Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 289
PubMed Score 85.70
PubTator Score 700.03

Knowledge Summary

Patent (65,091)

Expression

  Differential Expression (19)

Disease log2 FC p
systemic lupus erythematosus 1.200 2.0e-03
Multiple myeloma 1.983 1.4e-03
cutaneous lupus erythematosus 2.000 1.3e-03
psoriasis -1.600 6.6e-04
osteosarcoma 1.945 5.0e-06
ependymoma 1.200 9.6e-04
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor 1.500 3.4e-04
glioblastoma 1.600 5.6e-04
medulloblastoma 1.100 6.1e-03
medulloblastoma, large-cell 1.700 1.2e-05
autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscul... 1.152 4.0e-03
juvenile dermatomyositis 3.140 2.9e-19
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1.083 3.3e-06
tuberculosis and treatment for 6 months 1.100 2.0e-04
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 1.300 2.6e-02
primary Sjogren syndrome 1.300 3.4e-04
nasopharyngeal carcinoma 1.100 6.4e-04
ovarian cancer 2.100 9.3e-04
dermatomyositis 2.800 1.2e-03

MLP Assay (1)

AID Type Active / Inconclusive / Inactive Description
1982 other 0 / 0 / 0 Kinase inhibition selectivity assay for compound SID-48409448

Gene RIF (220)

PMID Text
26869028 The Newcastle disease virus-induced translation shutoff at late infection times was attributed to sustaining phosphorylation of eIF2a, which is mediated by continual activation of PKR and degradation of PP1.
26725122 This study provides insight into the molecular pathology of Cornelia de Lange syndrome by establishing a relationship between NIPBL and HDAC8 mutations and PKR activation.
26716879 The sole essential function of cytomegalovirus TRS1 is to antagonize host PKR.
26698173 results show that ceramide acts at two distinct levels of the insulin signaling pathway (IRS1 and Akt). PKR, which is induced by both inflammation signals and ceramide, could play a major role in the development of insulin resistance in muscle cells.
26608746 the expression of a Tat construct containing mutations in the basic region (49-57aa), which is responsible for the interaction with PKR, favored neither parasite growth nor IL-10 expression in infected macrophages.
26488609 The data support a model in which activating RNAs induce formation of a back-to-back parallel PKR kinase dimer whereas nonactivating RNAs either fail to induce dimerization or produce an alternative, inactive dimer configuration.
26321373 Tyrosine phosphorylated EIF2AK2 plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity.
26231208 the affinity of PACT-PACT and PACT-PKR interactions is enhanced in dystonia patient lymphoblasts, thereby leading to intensified PKR activation and enhanced cellular death.
26216977 Mechanism by which PK2 inhibits the model eIF2alpha kinase human RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as well as native insect eIF2alpha kinases, is reported.
26202421 PKR expression correlates with inferior survival and shorter remission duration for acute myeloid leukemia patients.
25899421 Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection increased the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)2alpha and its kinase PKR. The activation of PKR during CSFV infection is beneficial to the virus.
25784705 The G3BP1-Caprin1-PKR complex represents a new mode of PKR activation and is important for antiviral activity of G3BP1 and PKR during infection with mengovirus.
25715336 these data indicate a pivotal role for PKR's protein-binding function on the proliferation of pancreatic beta cells through TRAF2/RIP1/NF-kappaB/c-Myc pathways.
25704249 Protein levels of PRKR were significantly increased in prefrontal cortex in chronic excessive alcohol use.
25653431 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues, which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription.
25653431 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
25607115 No significant association was determined between the rs2254958 EIF2AK2 polymorphism and the development of IBD, or clinical outcome.
25592072 The results from this study indicate an important role of RAX/PKR association in regulating PKR activity as well as ethanol neurotoxicity
25520508 Authors show that the PXXP domain within G3BP1 is essential for the recruitment of PKR to stress granules, for eIF2alpha phosphorylation driven by PKR, and for nucleating stress granules of normal composition.
25410857 Further studies revealed that Andes virus nucleocapsid protein inhibited PKR dimerization, a critical step required for PKR autophosphorylation to attain activity.
25389016 This study demonstrates that two interferon stimulated genes, i.e. PKR and ADAR1 have opposite effects on HTLV replication in vivo.
25297997 Early dsRNA induced transient activation of the cellular dsRNA sensor protein kinase R (PKR), resulting in enhanced production of interferons and cytokines in cells and mice.
25074923 SUMO potentiates the inhibition of protein synthesis induced by PKR in response to dsRNA.
24992036 G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 are required for translation of interferon stimulated mRNAs and are targeted by a dengue virus non-coding RNA.
24786893 Cyclophilin inhibitors reduce phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2alpha during HCV infection to allow for translation of ISG products.
24684861 PKR is activated by dsRNA generated by Newcastle disease virus infection and inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication by eIF2alpha phosphorylation.
24623135 NF90 exerts antiviral activity through regulation of PKR phosphorylation and stress granules in infected cells.
24463368 PKR is a maladaptive factor upregulated in hemodynamic overload that contributes to myocardial inflammation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the development of congestive heart failure.
24347309 This study identified 120 proteins present in active and inactive PKR nuclear complexes.
24334130 PKR activation plays a major regulatory role in induction of apoptosis in response to ER stress and indicates the potential of PKR as possible target for neuroprotective therapeutics.
24089560 IFNA2 inhibits viral protein expression through PKR activation, leading to a decrease of viral protein synthesis.
24020926 In contrast to its previously described activity, PACT contributes to PKR dephosphorylation during HIV-1 replication.
23853588 Data suggest that M029 (an RNA-binding protein) plays pivotal role in determining cellular tropism of Myxoma virus in all mammalian cells tested; human protein kinase R/EIF2AK2 and RNA helicase A/DHX9 are two binding partners of M029.
23706307 These results suggest that PKR and PKZ function by distinguishable mechanisms to modulate host responses including protein synthesis inhibition and stress granule formation.
23682076 Low EIF2AK2 expression is associated with low response to therapy in endometrial cancer.
23527187 RNA-dependent protein kinase is essential for 2-methoxyestradiol-induced autophagy in osteosarcoma cells.
23399035 Authors conclude that host cells can employ PKR activation to restrict hepatitis C virus 1a replication through regulation of NF-kB expression.
23376165 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
23372823 PKR acts as a negative regulator of IFN induction triggered by DENVs and poly(IC), and this regulation relies on its dsRNA binding activity.
23370317 Low PKR and high EphA2 ratio is associated with non-small-cell lung cancer.
23320095 At the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, a higher level of cerebrospinal fluid PKR can predict a faster rate of cognitive decline
23314571 PKR is crucial for the integrity of newly synthesized IFN mRNA, thereby generating an optimal host antiviral immune response.
23302873 The results suggest that early in infection the herpes simplex virus 1 VHS RNase degrades RNAs that activate PKR.
23229543 Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) by interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) modification down-regulates protein translation
23221979 STAT3 and EIF2AK2 interact and have roles in controlling fatty acid-induced autophagy
23148689 The substrate interacting residues in ck1alpha have been identified using the structural model of kinase - substrate peptide. The PKR interacting NS5A 1b residues have also been predicted.
23115300 PKR expression and the PKR binding domain of herpes simplex virus 1 Us11 are required for the antiautophagic activity of Us11.
23115276 Measles virus-induced stress granule formation was PKR dependent but impaired by ADAR1.
23084476 Report mechanism of autophagy control that involves STAT3 and PKR as interacting partners.
23064357 evidence that type 1 diabetes (DMT1) is response to viral infection: Data suggest that presence of immunoreactive enteroviral VP1 within pancreatic beta cells in DMT1 is associated with induction of PKR (and down-regulation of bcl-2-like protein 3).
22986343 By binding to PKR with a comparable affinity, nc886 competes with dsRNA and attenuates PKR activation by dsRNA.
22948139 an eIF-2alpha-dependent translation inhibition mechanism is sufficient to explain the PKR-mediated amplification of IPS-1-dependent IFN-beta induction by foreign RNA.
22912486 5'-triphosphate-containing, weakly structured RNAs activate PKR via interactions with both the dsRBD and a distinct triphosphate binding site that lacks 5'-nucleobase specificity.
22896602 The restriction of Bunyamwera virus replication mediated by interferon is an accumulated effect of at least three interferon-stimulated genes viperin, MTAP44 and PKR.
22894766 Suggest that PKR exerts a positive role in cell growth control of HCV-4 related hepatocellular carcinoma.
22801494 results show a crucial role for PKR in inflammasome activation, and indicate that it should be possible to pharmacologically target this molecule to treat inflammation
22787234 Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein 2A blocks double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR
22647704 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
22473766 Data demonstrate that PACT-PACT interaction is essential for efficient PKR activation.
22381929 This study used complementation of human cell lines stably deficient in PKR to probe the basis of PCR-mediated activation of MAPK and interferon beta induction by measles virus.
22306812 findings provide a new translational regulation of BACE1, under the control of double-stranded RNA dependant protein kinase in oxidative stress, where eIF2-alpha phosphorylation regulates
22281122 The evaluation of CSF T-PKR and pPKR can discriminate between AD patients and NDC and could help to improve the biochemical diagnosis of AD.
22278235 Cytomegalovirus TRS1 protein antagonize protein kinase R in a host-specific manner.
22190034 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
22174754 PKR is involved in the innate immune effects mediated by HBx-siRNAs and further contributes to hepatitis B virus inhibition.
22102852 Reduced PKR is associated with non-small cell lung cancer.
21882225 NF-kappa-B is involved in the protein activator of PKR-RNA-dependent protein kinase interaction and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in periodontitis.
21846836 Leishmania infection increased the expression of PKR and IFN-beta on induction of PKR-promoter activity. The observed effects required the engagement of TLR2.
21790829 The PACT-PKR pathway represents a potential link between Abeta accumulation, PKR activation and tau phosphorylation.
21715487 Mammalian orthoreovirus escape from host cell translational shutoff correlates with virus-induced cellular stress granules disruption and occurs in the presence of phosphorylated eIF2alpha in a PKR-independent manner.
21710204 functions as a key mediator of IFN-alpha in opposing HBV replication
21698289 Cellular localization studies showed that NP and Hsp40 co-localize primarily in the nucleus. During IAV infection in mammalian cells, expression of NP coincided with the dissociation of P58(IPK) from Hsp40 and decrease PKR phosphorylation
21526770 results demonstrate for the first time that stress-induced PACT phosphorylation functions to free PACT from the inhibitory interaction with TRBP and also to enhance its interaction with PKR
21504114 Specific inhibition of PKR at the peripheral level might decrease the inflammatory response in Alzheimer's disease.
21468538 PKR activation led to selective apoptosis induction in K562 cells, which correlated with caspase-8 activity and enhanced expression of BAX.
21464971 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
21385567 MSK2 functions as an adaptor in mediating PKR activation, apparently independent of its catalytic activity.
21377708 Activation of PKP is required for induction of stress granules by respiratory syncytial virus but dispensable for viral replication.
21338484 These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-kappaB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing.
21294215 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
21123651 Activation of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase PKR by viral RNA enabled phosphorylation of NFAR1 and NFAR2 on Thr 188 and Thr 315
21123378 Human parainfluenza virus type 1 C protein suppresses dsRNA intracellular accumulation and activation of MDA5 and PKR.
21072047 status of nuclear PKR in acute leukemia cell lines
21048031 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
21029237 PKR could represent a crucial signaling point relaying stress signals to neuronal pathways leading to cellular degeneration in Alzheimer's disease
20930042 The findings first indicate that PKR expression is an independent prognostic variable in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
20685959 PKR regulates the upstream central transmitters of insulin signaling, IRS1 and IRS2, through different mechanisms.
20628624 Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20588308 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20587610 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20485506 The first evidence that Hepatitis C virus uses PKR to restrain its ability to induce IFN through the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, is provided.
20447405 While it has been demonstrated that domains III-IV activate protein kinase R, the authors report here that domain II of the IRES of hepatitis C virus mRNA also potently activates.
20395957 Cdc2 was downregulated under genotoxic stresses and that double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) was involved in the process.
20353946 response to lethal stress, PKR, without being phosphorylated, activates the FADD/caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway to trigger HuR cleavage, and the HuR-CPs are then capable of promoting apoptosis
20331378 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20309637 These findings indicate that the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR are up-regulate by PI3K-AKT signal pathway, and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway has a negative regulatory effect on the expression of MxA and no significant effect on 2',5'-OAS and PKR.
20181660 Taken together, PKR and Hck were critical for DON-induced ribosomal recruitment of p38, its subsequent phosphorylation, and, ultimately, p38-driven proinflammatory cytokine expression.
20171114 PKR plays an important role in mediating the cytokine gene expression induced by LMP1 through NF-kappaB activation and histone H3 Ser 10 phosphorylation.
20006840 HCV infection triggers phosphorylation and activation of PKR which inhibits eIF2 alpha and attenuates interferon-stimulated protein expression.
20006836 Hepatitis C virus activated cellular protein kinase R to block translation of interferon-stimulated genes.
19846675 EIF2alpha phosphorylation in vaccinia virus infected cells is mediated by protein kinase R(PKR).
19846517 PKR and mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 were required for maximal measles virus protein C(ko)-mediated IFN-beta induction, which correlated with the PKR-mediated enhancement of MAPK and NF-kappaB activation
19812373 antiviral PKR-dependent response also modulates the protozoan parasitic L. amazonensis infection. This effect depends on PKR-induced production of the suppressor cytokine IL-10.
19776135 Infectious bronchitis virus has developed a combination of two mechanisms, i.e., blocking PKR activation and inducing GADD34 expression, to maintain de novo protein synthesis in IBV-infected cells and, meanwhile, to enhance viral replication.
19744687 Virus-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation no longer occurred in PKR-deficient HeLa cells, suggesting PKR was responsible for vaccinia virus-induced eIF2alpha modification.
19733181 Results indicate that the ADAR1 deaminase increases exogenous gene expression at the translational level by decreasing PKR-dependent eIF-2alpha phosphorylation.
19710021 the antiapoptotic activity of ADAR1 is achieved through suppression of activation of proapoptotic and double-stranded RNA-dependent activities, as exemplified by PKR and IRF-3.
19651874 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
19642004 The expression of intrahepatic PKR protein at the ultra-structural level was characterised in patients with chronic hepatitis C disease compared to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, HepG2 cells and a normal human liver biopsy.
19605483 PKR is activated in adenovirus-infected cells with multiple layers of regulation imposed on eIF2alpha phosphorylation by the E1B-55K/E4orf6 complex, which also regulates viral late protein synthesis
19605474 two interferon-induced proteins, ADAR1 and PKR, have antagonistic functions on HIV production
19515768 The authors show that the IRF inhibitory domain of VP35 also mediates the inhibition of PKR and enhances the synthesis of coexpressed proteins.
19507191 Constitutive basal activity of PKR is required for leukemic cell homeostasis and growth and functions as a negative regulator of AKT, thereby increasing the pool of potentially active GSK-3.
19445956 These studies support that dimerization of a 15- to 30-bp hairpin RNA, which effectively doubles its length, is a key step in driving activation of PKR and provide a model for how RNA folding can be related to human disease.
19434718 Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
19416861 p53-mediated tumor suppression can be attributed at least in part to the biological functions of PKR induced by p53 in genotoxic conditions
19353519 Induction of IDO1 by TLR involved an autocrine interferon (IFN)-beta signaling loop, which was dependent on protein kinase R
19349624 results suggested that PKR is the primary target for HSV-1 early RNA during induction of FUT3, FUT5, and FUT6
19259124 The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 mediates the regulation of the protein level and the phosphorylation status of Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, providing a novel mechanism of palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.
19229320 protein kinase R (PKR) is shown to interact with RNA helicase A; RHA is identified as a substrate for PKR, with phosphorylation perturbing the association of the helicase with double-stranded RNA
19210572 PKR represents a cognitive decline biomarker able to dysregulate translation via two consecutive targets p53 and Redd1 in Alzheimer disease lymphocytes
19189853 Expression of PKR inhibited HCV replication with concomitant increase of eIF2alpha phosphorylation.
19151623 These findings suggest that neuronal apoptosis in human CJD may result from PKR(p)-mediated cell stress and are consistent with recent studies supporting a pathogenic role for intracellular or transmembrane PrP.
19109397 Inhibition of PKR in SARS-CoV-infected cells does not affect viral replication. SARS-CoV infection activates PKR and PERK, leading to sustained eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Viral activation of PKR can lead to apoptosis.
19106640 PKR expression is high in various cancer cells/low in normal cells. Knockdown of PKR protein expression induced cell death. PKR signaling via either siRNA or Ad-Delta6PKR sensitizes cancer cells to etoposide or cisplatin-mediated cell death.
19028691 PKR, in addition to IPS-1 and IRF3 but not TRIF, was required for maximal type I IFN-beta induction and the induction of apoptosis by both transfected PRNAs and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid.
19023099 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19004947 These results indicate that PKR plays an important antiviral role during measles virus infection but that the virus growth restriction by PKR is not dependent upon the induction of apoptosis.
18991615 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
18976633 These results indicated that oxidative stress induces PKR expression essentially via the IFN-gamma activation signal, and causes apoptosis in Jurkat T cells.
18957415 PKR regulates B56(alpha)-mediated BCL2 phosphatase activity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia-derived REH cells.
18936160 TRBP controls PACT activation of PKR, an activity that is reversed by stress.
18927075 PKR facilitates the host innate immune response and apoptosis in virus-infected cells by mediating IRF-3 activation through the mitochondrial IPS-1 signal transduction pathway
18835251 These data provide the first evidence identifying Nck-1 as a novel endogenous regulator of PKR and support the notion that Nck-1-PKR interaction could be a way to limit PKR activation.
18728014 NS5A protein down-regulates the expression of spindle gene Aspm through PKR-p38 signaling pathway
18684960 Epidermal keratinocytes efficiently respond to viral double-stranded dsRNA equivalent poly(I:C) by expressing protein kinase R (PKR) dsRNA sensing molecules together with their downstream signaling pathway in a functional and differentially regulated way.
18684815 Results demonstrate that the Sendai virus C protein limits generation of double stranded RNA, thereby keeping protein kinase R inactive to maintain intracellular protein synthesis.
18599499 Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates induction of interleukin-8 expression by deoxynivalenol, Shiga toxin 1, and ricin in monocytes.
18496558 this protein kinase could be involved in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic sysdromes
18426922 PKR activation by ssRNA and dsRNA containing internal nucleobase, sugar, and phosphodiester modifications was analyzed.
18087277 Phosphorylation of PKR may be an important initiator of muscle wasting in cancer patients.
18063576 PKR and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase induce the proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 via a mechanism requiring eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation
18048689 study reports that RNAs with very limited secondary structures activate PKR in a 5'-triphosphate-dependent fashion in vitro and in vivo
18023289 PrP aggresomes initiate a cell stress response by activating the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR).
17977969 the paramyxovirus P/V gene products limit induction of PKR by limiting the synthesis of aberrant viral mRNAs and double-stranded RNA and thus prevent the shutdown of translation
17975119 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17959656 the single-cycle yield of delta-E3L virus was increased by nearly 2 log10 in PKR-deficient cells over the impaired growth in PKR-sufficient cells.
17928446 study provides evidence that double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a stress kinase, is involved in HIV/gp120-associated neurodegeneration
17928446 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
17928244 this study suggests that the role played by non-coding T cells transcript in the activation of lymphocytes can be mediated by PKR through NF-kappaB activation
17851256 Airway smooth muscle cells expressed PKR but it did not seem to be involved in poly I:C effects on muscarinic receptors.
17785458 PKR activates glycogen synthase kinase 3 to promote the proteasomal degradation of p53.
17716668 These results indicate that the endoplasmic reticulum-stress-mediated eIF2alpha/ATF4/CHOP/cell death pathway is, to some degree, dependent on PACT-mediated PKR activation apart from the PERK pathway.
17686861 PKR was not necessary for Sendai virus-induced IFN synthesis, suggesting that PKR is particularly important for recognition of WNV infection
17612505 These results suggest that a novel mechanism other than endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress element-dependent mRNA transcription is required for induction of GRP94 and phosphorylation of PKR contributes to the induction of GRP94 under ER stress.
17597457 The effects of ribavirin plus interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) on EIF2AK2 activity were greater than those observed for treatment with either ribavirin alone or IFN- alpha alone.
17596833 it appears that HCV protein expression is directly dependent on PKR expression; PKR is antiviral toward HCV and responsible for IFN's effect against HCV.
17541283 The putative dsRNA receptor PKR may not play a pivotal role in the dsRNA-stimulated expression of inflammatory chemokines in airway epithelial cells.
17522227 Data suggest that protein kinase PKR plays a stimulus- and virus-dependent role in apoptotic death and virus multiplication in human cells.
17451862 PKR can function to control cell growth and cell differentiation, and its activity can be controlled by the action of several oncogenes [review]
17420072 The present work analyses another gene involved in the host cell response to HSV-1, EIF2AK2 (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2.
17318221 Phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2-alpha)) and its kinase, PKR, occur in dsRNA-induced apoptosis but not in necrosis.
17307214 the effects of PKR on the replication cycle of parainfluenza virus type 5
17290288 PKR tyrosine phosphorylation provides an important link between IFN signalling and translational control through the regulation of eIF2alpha phosphorylation.
17284445 kinase domains is critical in the propagation of the activation signal and for PKR dimerization
17202131 the salt bridge interaction and dimer interface observed in the PKR structure is critical for the activity of PKR, GCN2, and PERK
16989899 Protein kinase R is involved in NF-kappaB mediated gene transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines via IkappaB kinase-beta.
16954686 levels of PKR in lymphocytes could follow the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease
16924232 PKR differentially regulates TNF signaling; IKK, Akt and JNK were positively regulated, whereas p44/p42 MAPK and p38 MAPK were negatively regulated.
16861808 DRBP-120 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein, and it was detected in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of HeLa cells associated with PKR.
16861340 RAX may function as a negative regulator of growth that is required to activate PKR in response to a broad range of apoptosis-inducing stress.
16785445 These observations suggest a model for PKR activation upon binding of dsRNA or PACT.
16580685 interaction between PKR and dsRNAs represents a crucial host cell defense mechanism against viral infection
16466763 We demonstrated that the direct binding of the influenza A virus NS1A protein to the N-terminal 230 amino acid region of PKR inhibits PKR activation by PACT and dsRNA
16446363 HCV core expression leads to deregulation of the mitotic checkpoint via a p38/PKR-dependent pathway
16339759 in the absence of IFN treatment, activation of PKR basal expression is mediated by Sp1 and Sp3 proteins in a cooperative manner
16271080 results do not support the concept of PKR as a tumor suppressor in small-size peripheral adenocarcinomas of the lung
16156900 Hepatitis c virus polyprotein expression caused a severe cytopathological effect in human cells as a result of inhibition of protein synthesis and apoptosis induction, triggered by the activation of the IFN-induced enzymes PKR and RNase L systems.
15907845 PKR may play a critical role in mediating the subversive effects of HIV Tat resulting in IL-10 induction
15907845 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
15880455 hepatocarcinoma core positive cells are characterized by a significant PKR phosphorylation in Thr 446 residue, which leads deregulation of mitosis
15737233 results support the hypothesis that PKR phosphorylation of Tat may be important for its function in HIV-1 LTR transactivation
15737233 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
15625311 double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha has a role in okadaic acid-induced apoptosis in human osteoblastic MG63 cells
15607693 first detection of a mutation in the RNA-binding domains of PKR gene from tumor cells taken directly from patients
15596837 phosphyorylation inhibited by Epstein-Barr virus BILF1 protein
15535414 upregulated in liver and PMBCs of chronic hepatitis C patients, and nonresponsivenes to IFN-alpha treatment is associated with this upregulation. The PKR gene response to exogenous IFN was similar in responders and non-responders in PBMCs.
15299030 Inappropriaate activation of PKR may cause mutations in fanconi anemia proteins.
15122791 level of PKR reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor tissues, suggesting a role in promoting tumor growth; hepatitis B virus may participate in altering the level of PKR, but other factors should play a more determining role in regulation of PKR in HCC
15121867 TRAF-PKR interaction model in which the C-terminal domain of TRAF binds to a predicted TRAF interaction motif present in the PKR kinase domain.
14961569 Loss of PKR activity may contribute to the formation and/or maintenance of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
14765129 PKR might play a role in ER stress-induced apoptosis and in Alzheimer's disease.
14698665 viral-induced PKR activation may play a significant role in pathogenesis by mediating the host response to poliovirus encephalitis
14638359 PKR is overexpressed in hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma.
13678666 In contrast to nondemented controls, Alzheimer cases show prominent protein kinase PKR activation in association with neuritic plaques and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and neocortex.
12944978 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
12944978 Polymorphisms in the interferon-inducible elF2alpha kinase gene is associated with outcome of hepatitis C virus infection
12882984 overexpression of NPM suppressed PKR activity, enhanced protein synthesis, and inhibited apoptosis. Fanconi anemia lymphoblasts expressed low levels of NPM, which correlated with high ground-state activation of PKR and hypersensitivity to apoptotic cues
12539042 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
12483527 PKR upregulation occurs at defined steps in cancer progression, probably as a cellular response to neoplasia
12473108 PKR binds to ASK1 and is involved in apoptosis signalling pathways
12447867 Observational study of gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
12397061 PRK activity is suppressed by HSP70 in cooperation with FANCC
12396729 The promoter-proximal KCS element of the PKR kinase gene enhances transcription irrespective of orientation and position relative to the ISRE element.
12368348 Us11 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 can block PKR activation by PACT both in vitro and in vivo
12368306 PKR may assume multiple roles in modulating hepatitis C virus replication and protein synthesis
12349906 The induction of anti-HIV CTL activity by p9-RNA could be mediated by PKR through NF-kappaB activation
12231563 PKR activated by direct binding in heparin-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)blocks G1- to S-phase transition.
12138106 PKR protein kinase phosphorylation and dimerization is controlled byt PP1C
12060652 PKR phosphorylates small delta antigen
12055262 Protein kinase R (PKR) regulates double-stranded RNA induction of TNF-alpha but not IL-1 beta mRNA expression in airway epithelial cells.
12051728 IL-1beta and IL-10 interact with IFN-alpha to up- and down-regulate PKR gene expression, respectively, by modulating STAT1 activation induced by IFN-alpha
11991642 The mRNA of the translationally controlled tumor protein P23/TCTP is a highly structured RNA, which activates the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR (TCTP PROTEIN)
10620360 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
10400814 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
9735304 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
9079663 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
7491766 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
2180064 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription
1708818 PKR directly interacts with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription

AA Sequence

MAGDLSAGFFMEELNTYRQKQGVVLKYQELPNSGPPHDRRFTFQVIIDGREFPEGEGRSKKEAKNAAAKL      1 - 70
AVEILNKEKKAVSPLLLTTTNSSEGLSMGNYIGLINRIAQKKRLTVNYEQCASGVHGPEGFHYKCKMGQK     71 - 140
EYSIGTGSTKQEAKQLAAKLAYLQILSEETSVKSDYLSSGSFATTCESQSNSLVTSTLASESSSEGDFSA    141 - 210
DTSEINSNSDSLNSSSLLMNGLRNNQRKAKRSLAPRFDLPDMKETKYTVDKRFGMDFKEIELIGSGGFGQ    211 - 280
VFKAKHRIDGKTYVIKRVKYNNEKAEREVKALAKLDHVNIVHYNGCWDGFDYDPETSDDSLESSDYDPEN    281 - 350
SKNSSRSKTKCLFIQMEFCDKGTLEQWIEKRRGEKLDKVLALELFEQITKGVDYIHSKKLIHRDLKPSNI    351 - 420
FLVDTKQVKIGDFGLVTSLKNDGKRTRSKGTLRYMSPEQISSQDYGKEVDLYALGLILAELLHVCDTAFE    421 - 490
TSKFFTDLRDGIISDIFDKKEKTLLQKLLSKKPEDRPNTSEILRTLTVWKKSPEKNERHTC             491 - 551
//

Text Mined References (312)

PMID Year Title
26869028 2016 Regulation of de novo translation of host cells by manipulation of PERK/PKR and GADD34-PP1 activity during Newcastle disease virus infection.
26725122 2016 NIPBL Controls RNA Biogenesis to Prevent Activation of the Stress Kinase PKR.
26716879 2016 Essential role of protein kinase R antagonism by TRS1 in human cytomegalovirus replication.
26698173 2016 Sustained Action of Ceramide on the Insulin Signaling Pathway in Muscle Cells: IMPLICATION OF THE DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE.
26608746 2015 HIV-1 Tat protein enhances the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis via the ds-RNA induced protein PKR.
26488609 2015 Regulation of PKR by RNA: formation of active and inactive dimers.
26321373 2015 Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.
26231208 2015 Altered activation of protein kinase PKR and enhanced apoptosis in dystonia cells carrying a mutation in PKR activator protein PACT.
26216977 2015 Baculovirus protein PK2 subverts eIF2? kinase function by mimicry of its kinase domain C-lobe.
26202421 2015 PKR inhibits the DNA damage response, and is associated with poor survival in AML and accelerated leukemia in NHD13 mice.
25899421 2015 PKR activation enhances replication of classical swine fever virus in PK-15 cells.
25784705 2015 Stress granules regulate double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activation through a complex containing G3BP1 and Caprin1.
25715336 2015 Protein-Binding Function of RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Promotes Proliferation through TRAF2/RIP1/NF-?B/c-Myc Pathway in Pancreatic ? cells.
25704249 2015 The IFN?-PKR pathway in the prefrontal cortex reactions to chronic excessive alcohol use.
25653431 2015 p53-derived host restriction of HIV-1 replication by protein kinase R-mediated Tat phosphorylation and inactivation.
25607115 2015 Polymorphism in the NLRP3 inflammasome-associated EIF2AK2 gene and inflammatory bowel disease.
25592072 2015 Deficient PKR in RAX/PKR Association Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum.
25520508 2015 The stress granule protein G3BP1 recruits protein kinase R to promote multiple innate immune antiviral responses.
25410857 2015 Andes virus nucleocapsid protein interrupts protein kinase R dimerization to counteract host interference in viral protein synthesis.
25389016 2014 ADAR1 enhances HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 replication through inhibition of PKR activity.
25329545 2015 p58IPK is an inhibitor of the eIF2? kinase GCN2 and its localization and expression underpin protein synthesis and ER processing capacity.
25297997 2014 Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses.
25074923 2014 Activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO).
24992036 2014 G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 are required for translation of interferon stimulated mRNAs and are targeted by a dengue virus non-coding RNA.
24786893 2014 Cyclophilin inhibitors reduce phosphorylation of RNA-dependent protein kinase to restore expression of IFN-stimulated genes in HCV-infected cells.
24684861 2014 Activation of the PKR/eIF2? signaling cascade inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus.
24623135 2014 NF90 exerts antiviral activity through regulation of PKR phosphorylation and stress granules in infected cells.
24463368 2014 Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase deficiency protects the heart from systolic overload-induced congestive heart failure.
24347309 2014 Identification of the PKR nuclear interactome reveals roles in ribosome biogenesis, mRNA processing and cell division.
24334130 2014 Inhibition of PKR protects against tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24089560 2013 Alpha interferon restricts human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 de novo infection through PKR activation.
24020926 2013 The PKR activator, PACT, becomes a PKR inhibitor during HIV-1 replication.
23853588 2013 Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.
23706307 2013 RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR and the Z-DNA binding orthologue PKZ differ in their capacity to mediate initiation factor eIF2?-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and virus-induced stress granule formation.
23682076 2013 Progesterone enhances calcitriol antitumor activity by upregulating vitamin D receptor expression and promoting apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells.
23527187 2013 RNA-dependent protein kinase is essential for 2-methoxyestradiol-induced autophagy in osteosarcoma cells.
23455922 2013 Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS.
23403623 2013 PKR regulates proliferation, differentiation, and survival of murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.
23399035 2013 The modulation of hepatitis C virus 1a replication by PKR is dependent on NF-kB mediated interferon beta response in Huh7.5.1 cells.
23372823 2013 Protein kinase regulated by dsRNA downregulates the interferon production in dengue virus- and dsRNA-stimulated human lung epithelial cells.
23370317 2013 Prognostic significance of combinations of RNA-dependent protein kinase and EphA2 biomarkers for NSCLC.
23354059 2013 The eIF2? kinases: their structures and functions.
23325696 2013 Toscana virus NSs protein promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.
23320095 2013 Cerebrospinal fluid PKR level predicts cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
23314571 2013 The multiple faces of proteinkinase R in antiviral defense.
23302873 2013 The virion host shutoff RNase plays a key role in blocking the activation of protein kinase R in cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1.
23229543 2013 Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) by interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) modification down-regulates protein translation.
23221979 2013 Direct interaction between STAT3 and EIF2AK2 controls fatty acid-induced autophagy.
23202496 2012 dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR and its role in stress, signaling and HCV infection.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23148689 2012 Structural and molecular basis of interaction of HCV non-structural protein 5A with human casein kinase 1? and PKR.
23115300 2013 The herpes simplex virus 1 Us11 protein inhibits autophagy through its interaction with the protein kinase PKR.
23115276 2013 Stress granule formation induced by measles virus is protein kinase PKR dependent and impaired by RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1.
23092889 2012 PKR-dependent inflammatory signals.
23084476 2012 Cytoplasmic STAT3 represses autophagy by inhibiting PKR activity.
23064357 2013 Expression of the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 in the islet cells of patients with type 1 diabetes is associated with induction of protein kinase R and downregulation of Mcl-1.
22986343 2012 Characterization of the direct physical interaction of nc886, a cellular non-coding RNA, and PKR.
22948139 2012 Protein kinase PKR amplification of interferon ? induction occurs through initiation factor eIF-2?-mediated translational control.
22912486 2012 Mechanistic characterization of the 5'-triphosphate-dependent activation of PKR: lack of 5'-end nucleobase specificity, evidence for a distinct triphosphate binding site, and a critical role for the dsRBD.
22896602 2012 Viperin, MTAP44, and protein kinase R contribute to the interferon-induced inhibition of Bunyamwera Orthobunyavirus replication.
22894766 2012 Implication of protein kinase R gene quantification in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
22814378 2012 N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB.
22801494 2012 Novel role of PKR in inflammasome activation and HMGB1 release.
22787234 2012 Blocking double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR by Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein 2A.
22681889 2012 The mRNA-bound proteome and its global occupancy profile on protein-coding transcripts.
22633454 2012 Penetration resistance: PKR's other talent.
22473766 2012 Increased interaction between PACT molecules in response to stress signals is required for PKR activation.
22381929 2012 Protein kinase PKR catalytic activity is required for the PKR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and amplification of interferon beta induction following virus infection.
22306812 2012 Oxidative stress increases BACE1 protein levels through activation of the PKR-eIF2? pathway.
22281122 2012 Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of double-stranded RNA-dependant protein kinase in Alzheimer's disease.
22278235 2012 Species specificity of protein kinase r antagonism by cytomegalovirus TRS1 genes.
22223895 2012 Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-?-acetylation features.
22214662 2012 The RAX/PACT-PKR stress response pathway promotes p53 sumoylation and activation, leading to G? arrest.
22174754 2011 Involvement of activation of PKR in HBx-siRNA-mediated innate immune effects on HBV inhibition.
22102852 2011 The role of PKR/eIF2? signaling pathway in prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
21924887 2011 Protein kinase PKR and RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1: new roles for old players as modulators of the interferon response.
21903422 2011 Mapping a dynamic innate immunity protein interaction network regulating type I interferon production.
21882225 2012 Interaction between PKR and PACT mediated by LPS-inducible NF-?B in human gingival cells.
21846836 2011 Human cutaneous leishmaniasis: interferon-dependent expression of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) via TLR2.
21790829 2012 The PKR activator PACT is induced by A?: involvement in Alzheimer's disease.
21715487 2011 Mammalian orthoreovirus escape from host translational shutoff correlates with stress granule disruption and is independent of eIF2alpha phosphorylation and PKR.
21710204 2011 PKR-dependent mechanisms of interferon-? for inhibiting hepatitis B virus replication.
21698289 2011 Influenza A virus nucleoprotein exploits Hsp40 to inhibit PKR activation.
21526770 2011 Stress-induced phosphorylation of PACT reduces its interaction with TRBP and leads to PKR activation.
21504114 2010 Inhibition of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase strongly decreases cytokine production and release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease.
21468538 2011 Selective leukemia cell death by activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.
21385567 2011 HCV-induced PKR activation is stimulated by the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase MSK2.
21377708 2011 Activation of protein kinase R is required for induction of stress granules by respiratory syncytial virus but dispensable for viral replication.
21338484 2011 Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-?B mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21266579 2011 Raftlin is involved in the nucleocapture complex to induce poly(I:C)-mediated TLR3 activation.
21166592 2011 The role of protein kinase R in the interferon response.
21123651 2010 Phosphorylation of the NFAR proteins by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR constitutes a novel mechanism of translational regulation and cellular defense.
21123378 2011 The C proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 1 limit double-stranded RNA accumulation that would otherwise trigger activation of MDA5 and protein kinase R.
21072047 2011 Multiple forms of PKR present in the nuclei of acute leukemia cells represent an active kinase that is responsive to stress.
21048031 2011 Single nucleotide polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tumor protein 73 (TP73) interact with Epstein-Barr virus in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from the European case-control study EpiLymph.
21029237 2011 Modulation of tau phosphorylation by the kinase PKR: implications in Alzheimer's disease.
20930042 2010 Prognostic significance of RNA-dependent protein kinase on non-small cell lung cancer patients.
20685959 2010 The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase differentially regulates insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 in HepG2 cells.
20628624 2010 Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "hot-spot".
20588308 2010 Dengue hemorrhagic fever is associated with polymorphisms in JAK1.
20587610 2010 Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection.
20485506 2010 Hepatitis C virus controls interferon production through PKR activation.
20447405 2010 Regulation of PKR by HCV IRES RNA: importance of domain II and NS5A.
20395957 2010 New Cdc2 Tyr 4 phosphorylation by dsRNA-activated protein kinase triggers Cdc2 polyubiquitination and G2 arrest under genotoxic stresses.
20353946 2010 Protein kinase RNA/FADD/caspase-8 pathway mediates the proapoptotic activity of the RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR).
20331378 2010 Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus.
20309637 2011 IL-29 and IFN-? regulate the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR genes in association with the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signal pathways in HepG2.2.15 cells.
20181660 2010 Hematopoietic cell kinase associates with the 40S ribosomal subunit and mediates the ribotoxic stress response to deoxynivalenol in mononuclear phagocytes.
20171114 2010 A role for protein kinase PKR in the mediation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
20006840 2009 Hepatitis C virus blocks interferon effector function by inducing protein kinase R phosphorylation.
20006836 2009 Hepatitis C and evasion of the interferon system: a PKR paradigm.
19946888 2010 Defining the membrane proteome of NK cells.
19846675 2010 Viral host-range factor C7 or K1 is essential for modified vaccinia virus Ankara late gene expression in human and murine cells, irrespective of their capacity to inhibit protein kinase R-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha.
19846517 2010 Mechanisms of protein kinase PKR-mediated amplification of beta interferon induction by C protein-deficient measles virus.
19840259 2010 Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase inhibits hepatitis C virus replication but may be not essential in interferon treatment.
19812373 2010 Novel role for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR: modulation of macrophage infection by the protozoan parasite Leishmania.
19776135 2009 Inhibition of protein kinase R activation and upregulation of GADD34 expression play a synergistic role in facilitating coronavirus replication by maintaining de novo protein synthesis in virus-infected cells.
19744687 2009 The effect of the vaccinia K1 protein on the PKR-eIF2alpha pathway in RK13 and HeLa cells.
19733181 2009 Adenosine deaminase ADAR1 increases gene expression at the translational level by decreasing protein kinase PKR-dependent eIF-2alpha phosphorylation.
19710021 2009 RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19642004 2009 Ultra-structural localisation of hepatocellular PKR protein using immuno-gold labelling in chronic hepatitis C virus disease.
19605483 2009 The adenovirus E1B 55-kilodalton and E4 open reading frame 6 proteins limit phosphorylation of eIF2alpha during the late phase of infection.
19605474 2009 ADAR1 interacts with PKR during human immunodeficiency virus infection of lymphocytes and contributes to viral replication.
19515768 2009 Ebola virus VP35 antagonizes PKR activity through its C-terminal interferon inhibitory domain.
19507191 2009 PKR activity is required for acute leukemic cell maintenance and growth: a role for PKR-mediated phosphatase activity to regulate GSK-3 phosphorylation.
19445956 2009 RNA dimerization promotes PKR dimerization and activation.
19434718 2009 Variants in interferon-alpha pathway genes and response to pegylated interferon-Alpha2a plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the hepatitis C antiviral long-term treatment against cirrhosis trial.
19416861 2009 PKR, a p53 target gene, plays a crucial role in the tumor-suppressor function of p53.
19353519 2009 Toll-like receptor engagement enhances the immunosuppressive properties of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by inducing indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 via interferon-beta and protein kinase R.
19349624 2009 Activation of host antiviral RNA-sensing factors necessary for herpes simplex virus type 1-activated transcription of host cell fucosyltransferase genes FUT3, FUT5, and FUT6 and subsequent expression of sLe(x) in virus-infected cells.
19259124 2009 Repression of PKR mediates palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through regulation of Bcl-2.
19229320 2009 An antiviral response directed by PKR phosphorylation of the RNA helicase A.
19210572 2009 PKR, a cognitive decline biomarker, can regulate translation via two consecutive molecular targets p53 and Redd1 in lymphocytes of AD patients.
19189853 2009 PKR protein kinase is activated by hepatitis C virus and inhibits viral replication through translational control.
19151623 2009 Neuronal phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
19109397 2009 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus triggers apoptosis via protein kinase R but is resistant to its antiviral activity.
19106640 2009 Inhibition of RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) leads to cancer cell death and increases chemosensitivity.
19028691 2009 The RNA-activated protein kinase enhances the induction of interferon-beta and apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic RNA sensors.
19023099 2009 Gene variants associated with ischemic stroke: the cardiovascular health study.
19004947 2009 Protein kinase PKR mediates the apoptosis induction and growth restriction phenotypes of C protein-deficient measles virus.
18976633 2008 Oxidative stress induces PKR-dependent apoptosis via IFN-gamma activation signaling in Jurkat T cells.
18957415 2008 PKR regulates B56(alpha)-mediated BCL2 phosphatase activity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia-derived REH cells.
18936160 2009 TRBP control of PACT-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase R is reversed by stress.
18927075 2008 Induction of protein kinase PKR-dependent activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 by vaccinia virus occurs through adapter IPS-1 signaling.
18835251 2008 Nck-1 interacts with PKR and modulates its activation by dsRNA.
18728014 2008 Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein down-regulates the expression of spindle gene Aspm through PKR-p38 signaling pathway.
18684960 2008 Double-stranded RNA induces an antiviral defense status in epidermal keratinocytes through TLR3-, PKR-, and MDA5/RIG-I-mediated differential signaling.
18684815 2008 Sendai virus C protein plays a role in restricting PKR activation by limiting the generation of intracellular double-stranded RNA.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18599499 2008 Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates induction of interleukin-8 expression by deoxynivalenol, Shiga toxin 1, and ricin in monocytes.
18496558 2008 PKR is activated in MDS patients and its subcellular localization depends on disease severity.
18426922 2008 Nucleoside modifications modulate activation of the protein kinase PKR in an RNA structure-specific manner.
18362360 2008 The editing enzyme ADAR1 and the mRNA surveillance protein hUpf1 interact in the cell nucleus.
18096616 2008 Interaction of human tRNA-dihydrouridine synthase-2 with interferon-induced protein kinase PKR.
18087277 2008 Increased expression of phosphorylated forms of RNA-dependent protein kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha may signal skeletal muscle atrophy in weight-losing cancer patients.
18063576 2008 PKR and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase induce the proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 via a mechanism requiring eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation.
18048689 2007 5'-triphosphate-dependent activation of PKR by RNAs with short stem-loops.
18023289 2008 Prion protein aggresomes are poly(A)+ ribonucleoprotein complexes that induce a PKR-mediated deficient cell stress response.
17977969 2008 Paramyxovirus-induced shutoff of host and viral protein synthesis: role of the P and V proteins in limiting PKR activation.
17975119 2008 Association of gene variants with incident myocardial infarction in the Cardiovascular Health Study.
17959656 2008 Loss of protein kinase PKR expression in human HeLa cells complements the vaccinia virus E3L deletion mutant phenotype by restoration of viral protein synthesis.
17928446 2007 Human immunodeficiency virus-1/surface glycoprotein 120 induces apoptosis through RNA-activated protein kinase signaling in neurons.
17928244 Non-coding transcript in T cells (NTT): antisense transcript activates PKR and NF-kappaB in human lymphocytes.
17851256 2008 Ligation of Toll-like receptor 3 differentially regulates M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor expression and function in human airway smooth muscle cells.
17785458 2007 The eIF2alpha kinases PERK and PKR activate glycogen synthase kinase 3 to promote the proteasomal degradation of p53.
17716668 2007 The double-strand RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays a significant role in a sustained ER stress-induced apoptosis.
17686861 2007 West Nile virus-induced interferon production is mediated by the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.
17612505 2007 Phosphorylated PKR contributes the induction of GRP94 under ER stress.
17597457 2007 Ribavirin up-regulates the activity of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase and enhances the action of interferon-alpha against hepatitis C virus.
17596833 2007 Hepatitis C virus expression and interferon antiviral action is dependent on PKR expression.
17541283 2007 Role of RIG-I, MDA-5, and PKR on the expression of inflammatory chemokines induced by synthetic dsRNA in airway epithelial cells.
17522227 2007 Protein kinase PKR plays a stimulus- and virus-dependent role in apoptotic death and virus multiplication in human cells.
17451862 The dsRNA protein kinase PKR: virus and cell control.
17420072 2008 Double stranded RNA activated EIF2 alpha kinase (EIF2AK2; PKR) is associated with Alzheimer's disease.
17353931 2007 Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.
17344846 2007 Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes.
17318221 2007 The caspase-generated fragments of PKR cooperate to activate full-length PKR and inhibit translation.
17307214 2007 Interferon-induced inhibition of parainfluenza virus type 5; the roles of MxA, PKR and oligo A synthetase/RNase L.
17290288 2007 Interferons induce tyrosine phosphorylation of the eIF2alpha kinase PKR through activation of Jak1 and Tyk2.
17284445 2007 Molecular framework for the activation of RNA-dependent protein kinase.
17202131 2007 Conserved intermolecular salt bridge required for activation of protein kinases PKR, GCN2, and PERK.
17196820 2007 Activation of PKR: an open and shut case?
17158706 2006 Impact of protein kinase PKR in cell biology: from antiviral to antiproliferative action.
17079286 2007 Double-stranded RNA deaminase ADAR1 increases host susceptibility to virus infection.
16989899 2007 Protein kinase R, IkappaB kinase-beta and NF-kappaB are required for human rhinovirus induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells.
16957780 2006 Antiviral action of the tumor suppressor ARF.
16954686 2006 Activated mTOR and PKR kinases in lymphocytes correlate with memory and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
16924232 2007 Genetic deletion of PKR abrogates TNF-induced activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, JNK, Akt and cell proliferation but potentiates p44/p42 MAPK and p38 MAPK activation.
16861808 2006 A new double-stranded RNA binding protein (DRBP-120) is associated with double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR).
16861340 2006 RAX, the PKR activator, sensitizes cells to inflammatory cytokines, serum withdrawal, chemotherapy, and viral infection.
16785445 2006 Molecular basis for PKR activation by PACT or dsRNA.
16580685 2006 Uncoupling of RNA binding and PKR kinase activation by viral inhibitor RNAs.
16466763 2006 Binding of the influenza A virus NS1 protein to PKR mediates the inhibition of its activation by either PACT or double-stranded RNA.
16446363 2006 Role of p38 MAPK and RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in hepatitis C virus core-dependent nuclear delocalization of cyclin B1.
16373505 2006 Tyrosine phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to full-scale activation of the eIF2alpha RNA-dependent protein kinase.
16339759 2006 Activation of the RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR promoter in the absence of interferon is dependent upon Sp proteins.
16288713 2005 Interaction of recombinant human eIF2 subunits with eIF2B and eIF2alpha kinases.
16271080 2005 Expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in small-size peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung.
16216244 2005 Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is required for bone calcification in MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro.
16179258 2005 Higher-order substrate recognition of eIF2alpha by the RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.
16156900 2005 Involvement of PKR and RNase L in translational control and induction of apoptosis after Hepatitis C polyprotein expression from a vaccinia virus recombinant.
15907845 2005 Mechanisms for HIV Tat upregulation of IL-10 and other cytokine expression: kinase signaling and PKR-mediated immune response.
15880455 2005 Thr 446 phosphorylation of PKR by HCV core protein deregulates G2/M phase in HCC cells.
15815621 2005 Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.
15737233 2005 Phosphorylation of HIV Tat by PKR increases interaction with TAR RNA and enhances transcription.
15635413 2005 Nucleolar proteome dynamics.
15625311 2004 Okadaic acid induces apoptosis through double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha pathway in human osteoblastic MG63 cells.
15607693 A point mutation in the RNA-binding domain I results in decrease of PKR activation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
15596837 2005 The Epstein-Barr virus BILF1 gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that inhibits phosphorylation of RNA-dependent protein kinase.
15535414 2004 PKR gene expression and response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15299030 2004 The Fanconi anemia proteins functionally interact with the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR).
15229216 2004 Protein kinase R (PKR) interacts with and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MKK6) in response to double-stranded RNA stimulation.
15207627 2004 Inhibition of PKR by vaccinia virus: role of the N- and C-terminal domains of E3L.
15122791 2004 Reduction of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis B virus.
15121867 2004 TRAF family proteins link PKR with NF-kappa B activation.
14961569 2004 Loss of PKR activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
14765129 2004 An RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in tunicamycin-induced apoptosis and Alzheimer's disease.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14698665 2003 The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis.
14638359 2003 Protein kinase R is increased and is functional in hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
13678666 2003 Activation of the cell stress kinase PKR in Alzheimer's disease and human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.
12944978 2003 Polymorphisms in interferon-induced genes and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: roles of MxA, OAS-1 and PKR.
12882984 2003 Nucleophosmin interacts with and inhibits the catalytic function of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase PKR.
12679338 2003 C114 is a novel IL-11-inducible nuclear double-stranded RNA-binding protein that inhibits protein kinase R.
12665801 2003 Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.
12610133 2003 Protein synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress can be modulated by the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 through the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase PERK.
12609980 2003 Poly(I-C)-induced Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated activation of NFkappa B and MAP kinase is through an interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-independent pathway employing the signaling components TLR3-TRAF6-TAK1-TAB2-PKR .
12539042 2003 HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages.
12483527 2002 Neoplastic progression in melanoma and colon cancer is associated with increased expression and activity of the interferon-inducible protein kinase, PKR.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12473108 2002 Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase interacts with apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Implications for apoptosis signaling pathways.
12447867 2002 Genetic polymorphisms in interferon pathway and response to interferon treatment in hepatitis B patients: A pilot study.
12397061 2002 The anti-apoptotic function of Hsp70 in the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-mediated death signaling pathway requires the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCC.
12396729 2002 The promoter-proximal KCS element of the PKR kinase gene enhances transcription irrespective of orientation and position relative to the ISRE element and is functionally distinct from the KCS-like element of the ADAR deaminase Promoter.
12368348 2002 Inhibition of PACT-mediated activation of PKR by the herpes simplex virus type 1 Us11 protein.
12368306 2002 PKR-dependent mechanisms of gene expression from a subgenomic hepatitis C virus clone.
12349906 2002 Evidence for the involvement of the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the induction of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a synthetic peptide of HIV-1 by regulatory RNA.
12231563 2002 Contribution of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase toward antiproliferative actions of heparin on vascular smooth muscle cells.
12138106 2002 The direct binding of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 to the PKR protein kinase is necessary but not sufficient for inactivation and disruption of enzyme dimer formation.
12060652 2002 The double-stranded RNA-activated kinase, PKR, can phosphorylate hepatitis D virus small delta antigen at functional serine and threonine residues.
11991642 2002 The mRNA of the translationally controlled tumor protein P23/TCTP is a highly structured RNA, which activates the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.
11985496 2002 The C-terminal, third conserved motif of the protein activator PACT plays an essential role in the activation of double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR).
11921349 2002 Adenovirus infection targets the cellular protein kinase CK2 and RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) into viral inclusions of the cell nucleus.
11836380 2002 The herpes simplex virus type 1 U(S)11 protein interacts with protein kinase R in infected cells and requires a 30-amino-acid sequence adjacent to a kinase substrate domain.
11773402 2002 Detection of a novel unglycosylated form of hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein that is located in the cytosol and interacts with PKR.
11555640 2001 Translation inhibition in apoptosis: caspase-dependent PKR activation and eIF2-alpha phosphorylation.
11526399 2001 TIRAP: an adapter molecule in the Toll signaling pathway.
11447118 2001 The Hsp90 chaperone complex is both a facilitator and a repressor of the dsRNA-dependent kinase PKR.
11438540 2001 Nuclear factor 90 is a substrate and regulator of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase.
11438536 2001 Characterization of two evolutionarily conserved, alternatively spliced nuclear phosphoproteins, NFAR-1 and -2, that function in mRNA processing and interact with the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR.
11438532 2001 Two dimerization domains in the trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP) individually reverse the protein kinase R inhibition of HIV-1 long terminal repeat expression.
11350938 2001 Protein kinase PKR is required for platelet-derived growth factor signaling of c-fos gene expression via Erks and Stat3.
11337501 2001 Binding of double-stranded RNA to protein kinase PKR is required for dimerization and promotes critical autophosphorylation events in the activation loop.
11278865 2001 Enhanced antiviral and antiproliferative properties of a STAT1 mutant unable to interact with the protein kinase PKR.
11160738 2001 Latently expressed human herpesvirus 8-encoded interferon regulatory factor 2 inhibits double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase.
11152499 2001 Hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 does not inhibit PKR by simple competition with autophosphorylation sites in the RNA-binding domain.
11123929 2000 In vivo regulation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR by the cellular glycoprotein p67.
10884347 2000 The C-terminal regulatory domain of p53 contains a functional docking site for cyclin A.
10866685 2000 The B56alpha regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is a target for regulation by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.
10848580 2000 PKR stimulates NF-kappaB irrespective of its kinase function by interacting with the IkappaB kinase complex.
10747897 2000 Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
10723127 2000 Activation of NF-kappa B by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR involves the I kappa B kinase complex.
10684936 2000 A new double-stranded RNA-binding protein that interacts with PKR.
10648614 2000 NF-kappaB activation by double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is mediated through NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and IkappaB kinase.
10620360 2000 HIV-I TAT inhibits PKR activity by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms.
10557102 1999 PKR; a sentinel kinase for cellular stress.
10542257 1999 The interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR will phosphorylate serine, threonine, or tyrosine at residue 51 in eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha.
10488152 1999 Identification of the major phosphorylation site of the hepatitis C virus H strain NS5A protein as serine 2321.
10400814 1999 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat protein activates transcription factor NF-kappaB through the cellular interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR.
10400669 1999 DRBP76, a double-stranded RNA-binding nuclear protein, is phosphorylated by the interferon-induced protein kinase, PKR.
10390359 1999 Inhibition of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR by HCV E2 protein.
10348343 1999 The double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase PKR physically associates with the tumor suppressor p53 protein and phosphorylates human p53 on serine 392 in vitro.
10330179 1999 Btf, a novel death-promoting transcriptional repressor that interacts with Bcl-2-related proteins.
10320367 1999 Nuclear factor-90 of activated T-cells: A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and substrate for the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR.
9819435 1998 Identification and characterization of pancreatic eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha-subunit kinase, PEK, involved in translational control.
9781815 1998 Biochemical and genetic evidence for complex formation between the influenza A virus NS1 protein and the interferon-induced PKR protein kinase.
9736623 1998 Structure of the double-stranded RNA-binding domain of the protein kinase PKR reveals the molecular basis of its dsRNA-mediated activation.
9735304 1998 RNA binding and modulation of PKR activity.
9726442 1998 Genomic features of human PKR: alternative splicing and a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5'-untranslated region.
9721103 1998 Direct phosphorylation of IkappaB by IKKalpha and IKKbeta: discrimination between free and NF-kappaB-bound substrate.
9687506 1998 PACT, a protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase, PKR.
9528799 1998 Autophosphorylation in the activation loop is required for full kinase activity in vivo of human and yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinases PKR and GCN2.
9431994 1997 Homologous regions of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) and the vaccinia virus K3L gene product interact with the same domain within the dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR).
9214631 1997 IkappaB alpha is a target for the mitogen-activated 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase.
9143277 1997 Evidence that hepatitis C virus resistance to interferon is mediated through repression of the PKR protein kinase by the nonstructural 5A protein.
9135145 1997 Physical association between STAT1 and the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR and implications for interferon and double-stranded RNA signaling pathways.
9079663 1997 The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a substrate and inhibitor of the interferon-induced, virally activated protein kinase, PKR.
8921913 1996 Mechanism of interferon action sequence of the human interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) deduced from genomic clones.
8889548 1996 Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery.
8887659 1996 Autophosphorylation sites participate in the activation of the double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase PKR.
8812437 1996 Structural organization of the human gene (PKR) encoding an interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and differences from its mouse homolog.
8601309 1996 Site-specific phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha by a novel ubiquitination-dependent protein kinase activity.
8576172 1996 The P58 cellular inhibitor complexes with the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, to regulate its autophosphorylation and activity.
8099444 1993 Translational regulation by the interferon-induced double-stranded-RNA-activated 68-kDa protein kinase.
7757816 1995 [IMAGE: molecular integration of the analysis of the human genome and its expression].
7738010 1995 A 68-kDa kinase and NADPH oxidase component p67phox are targets for Cdc42Hs and Rac1 in neutrophils.
7686884 1993 Localization of the human interferon-induced, ds-RNA activated p68 kinase gene (PRKR) to chromosome 2p21-p22.
7686883 1993 Chromosomal assignment of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PRKR) to human chromosome 2p21-p22 and mouse chromosome 17 E2.
7568151 1995 Double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase and TAR RNA-binding protein form homo- and heterodimers in vivo.
7491766 1995 HIV-1 Tat directly interacts with the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase, PKR.
2180064 1990 Control of the interferon-induced 68-kilodalton protein kinase by the HIV-1 tat gene product.
1708818 1990 Translational regulation by HIV leader RNA, TAT, and interferon-inducible enzymes.
1695551 1990 Molecular cloning and characterization of the human double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase induced by interferon.
1677563 1991 A synthetic peptide substrate for initiation factor-2 kinases.
1373554 1992 Mechanism of interferon action: identification of a RNA binding domain within the N-terminal region of the human RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2 alpha protein kinase.
1373553 1992 Mechanism of interferon action: cDNA structure, expression, and regulation of the interferon-induced, RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2 alpha protein kinase from human cells.
1351683 1992 Identification of double-stranded RNA-binding domains in the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated p68 kinase.