Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 78
PubMed Score 3712.13
PubTator Score 47.85

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (3)

Disease log2 FC p
osteosarcoma -1.702 7.9e-05
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.100 3.1e-05
diabetes mellitus 1.200 1.4e-03

Gene RIF (58)

25651508 The effect of ETS1 on syncytialization of trophoblasts likely results, at least in part, from inhibition of syncytin expression.
25340371 Positive associations were observed between HERV-w methylation and dietary intakes of beta-carotene and carotenoids in a population of obese subjects.
25250834 HIV-1 Tat-mediated regulation of MSRV and Syncytin-1 involves TLR-4 in primary astrocytes
24814867 Data show that Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Retrovirus (MSRV) is predominantly expressed over ERWVE1 in astrocyte-derived U-87 glioblastoma cell line.
24812088 Exosomes from cultured primary villous cytotrophoblasts and sera of pregnant women have syncytin-1 on their surfaces. It acts on cellular binding and uptake of exosomes.
24687878 Syncytin-1 and ASCT-2 is localized at the acrosomal region and equatorial segment of the spermatozoa.
24478419 Influenza A virus infection transactivated ERVWE1 by increasing the transcription of GCM1.
24413738 Increased trophoblast apoptosis and altered expression levels of syncytin-1, calpain 1, and AIF is observed in preeclamptic placentas.
24204983 Insertionally polymorphic HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are not associated with HIV infections.
24013223 Syncytin-1 overexpression may be an indicator of urothelial cell carcinoma risk.
23888950 These results indicated that aberrant hypermethylation is involved in downregulation of syncytin-1, and epigenetic alterations may play a significant role in the development of preeclampsia
23727510 Overexpression of HERV-W envelope gene elevated the levels of SK3 channel in neuroblastoma cells.
23457515 This study linked decreased Syncytin-1 expression to an epigenetic hypermethylation of the entire promoter of ERVW-1.
23333240 Syncytin-1 knockdown significantly inhibited BeWo cell growth and DNA synthesis and Syncytin-1 could promote the G1/S transition through p15 and CDK4.
23290063 In discordant monozygotic twins, HERVWE1 expression is higher in smaller fetuses and lower in larger counterparts. Methylation of the HERVWE1 gene promoter region may participate in gene regulation.
23212585 HERV-W env transcription was found to be elevated in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia subjects compared to controls. Molecular sequence characteristics may represent distinct features of the genome of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
22999499 Data suggest that sorting of syncytin-1 into placental exosomes represents mechanism allowing syncytin-1 to reach and interact with target cells of maternal immune system to execute its immune-modulatory roles during pregnancy.
22971074 Corticotropin-releasing hormone did not influence the differentiation of isolated trophoblasts into functional syncytium as determined by beta-hCG secretion, albeit inducing syncytin-1 expression.
22573740 The role of syncytin-1 and Pb1 in cell-cell fusion was studied using lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNAs for stable knockdown of both genes.
22573555 proposed that Syncytin-1 is regulated by PPARgamma/RXRalpha signaling during placentogenesis to drive multinuclear syncytiotrophoblast layer formation and maintenance.
22348442 The findings suggested that syncytin 1 is shed from the placenta into the maternal circulation in association with placental microvesicles, and modulates immune cell activation and the responses of immune cells to lipopolysaccharide stimulation.
22109522 Data show that beta-catenin/BCL9-Like (BCL9L)/T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) signalling directly targets the GCM1/syncytin pathway and thereby regulates the fusion of human choriocarcinoma cells.
21771862 Analysis of non-spliced ERVWE1 mRNAs and env mRNAs detected efficient splicing of endogenously expressed RNAs in trophoblastic but not in non-placental cells.
21493955 results further highlighted the existence of a correlation between the extent of the decrease in the expression levels of both syncytins 1 and 2 fusogenic proteins and the degree of severity of preeclampsia symptoms
20546612 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20100784 HERV-W env triggers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production in human U251 glioma cells.
19903052 HERV-W syncytin expression apparently does not play role in endometriosis. However, it may possibly influence development of endometriosis because of increased expression in normal endometrium in endometriosis patients.
19692500 CD9 increases GCM1 expression via the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, resulting in the increase in ERVWE1 expression.
19561344 ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5'LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles
19407656 Role of HERV-W syncytin-1 in placentation and maintenance of human pregnancy.
19327884 increased syncytin expression is associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients
19321927 data support the premise that the expression of GCMa and syncytin-1 precedes syncytialization of trophoblasts, e.g. at 6% O(2), which is assumed to resemble physiological conditions.
18351375 Syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents.
18077339 findings show that in both humans and mice, one of the two syncytins (human syncytin-2 and mouse syncytin-B) is immunosuppressive and, rather unexpectedly, the other (human syncytin-1 and mouse syncytin-A) is not
17762178 present evidence in support of the direct role for syncytin-A in mouse trophoblast stem cell fusion and differentiation involved in placental dev.
17453631 Transcripts from the HERV-W element on chromosome 7q21.2 encoding syncytin and from the SOD1 gene were detected at elevated levels in biopsies from the most affected muscles from MND patients compared to biopsies from control individuals.
17209768 Median viral RNA levels for syncytin-1 were higher in brains of MS patients relative to non-MS patients and median syncytin-1 DNA levels in MS brains were higher than non-MS brain tissue.
16871371 Syncytin is expressed by human cancer cells and is involved in cancer-endothelial cell fusions
16820059 evaluation of the interaction of the HERV-W envelope with the hASCT2 receptor; a region consisting of the N-terminal 124 amino acids of the mature glycoprotein surface subunit was determined as the minimal receptor-binding domain
16760410 Syncytin transcripts were found in first-trimester trophoblast cells with both villous and extravillous phenotypes and also in the JAR and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell lines.
16176588 Preservation in Hominoids of a genomic structure consisting in the juxtaposition of a retrotransposon-derived MaLR LTR (enhancer in hominidae) and the ERVWE1 provirus (promoter)
16004993 GCMa-driven syncytin expression is the key mechanism for syncytiotrophoblast formation
15888734 The 146-bp region of the 5'-flanking region (nt-294/-148) of the human syncytin gene acts as a placenta-specific enhancer.
15827173 identification of the maturation requirements for env ERVWE1 fusion competence
15507602 control of env ERVWE1 placental expression in hominidae by the ERVWE1 retroviral LTR and a cellular trophoblast-specific-enhancer
15452578 Syncytin's proinflammatory properties in the nervous system demonstrate a novel role for an endogenous retrovirus protein, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention.
15269105 Cytoplasmic domain of syncytin is not essential for syncytin-mediated fusion but may play regulatory role. Intramolecular interaction between two heptad repeat regions (HRA and B) is involved in fusion process.
15254254 Comparison of orthologous and paralogous (H)ERV-W elements demonstrated the selective preservation of the env gene of the ERVWE1 locus and identified specific traits underlying the process of evolution from a retroviral envelope toward a cellular gene
15109395 relative L1 and HERV-W expression levels are elevated in representative samples of malignant vs. non-malignant ovarian tissues
14613893 syncytin promoter is located in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) of the HERV-W gene and that binding sites for CBF and Oct in the proximal promoter are critical for transcriptional regulation of the gene in trophoblast cells.
14520239 Syncytin gene expression is down-regulated by hypoxia, which strengthens the hypothesis that syncytin is reduced in disturbed pregnancies in the course of placental hypoxia.
12757936 Hypoxia alters expression and function of syncytin and its receptor during trophoblast cell fusion of human placental BeWo cells: implications for impaired trophoblast syncytialisation in pre-eclampsia.
12724415 HERV-W Env glycoprotein is directly involved in the differentiation of primary cultures of human villous cytotrophoblasts
12620933 Syncytin gene activation is highest in term placenta
12397062 syncytin-mediated trophoblastic fusion in human cells is regulated by GCMa
12175968 mRNA abundance for syncytin showed stimulation by forskolin in BeWo cells
11854637 contributor to normal placental architecture, especially in the fusion processes of cytotrophoblasts to syncytiotrophoblasts. the gene expression of syncytin may be altered in cases with placental dysfunction such as preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome.
10708449 Env HERV-W glycoprotein mediates cell-cell fusion upon interaction with the type D mammalian retrovirus receptor. Env protein was detected in the placental syncytiotrophoblast, suggesting a physiological role during pregnancy and placenta formation.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (79)

PMID Year Title
27486264 2016 The role of syncytins in human reproduction and reproductive organ cancers.
25651508 2015 ETS1 induces human trophoblast differentiation.
25340371 2014 Nutrients intake is associated with DNA methylation of candidate inflammatory genes in a population of obese subjects.
24814867 A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated polymerase chain reaction clamping allows the selective inhibition of the ERVWE1 gene amplification.
24812088 2014 Syncytin proteins incorporated in placenta exosomes are important for cell uptake and show variation in abundance in serum exosomes from patients with preeclampsia.
24687878 2014 Syncytin-1 and its receptor is present in human gametes.
24478419 2014 Transcriptional derepression of the ERVWE1 locus following influenza A virus infection.
24413738 2014 Reduced syncytin-1 expression in choriocarcinoma BeWo cells activates the calpain1-AIF-mediated apoptosis, implication for preeclampsia.
24204983 2013 Frequency of human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERV) K113 and K115 in the Polish population, and their effect on HIV infection.
24098463 2013 Expression of human endogenous retrovirus-w including syncytin-1 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
24013223 2014 Mutations in 3'-long terminal repeat of HERV-W family in chromosome 7 upregulate syncytin-1 expression in urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder through interacting with c-Myb.
23888950 2014 Decreased expression and altered methylation of syncytin-1 gene in human placentas associated with preeclampsia.
23727510 2013 Human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope gene activates the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in human neuroblastoma cells through CREB.
23492904 2013 A novel human endogenous retroviral protein inhibits cell-cell fusion.
23457515 2013 Reduced syncytin-1 expression levels in placental syndromes correlates with epigenetic hypermethylation of the ERVW-1 promoter region.
23333240 2013 Syncytin-1 modulates placental trophoblast cell proliferation by promoting G1/S transition.
23290063 2012 [Expression and methylated regulation of HERVWE1 in placenta of monozygotic discordant twins].
23212585 2012 Molecular characteristics of Human Endogenous Retrovirus type-W in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
22999499 2012 The endogenous retroviral envelope protein syncytin-1 inhibits LPS/PHA-stimulated cytokine responses in human blood and is sorted into placental exosomes.
22971074 2012 Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulates expression of leptin, 11beta-HSD2 and syncytin-1 in primary human trophoblasts.
22573740 2012 Silencing of endogenous envelope genes in human choriocarcinoma cells shows that envPb1 is involved in heterotypic cell fusions.
22573555 2012 Regulation of the human endogenous retroviral Syncytin-1 and cell-cell fusion by the nuclear hormone receptors PPAR?/RXR? in placentogenesis.
22348442 2012 Immune cell activation by trophoblast-derived microvesicles is mediated by syncytin 1.
22109522 2011 Identification of a link between Wnt/?-catenin signalling and the cell fusion pathway.
21771862 2011 Epigenetic regulation of transcription and splicing of syncytins, fusogenic glycoproteins of retroviral origin.
21542922 2011 A revised nomenclature for transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci.
21493955 2011 Reduced expression of both syncytin 1 and syncytin 2 correlates with severity of preeclampsia.
20546612 2010 The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature.
20100784 2011 Implication of the env gene of the human endogenous retrovirus W family in the expression of BDNF and DRD3 and development of recent-onset schizophrenia.
19903052 2009 Expression of the human endogenous retroviruse-W envelope gene syncytin in endometriosis lesions.
19692500 2009 CD9 regulates transcription factor GCM1 and ERVWE1 expression through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway.
19561344 2009 Comparative methylation of ERVWE1/syncytin-1 and other human endogenous retrovirus LTRs in placenta tissues.
19407656 2009 Role of HERV-W syncytin-1 in placentation and maintenance of human pregnancy.
19327884 2009 Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer: potential prognostic impact.
19321927 2009 Syncytin-1 and glial cells missing a: hypoxia-induced deregulated gene expression along with disordered cell fusion in primary term human trophoblasts.
18351375 2008 Cell fusions in mammals.
18077339 2007 Placental syncytins: Genetic disjunction between the fusogenic and immunosuppressive activity of retroviral envelope proteins.
17762178 2007 Syncytin-A mediates the formation of syncytiotrophoblast involved in mouse placental development.
17453631 2007 Elevated levels of transcripts encoding a human retroviral envelope protein (syncytin) in muscles from patients with motor neuron disease.
17209768 2006 Quantitative analysis of human endogenous retrovirus-W env in neuroinflammatory diseases.
16871371 2006 Syncytin is involved in breast cancer-endothelial cell fusions.
16820059 2006 Identification of the hASCT2-binding domain of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin-1 fusogenic glycoprotein.
16760410 2006 Human endogenous retrovirus-W envelope (syncytin) is expressed in both villous and extravillous trophoblast populations.
16176588 2005 Natural history of the ERVWE1 endogenous retroviral locus.
16004993 2005 Stimulation of GCMa and syncytin via cAMP mediated PKA signaling in human trophoblastic cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
15888734 2005 A placenta-specific enhancer of the human syncytin gene.
15827173 2005 Synthesis, assembly, and processing of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin human endogenous retroviral envelope.
15507602 2004 A retroviral promoter and a cellular enhancer define a bipartite element which controls env ERVWE1 placental expression.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15452578 2004 Human endogenous retrovirus glycoprotein-mediated induction of redox reactants causes oligodendrocyte death and demyelination.
15269105 2004 Functional characterization of the placental fusogenic membrane protein syncytin.
15254254 2004 Evidence of selection on the domesticated ERVWE1 env retroviral element involved in placentation.
15109395 2004 L1 and HERV-W retrotransposons are hypomethylated in human ovarian carcinomas.
15033302 2004 Expression and functions of human endogenous retroviruses in the placenta: an update.
14757826 2004 The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology.
14613893 2004 Isolation and characterization of the human syncytin gene promoter.
14557543 2003 Genomewide screening for fusogenic human endogenous retrovirus envelopes identifies syncytin 2, a gene conserved on primate evolution.
14520239 2003 Transcriptional effects of hypoxia on fusiogenic syncytin and its receptor ASCT2 in human cytotrophoblast BeWo cells and in ex vivo perfused placental cotyledons.
12970426 2003 Survey of human genes of retroviral origin: identification and transcriptome of the genes with coding capacity for complete envelope proteins.
12853948 2003 The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.
12757936 2003 Hypoxia alters expression and function of syncytin and its receptor during trophoblast cell fusion of human placental BeWo cells: implications for impaired trophoblast syncytialisation in pre-eclampsia.
12724415 2003 Direct involvement of HERV-W Env glycoprotein in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation.
12664292 2003 The envelope glycoprotein of human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W induces cellular resistance to spleen necrosis virus.
12620933 2003 Temporal regulation of the expression of syncytin (HERV-W), maternally imprinted PEG10, and SGCE in human placenta.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12397062 2002 GCMa regulates the syncytin-mediated trophoblastic fusion.
12175968 2002 Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B(0) (ASCT2), in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells during syncytialization.
12050356 2002 The envelope glycoprotein of human endogenous retrovirus type W uses a divergent family of amino acid transporters/cell surface receptors.
11990458 2002 The HERV-W/7q family in the human genome. Potential for protein expression and gene regulation.
11531410 2001 Multiple sclerosis retrovirus particles and recombinant envelope trigger an abnormal immune response in vitro, by inducing polyclonal Vbeta16 T-lymphocyte activation.
11375061 2001 Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family: chromosomal localization, identification, and phylogeny.
11238877 2001 Envelope gene of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W encodes a functional retrovirus envelope.
10826480 2000 Chromosomal distribution and coding capacity of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family.
10737800 2000 Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags.
10708449 2000 An envelope glycoprotein of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W is expressed in the human placenta and fuses cells expressing the type D mammalian retrovirus receptor.
10693809 2000 Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis.
10580403 1999 Phylogeny of a novel family of human endogenous retrovirus sequences, HERV-W, in humans and other primates.
9882319 1999 Molecular characterization and placental expression of HERV-W, a new human endogenous retrovirus family.
9835022 1998 Endogenous retroviruses and multiple sclerosis. II. HERV-7q.