Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 51
PubMed Score 177.91
PubTator Score 65.76

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (18)

Disease log2 FC p
Rheumatoid Arthritis 2.000 2.9e-02
gastric cancer -1.700 6.3e-03
hepatocellular carcinoma -2.300 1.3e-03
psoriasis 1.900 5.2e-06
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 1.100 3.6e-02
cystic fibrosis 1.400 1.6e-03
Atopic dermatitis -2.200 1.2e-02
tuberculosis and treatment for 3 months -3.300 6.4e-03
lung cancer -2.200 9.4e-05
active Crohn's disease -1.281 4.4e-02
pancreatic cancer 2.000 6.4e-04
interstitial cystitis 2.700 2.9e-02
non primary Sjogren syndrome sicca -1.100 1.9e-02
inflammatory breast cancer -1.200 5.7e-03
spina bifida -2.711 3.2e-02
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lympho... -1.475 1.6e-02
acute myeloid leukemia -3.800 3.2e-03
ulcerative colitis 1.800 1.0e-02

Gene RIF (35)

26627827 three-dimensional structure of the EPR antibody (the 9E5(Fab) fragment) in the presence and absence of EPR
26215578 Together, these studies lead to identification of a novel pathway involving EREG and MMP-1 that contributes to the formation of early stage breast cancer
25203737 Patients homozygous for the minor allele A of EREG rs12641042 had a significantly higher 3-year survival rate than patients with allele C (HR 0.48; P=0.034), but significance was lost in multivariable analysis
24898387 Data indicate that the effects of epiregulin (EREG) and V-ATPase (TCIRG1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility, to the extent that they exist, are dependent on gene-gene interactions in West African populations.
24812054 Epiregulin promotes the proliferation of liver progenitor cells and DNA synthesis by hepatocytes and is upregulated in the serum of patients with liver injury.
24800946 Plasma HGF and EREG levels are associated with resistance to treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies in KRAS wild-type patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
24748662 Epiregulin is a transcriptional target of TSC2 (tuberin).
24470554 These results suggested that EREG is one of the molecules involved in glioma malignancy
24335920 In pre-treated K-ras wild-type status colorectal cancer, patients with high EREG gene expression appear to benefit more from cetuximab therapy compared with low expression.
24330607 EREG may contribute to glioma progression under the control of IRE1a.
24092824 Data suggest that EREG (epiregulin), AREG (amphiregulin), and BTC (betacellulin) induced prostaglandin E2 production by induction of COX-2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) through MAP kinase signaling in granulosa cells.
23885463 we did not find a correlation between the presence of a K-ras mutation and the presence of Epiregulin and Amphiregulin in colon cancer tissue.
23829318 Depletion of Epiregulin with shRNA inhibited SCAP proliferation.
23826119 keratinocyte hyperproliferation in cholesteatoma is promoted through overexpression of epiregulin by subepithelial fibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma
23671122 Apical mistrafficking of EREG crystallizes an apical EGFR signaling complex that may be uncoupled from basolateral regulatory restraints leading to cell transformation.
23625463 EREG-AREG and NRG1, which are members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, seem to modulate Bhecet's Disease susceptibility through main effects and gene-gene interactions
23383108 A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 upregulates the expression of epiregulin (EREG) in peptide-treated PBMCs
23074094 FBXL11 inhibited osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential in MSC cells by associating with BCOR, then increasing histone K4/36 methylation in Epiregulin promoter to repress Epiregulin transcription.
22964644 Data indicate that epiregulin (EREG) expression significantly correlated with KRAS expression or KRAS copy number in KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines.
22508389 EREG gene expression was low in 7 out of 11 gastric cancer cells and this downregulation was mediated by aberrant CpG methylation of the EREG promoter.
22170233 Epiregulin (EREG) variation is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis.
21769422 It is suggested that follow-up of the expression of Ep can serve as a reliable early indication of the development of ovarian cancer.
21161326 Data suggest that expression status of AR and EPI mRNAs might be evaluated as dynamic predictors of response in KRAS WT patients receiving any cetuximab-based therapy.
19138957 Epiregulin expression correlates with advanced disease, is EGFR dependent, and confers invasive properties on non-small cell lung cancer cells.
18948081 The regulatory mechanism of epiregulin expression in Ki-ras-transformed 267B1 prostate epithelial cells was studied.
18835871 Epiregulin has a protective effect against apoptosis in the human corpus luteum.
18497965 Increased epiregulin is associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas
18292222 hamartomatous TSC skin tumors are induced by paracrine factors released by two-hit cells in the dermis, and proliferation with mTOR activation of the overlying epidermis is an effect of epiregulin
18079685 Epiregulin played an autocrine role in the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells presumably through cross-induction with other EGF family members.
17962208 1st report of EREG expression in breast cancer (45.5% of breast cancers studied). It is preferentially expressed in breast tumors co-expressing HER2/HER4.
17429393 epiregulin, COX2, and MMP1 and 2 collectively facilitate the assembly of new tumour blood vessels, the release of tumour cells into the circulation, and the breaching of lung capillaries by circulating tumour cells to seed pulmonary metastasis
16888076 findings demonstrated that PGE2 may mimic LH action at least in part by the activation of amphiregulin and epiregulin biosynthesis in human granulosa cells
15474502 upregulation of the epiregulin and amphiregulin expression is part of the signal transduction pathway which leads to ovulation and luteinization in the human ovary
15274392 Epiregulin might be a more important tumor growth regulator of malignant fibrous histiocytoma through autocrine or paracrine pathways, when compared with betacellulin.
12702554 Blockade of epiregulin reduced the growth of hTERT-BJ cells and colony formation of hTERT-transformed fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of epiregulin function in immortal hTERT-BJ cells triggered a senescence program.

AA Sequence

CRWYRNRKSKEPKKEYERVTSGDPELPQV                                             141 - 169

Text Mined References (54)

PMID Year Title
26627827 2016 Epiregulin Recognition Mechanisms by Anti-epiregulin Antibody 9E5: STRUCTURAL, FUNCTIONAL, AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION ANALYSES.
26215578 2015 Epiregulin contributes to breast tumorigenesis through regulating matrix metalloproteinase 1 and promoting cell survival.
25952286 2015 BMP7 and EREG Contribute to the Inductive Potential of Dental Mesenchyme.
25911599 2015 Altered amphiregulin expression induced by diverse luteinizing hormone receptor reactivity in granulosa cells affects IVF outcomes.
25421577 2015 KAP1 promotes proliferation and metastatic progression of breast cancer cells.
25203737 2014 Single nucleotide polymorphisms in AREG and EREG are prognostic biomarkers in locally advanced gastric cancer patients after surgery with curative intent.
24898387 2014 Epiregulin (EREG) and human V-ATPase (TCIRG1): genetic variation, ethnicity and pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in Guinea-Bissau and The Gambia.
24812054 2014 Epiregulin promotes the emergence and proliferation of adult liver progenitor cells.
24800946 2014 Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor and epiregulin are associated with the prognosis on anti-EGFR antibody treatment in KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.
24748662 2014 Evidence that TSC2 acts as a transcription factor and binds to and represses the promoter of Epiregulin.
24631357 2014 Epiregulin: roles in normal physiology and cancer.
24470554 2014 Epiregulin enhances tumorigenicity by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway in glioblastoma.
24335920 2014 Epiregulin gene expression as a biomarker of benefit from cetuximab in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.
24330607 2013 High epiregulin expression in human U87 glioma cells relies on IRE1? and promotes autocrine growth through EGF receptor.
24092824 2013 EGF-like growth factors induce COX-2-derived PGE2 production through ERK1/2 in human granulosa cells.
23885463 2013 [Correlation between the presence of Kras mutation and the presence of the proteins epiregulin and amphiregulin in colon cancer tissue].
23829318 2013 Epiregulin can promote proliferation of stem cells from the dental apical papilla via MEK/Erk and JNK signalling pathways.
23826119 2013 Cholesteatoma fibroblasts promote epithelial cell proliferation through overexpression of epiregulin.
23671122 2013 Transformation of polarized epithelial cells by apical mistrafficking of epiregulin.
23625463 2013 Gene expression profiling and association studies implicate the neuregulin signaling pathway in Behçet's disease susceptibility.
23074094 2013 Demethylation of epiregulin gene by histone demethylase FBXL11 and BCL6 corepressor inhibits osteo/dentinogenic differentiation.
22964644 2013 Oncogenic KRAS-induced epiregulin overexpression contributes to aggressive phenotype and is a promising therapeutic target in non-small-cell lung cancer.
22916037 2012 Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis.
22747683 2012 Genetic variants associated with breast size also influence breast cancer risk.
22508389 2012 Gene silencing of EREG mediated by DNA methylation and histone modification in human gastric cancers.
22170233 2012 Epiregulin (EREG) variation is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis.
21769422 2011 Epiregulin as a marker for the initial steps of ovarian cancer development.
21161326 2012 Evolution of the predictive markers amphiregulin and epiregulin mRNAs during long-term cetuximab treatment of KRAS wild-type tumor cells.
20631481 2010 Amphiregulin and epiregulin expression in colorectal carcinoma and the correlation with clinicopathological characteristics.
19138957 2008 Intratumoral epiregulin is a marker of advanced disease in non-small cell lung cancer patients and confers invasive properties on EGFR-mutant cells.
18948081 2008 Epiregulin expression by Ets-1 and ERK signaling pathway in Ki-ras-transformed cells.
18835871 2009 EGF-like growth factors as LH mediators in the human corpus luteum.
18821565 2008 Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations.
18497965 2008 Expression of epiregulin, a novel epidermal growth factor ligand associated with prognosis in human oral squamous cell carcinomas.
18292222 2008 Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions involving epiregulin in tuberous sclerosis complex hamartomas.
18079685 2007 Human corneal epithelial cell proliferation by epiregulin and its cross-induction by other EGF family members.
17962208 2008 ErbB/HER ligands in human breast cancer, and relationships with their receptors, the bio-pathological features and prognosis.
17429393 2007 Mediators of vascular remodelling co-opted for sequential steps in lung metastasis.
16959974 2006 The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers.
16888076 2006 PGE2 up-regulates EGF-like growth factor biosynthesis in human granulosa cells: new insights into the coordination between PGE2 and LH in ovulation.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15474502 2004 EGF-like factor epiregulin and amphiregulin expression is regulated by gonadotropins/cAMP in human ovarian follicular cells.
15274392 Expression of betacellulin, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and epiregulin in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14581411 2003 Epiregulin as a major autocrine/paracrine factor released from ERK- and p38MAPK-activated vascular smooth muscle cells.
14572630 2003 Solution structure of epiregulin and the effect of its C-terminal domain for receptor binding affinity.
12898511 2003 Epiregulin is more potent than EGF or TGFalpha in promoting in vitro wound closure due to enhanced ERK/MAPK activation.
12702554 2003 Molecular characterization of human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized human fibroblasts by gene expression profiling: activation of the epiregulin gene.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
10681561 2000 Epiregulin, a novel member of the epidermal growth factor family, is an autocrine growth factor in normal human keratinocytes.
9990076 1999 Epiregulin is a potent vascular smooth muscle cell-derived mitogen induced by angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and thrombin.
9553109 1998 Epiregulin is a potent pan-ErbB ligand that preferentially activates heterodimeric receptor complexes.
9419975 1997 Epiregulin binds to epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB-4 and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB-2, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4.
9337852 1997 Distribution of mRNA for human epiregulin, a differentially expressed member of the epidermal growth factor family.