonistic effects on FABP4 in the middle-aged Chinese population.
26698239 Serum irisin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome patients was high compared to controls.
26649318 In patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, irisin correlated positively with insulin sensitivity but is not associated with beta-cell function-related variables.
26625129 Irisin levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were negatively correlated with disease severity evaluated by the radiographic KL grading criteria.
26479549 Circulating irisin levels progressively decreased with the worsening of the glucose tolerance. Irisin correlated well with traditional biochemical and anthropometric parameters of metabolic health.
26334732 Salivary irisin was markedly elevated in PWS although plasma irisin was similar to levels in controls. Significant associations with plasma lipids suggest that irisin may contribute to the metabolic phenotype of PWS
26298738 serum irisin is significantly associated with sarcopenia and carotid atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients
26234637 Irisin is a myokine decreasing gradually with the progression of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it is not correlated with body mass index in sedentary women.
26228794 Data suggest circulating irisin is down-regulated in gestational diabetes in Chinese population of pregnant women; additionally meta-analysis of 5 observational studies (including present study) suggest same. [CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY; META-ANALYSIS]
26225842 irisin alleviates endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes partially via reducing oxidative stresses through inhibiting signaling pathways suggesting that irisin may be a promising molecule for the treatment of vascular complications of diabetes.
26172924 Plasma irisin was higher in subjects with high adipose body content (>40%) than in lean subjects. Plasma irisin was associated with metabolic syndrome.
26081427 Resistance exercise resulted in significantly greater irisin responses compared with endurance exercise
26024756 although not associated with type 2 diabetes, the G allele of FNDC5 appears to be associated with increased HbA1c
26011590 This cross-sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.
25952527 Data suggest that secretion of irisin by skeletal muscle is up-regulated by exercise; irisin appears to be involved in regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance, and cell differentiation. [REVIEW]
25898830 Men showed inverse associations between irisin serum concentration and exercise capacity assessed by peakVO2 and maximum power output. In women a trend towards a positive relationship between irisin and peakVO2 was detected.
25897751 An active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment.
25820475 Plasma irisin levels were positively associated with adiposity and negatively associated with fitness and insulin sensitivity in obese subjects.
25820255 Circulating irisin is positively linked to BMI and leptin in school-age children, supporting the notion that that irisin is produced by adipose tissue.
25814621 Irisin concentrations are associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy
25793753 These results suggest a possible role for secreted irisin in the exercise-induced alteration of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.
25781950 The results suggest that irisin responses to resistance exercise are higher in individuals with lower proportions of lean body mass.
25781361 Irisin levels are related to pubertal stage and insulin resistance but not to weight status in childhood.
25720610 Irisin is cleaved and secreted from a fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 .Its action has not been described precisely, and receptors are not defined, but it may promote browning of white adipose tissue into beige fat cells.(review)
25676803 PNPLA3 148M allele carriers had higher plasma levels of irisin.
25625801 irisin levels are affected by age, sex, obesity, and particularly muscle mass, whereas diurnal rhythm and meals do not contribute to the variation in irisin levels.
25514098 Exercise is able to increase circulating irisin levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome as well as healthy individuals.
25497839 High expression levels of FNDC5 in human fetal brain and spinal cord tissues have suggested the involvement of this gene in neural tube development.
25494632 Lower irisin level is associated with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
25427998 Irisin may play an important role to successful aging and longevity.
25400208 Irisin has a role in osteoporotic fractures independent of bone mineral density, body composition or daily physical activity
25382211 Data suggest that irisin may be involved in the regulation of endothelial function in obesity.
25369206 The contribution of the common FNDC5 SNP rs16835198 to fasting insulin is significantly modified by body mass index.
25343462 Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.
25326905 irisin has no significant direct effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or on fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
25261800 the fat-burning protein irisin locally produced in peripheral and central tissues could act as a gatekeeper of metabolic energy regulation in those tissues
25192692 Data indicate that levels of homocysteine were significantly higher and levels of irisin were lower in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.
25124080 Irisin suppresses NFKB activation, an opposite effect of other myokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha.
25119310 Despite the differences in basal irisin levels (lower in elderly), exercise-induced irisin secretion is independent of age or fitness level. Increased irisin can directly modulate muscle metabolism through AMP kinase activation.
25102448 evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage
25060690 Irisin and omentin-1 are stable within-person.
25029417 irisin and GIP might contribute to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome and may also represent novel polycystic ovary syndrome biomarkers
24920292 Circulating irisin levels are acutely elevated in response to exercise.
24915120 In healthy, young individuals, circulating irisin displays a day-night rhythm, is correlated with lean body mass, and increases acutely after exercise.
24911636 results demonstrated that circulating irisin levels were decreased in newly diagnosed Chinese type 2 diabetic patients without clinical angiopathy and positively associated with flow-mediated dilation levels
24910199 These findings suggest that irisin secretion after acute running exercise is affected by exercise intensity, independent of energy consumption.
24850254 serum concentration increases markedly in pregnant women, but this increase seems to be significantly lower in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus
24813865 Healthy centenarians are characterized by increased serum irisin levels, whereas levels of this molecule were found to be significantly lower in young patients with myocardial infarction.
24789538 umbilical artery irisin levels were lower in pregnancies complicated by foetal growth restriction.
24780049 Circulating irisin levels were not different in individuals with detectable brown adipose tissue or those with sarcopenia compared with control subjects and were not correlated with skeletal muscle mass index.
24709991 irisin may play an important role in insulin resistance and MetS
24628554 Irisin may be involved in reproductive function and in the pregnancy-associated metabolic changes.
24619655 Blood irisin levels are associated with insulin resistance and vascular atherosclerosis.
24614098 These results suggest that irisin/FNDC5 has a pleiotropic role in muscle and improvement of adipocyte metabolism in humans.
24603718 There appears to be a sexual dimorphic response of irisin to sprint interval training.
24559842 In Japanese men, cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common SNPs in FNDC5 are not associated with circulating irisin levels
24510629 We did not find differences in circulating irisin levels between control subjects and those with morbid obesity or T2 diabetes.
24506871 Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans.
24464712 The role of irisin in the differentiation of white adipocytes into brown adipocytes via the ERK pathway is discussed.
24439241 irisin could be secreted as an adaptive response to counteract the deleterious effect of excess adiposity on glucose homeostasis
24399249 Irisin serum concentrations decrease with increasing CKD stage and are independently and positively predicted by renal function and insulin resistance.
24398403 Irisin was detectable in CSF and colocalized with NPY in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in nonobese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters.
24375850 Irisin levels were higher in obese than in normal-weight subjects and were also higher in men than in women. Irisin plasma levels were significantly correlated with high levels of direct and indirect adiposity markers, but not height or leptin levels.
24355429 The myokine irisin is independently associated with fasting insulin in pregnancy.
24332558 irisin is secreted by skeletal muscle due to exercise, has positive effects on energy metabolism, and acts as a messenger on white adipose tissue, modifying its phenotype into the beige adipocyte and increasing its thermogenic capacity
24297848 Exercise did not affect Fndc5/irisin. However, irisin was positively linked to muscle mass, strength and metabolism, pointing to common regulatory factors and/or the potential for irisin to modify muscle phenotype.
24237962 Data suggest that both FNDC5 and PPARGC1A (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha) mRNA levels in skeletal muscle increase after 12 weeks of exercise training in both control and prediabetes/overweight men.
24140091 Serum irisin levels differ between lean controls and obese controls or NAFLD patients. Despite similar circulating irisin levels between NAFL and NASH groups, irisin may be independently and positively associated with the presence of portal inflammation.
24114836 Biochemical data confirm that irisin is a dimer and that dimerization is unaffected by glycosylation.
24062088 findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders
24057291 Data suggest that up-regulation of serum irisin levels is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, increased risk of insulin resistance, and increased 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease.
24040023 Data indicate that start codon of FNDC5 (irisin) gene is mutated.
24013946 Hemodialysis patients seem to have lower plasma irisin when compared to healthy subjects.
23667695 Chronic kidney disease patients have lower than normal irisin levels at rest.
23665283 serum irisin concentrations were inversely associated with the triglyceride contents in the liver and liver enzymes in obese Chinese adults
23637927 FNDC5 gene, encoding the novel myokine irisin, determines insulin sensitivity in humans
23619195 Plasma irisin levels appear to be associated with important metabolic factors in non-diabetic subjects but not in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
23578923 Irisin may help explain some of the observed variability in individual energy requirements that cannot be accounted for by fat free mass
23436919 Decreased circulating irisin concentration and FNDC5 gene expression in adipose tissue and muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects suggests a loss of brown-like characteristics and a potential target for therapy.
23219488 Circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients.
23018146 Circulating irisin levels increase in response to acute exercise whereas muscle FNDC5 mRNA and circulating irisin levels decrease after surgically induced weight loss in parallel to decrease in body mass.
22237023 Experimental evidence (Western and mass spectrometry) of mouse and human secreted irisin peptide
21266472 infers non-AUG translation initiation codon for FNDC5 based on evolutionary comparisons; only human has an ""ATA"" at a position that is ""ATG"" in other mammals

AA Sequence

KI                                                                        211 - 212

Text Mined References (103)

PMID Year Title
26975541 2016 Effect of sprint training on resting serum irisin concentration - Sprint training once daily vs. twice every other day.
26799325 2016 Effects and Molecular Mechanism of GST-Irisin on Lipolysis and Autocrine Function in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
26790404 2016 The ratio of skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area is a main determinant linking circulating irisin to metabolic phenotype.
26774404 2016 FNDC5 relates to skeletal muscle IGF-I and mitochondrial function and gene expression in obese men with reduced growth hormone.
26769830 2015 Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.
26752184 2016 Circulating Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) Levels Are Associated with Irisin in the Middle-Aged General Chinese Population.
26698239 2015 Serum irisin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
26649318 2016 Circulating Levels of Betatrophin and Irisin Are Not Associated with Pancreatic ?-Cell Function in Previously Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.
26625129 2016 Association of Irisin and CRP Levels with the Radiographic Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis.
26479549 2016 Irisin in the Glucose Continuum.
26334732 2015 Irisin and the Metabolic Phenotype of Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.
26298738 2015 Irisin, a novel myokine is an independent predictor for sarcopenia and carotid atherosclerosis in dialysis patients.
26234637 2015 Irisin levels in the progression of diabetes in sedentary women.
26228794 2015 Circulating irisin is lower in gestational diabetes mellitus.
26225842 2015 Irisin improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes through reducing oxidative/nitrative stresses.
26172924 2015 Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.
26081427 2015 Resistance exercise induces a greater irisin response than endurance exercise.
26024756 2015 Irisin-encoding gene (FNDC5) variant is associated with changes in blood pressure and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic women but not in men.
26011590 2015 Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2.
25952527 2016 Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine as a metabolic regulator: an updated narrative review.
25898830 2015 Association of circulating irisin and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in healthy volunteers: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania.
25897751 2015 Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.
25820475 2015 Irisin is more strongly predicted by muscle oxidative potential than adiposity in non-diabetic men.
25820255 2015 Irisin levels before and after physical activity among school-age children with different BMI: a direct relation with leptin.
25814621 2016 Association of irisin concentrations with the presence of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy.
25793753 2015 Endurance training-induced increase in circulating irisin levels is associated with reduction of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.
25781950 2015 Irisin in blood increases transiently after single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training.
25781361 2015 Irisin and its relation to insulin resistance and puberty in obese children: a longitudinal analysis.
25720610 2015 [Irisin--a new mediator of energy homeostasis].
25676803 2015 The 148 M allele of the PNPLA3 is associated with plasma irisin levels in a population sample of Caucasian children: The PANIC Study.
25625801 2015 Serum irisin levels are regulated by acute strenuous exercise.
25514098 2015 Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome.
25497839 2015 Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues.
25494632 2016 Lower irisin level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study and meta-analysis.
25427998 2014 FNDC5 (irisin) gene and exceptional longevity: a functional replication study with rs16835198 and rs726344 SNPs.
25400208 2015 Irisin is associated with osteoporotic fractures independently of bone mineral density, body composition or daily physical activity.
25382211 2015 The relationship between circulating irisin levels and endothelial function in lean and obese subjects.
25369206 2014 An interaction between a FNDC5 variant and obesity modulates glucose metabolism in a Chinese Han population.
25343462 2014 Association between serum irisin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in health screen examinees.
25326905 2015 Irisin has no effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
25261800 2014 A comprehensive immunohistochemical examination of the distribution of the fat-burning protein irisin in biological tissues.
25192692 2014 Association between irisin and homocysteine in euglycemic and diabetic subjects.
25124080 2015 Effects of the exercise-inducible myokine irisin on malignant and non-malignant breast epithelial cell behavior in vitro.
25119310 2014 Exercise-induced irisin secretion is independent of age or fitness level and increased irisin may directly modulate muscle metabolism through AMPK activation.
25112714 2014 FNDC5 could be regulated by leptin in adipose tissue.
25102448 2014 Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.
25060690 2014 Circulating irisin, omentin-1, and lipoprotein subparticles in adults at higher cardiovascular risk.
25029417 2014 Circulating irisin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide are associated with the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.
24920292 2014 Plasma irisin levels progressively increase in response to increasing exercise workloads in young, healthy, active subjects.
24915120 2014 Circulating irisin in healthy, young individuals: day-night rhythm, effects of food intake and exercise, and associations with gender, physical activity, diet, and body composition.
24911636 2014 Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical angiopathy.
24910199 2014 High-intensity exercise causes greater irisin response compared with low-intensity exercise under similar energy consumption.
24850254 2014 Serum irisin concentration in women with gestational diabetes.
24813865 2014 Serum irisin levels, precocious myocardial infarction, and healthy exceptional longevity.
24789538 2014 Irisin in idiopathic foetal growth restriction.
24780049 2014 Implication of circulating irisin levels with brown adipose tissue and sarcopenia in humans.
24709991 2014 Association of serum irisin with metabolic syndrome in obese Chinese adults.
24628554 2014 Irisin levels during pregnancy and changes associated with the development of preeclampsia.
24619655 2014 High circulating irisin levels are associated with insulin resistance and vascular atherosclerosis in a cohort of nondiabetic adult subjects.
24614098 2014 Irisin stimulates muscle growth-related genes and regulates adipocyte differentiation and metabolism in humans.
24603718 2014 Regulators of human white adipose browning: evidence for sympathetic control and sexual dimorphic responses to sprint interval training.
24559842 2014 Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FNDC5 gene are associated with glucose metabolism but do not affect serum irisin levels in Japanese men with low fitness levels.
24510629 2014 Circulating irisin levels are not correlated with BMI, age, and other biological parameters in obese and diabetic patients.
24506871 2014 Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans.
24464712 2014 Irisin ERKs the fat.
24439241 2014 Association between circulating irisin levels and the promotion of insulin resistance during the weight maintenance period after a dietary weight-lowering program in obese patients.
24399249 2014 Serum levels of the myokine irisin in relation to metabolic and renal function.
24398403 2014 The identification of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid: influence of adiposity, metabolic markers, and gestational diabetes.
24375850 Longitudinal variation of circulating irisin after an energy restriction-induced weight loss and following weight regain in obese men and women.
24355429 2014 Serum levels of irisin in gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and after delivery.
24332558 [Irisin: a messenger from the gods?].
24297848 2014 Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies.
24237962 2014 The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC-1?, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans.
24140091 2014 Irisin in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
24120943 2013 Exercise induces hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1?/FNDC5 pathway.
24114836 2013 The structure of irisin reveals a novel intersubunit ?-sheet fibronectin type III (FNIII) dimer: implications for receptor activation.
24062088 2014 A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.
24057291 2013 Circulating irisin in relation to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.
24040023 2013 Evidence against a beneficial effect of irisin in humans.
24013946 2013 Resistance exercise training does not affect plasma irisin levels of hemodialysis patients.
23667695 2013 Decrease in irisin in patients with chronic kidney disease.
23665283 2013 Irisin is inversely associated with intrahepatic triglyceride contents in obese adults.
23637927 2013 Common genetic variation in the human FNDC5 locus, encoding the novel muscle-derived 'browning' factor irisin, determines insulin sensitivity.
23619195 Lower circulating irisin is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
23578923 2013 Irisin levels correlate with energy expenditure in a subgroup of humans with energy expenditure greater than predicted by fat free mass.
23436919 2013 Irisin is expressed and produced by human muscle and adipose tissue in association with obesity and insulin resistance.
23369227 2013 Serum irisin levels in new-onset type 2 diabetes.
23219488 2013 Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity--correlation with body mass index.
23107305 2012 Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells.
23018146 2012 FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise.
23001918 2012 Expression of the irisin precursor FNDC5 in skeletal muscle correlates with aerobic exercise performance in patients with heart failure.
22796012 2012 Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human.
22491843 2012 Medicine. Irisin, light my fire.
22237023 2012 A PGC1-?-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis.
21266472 2011 Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences.
17974005 2007 The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA Consortium.
16710414 2006 The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12384288 2002 Frcp1 and Frcp2, two novel fibronectin type III repeat containing genes.
11591653 2001 Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs.