Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 53
PubMed Score 315.37
PubTator Score 131.80

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Disease (2)


  Differential Expression (3)

Disease log2 FC p
osteosarcoma 1.340 2.6e-04
lung cancer 1.200 9.7e-03
Pick disease 1.100 2.5e-06

Protein-protein Interaction (5)

Gene RIF (23)

26106156 Data show that the caspase-activated DNase (CAD) is activated when caspases cleave its endogenous inhibitor ICAD, resulting in the characteristic DNA laddering of apoptosis.
24277473 Data suggest that DFF45 gene silencing, when applied in combination with doxorubicin, may offer a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancer.
23451280 ICAD deficiency was associated with severe genomic instability.
22454513 mRNA splicing is actively driven toward the pro-apoptotic isoforms of Bim, Bcl-x, and ICAD in Pnn-depleted MCF-7 cells.
22378161 The DFF45 level in human endometrium corresponds to the respective phase of the menstrual cycle and decreases significantly after menopause.
20687965 study reveals a previously unrecognized function of miR-145 in DFF45 processing, which may underlie crucial aspects of cancer biology
19882353 The heterodimer, DFF40-DFF45, is localized to the chromatin fraction under apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic conditions.
19535198 A decreased level of DFF45 observed in ovarian endometriosis may be a part of an apoptosis-resistant mechanism enhancing the disease progression.
19240061 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18805449 MPP(+) did not change the total levels of c-Jun but enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser73 and cleavage of DNA fragmentation factor 45, which were diminished by selegiline.
18500556 identified a TATA-less region upstream of the transcription start site as a basal promoter of the ICAD gene. An E-Box motif, which binds transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper family, is responsible for transcriptional activity
18292826 The highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase, and significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase.
17945178 Interestingly, nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred and consistently DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) was cleaved inside the cell as well as in vitro, suggesting a role of caspase-2 in nuclear DNA fragmentation.
17938174 C-terminal region of each subunit, DFF40 (RLKRK) and DFF45 (KRAR), is essential for nuclear accumulation of the DFF complex.
17645689 demonstrate the cellular mechanisms of neuronal cell degeneration induced via c-Jun-N-terminal kinases and caspase-dependent signaling
16619042 plays an important and P53-independent role in maintaining chromosome stability and suppressing tumor development
16432220 apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor is required for the maintenance of genetic stability and may play a role in tumor suppression
14675622 Hepatitis C virus core protein increases a steady-state level of ICAD protein, possibly through enhancing its promoter activity
12748178 subunit structures and stoichiometries in human cells before and after induction of apoptosis
12404116 HIV-1 protease directly cleaves and activates procaspase 8 in T cells, which is associated with cleavage of BID, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of the downstream caspases 9 and 3, and cleavage of DFF and PARP
12181128 Hypoxia-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and DFF45/ICAD in human failed cardiomyocytes.
12144788 NMR solution structure of the C-terminal domain of DFF45, which is essential for its chaperone-like activity
11870543 DFF45 at chromosome 1 reveal rare allelic variants in neuroblastoma tumors

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (65)

PMID Year Title
26106156 2015 Engineered cellular gene-replacement platform for selective and inducible proteolytic profiling.
25277244 2014 The functional landscape of Hsp27 reveals new cellular processes such as DNA repair and alternative splicing and proposes novel anticancer targets.
24277473 2013 siRNA-mediated knock-down of DFF45 amplifies doxorubicin therapeutic effects in breast cancer cells.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
23451280 2013 ICAD deficiency in human colon cancer and predisposition to colon tumorigenesis: linkage to apoptosis resistance and genomic instability.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
22814378 2012 N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB.
22727028 2012 Identification of ICAD-derived peptides capable of inhibiting caspase-activated DNase.
22454513 2012 Loss of Pnn expression results in mouse early embryonic lethality and cellular apoptosis through SRSF1-mediated alternative expression of Bcl-xS and ICAD.
22378161 2012 DFF45 expression in human endometrium is associated with menstrual cycle phases and decreases after menopause.
22223895 2012 Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-?-acetylation features.
21406692 2011 System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
20687965 2010 MiR-145, a new regulator of the DNA fragmentation factor-45 (DFF45)-mediated apoptotic network.
20068231 2010 Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis.
19882353 2010 Histone H1 subtype preferences of DFF40 and possible nuclear localization of DFF40/45 in normal and trichostatin A-treated NB4 leukemic cells.
19535198 2009 DFF45 expression in ovarian endometriomas.
19413330 2009 Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach.
19240061 2009 Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.
18805449 2008 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-induced oxidative stress, c-Jun phosphorylation and DNA fragmentation factor-45 cleavage in SK-N-SH cells are averted by selegiline.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18500556 2008 Identification and characterization of the human inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase gene promoter.
18292826 2007 The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17945178 2007 Caspase-2 cleaves DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD).
17938174 2007 Sequence elements in both subunits of the DNA fragmentation factor are essential for its nuclear transport.
17645689 2007 Melatonin inhibits MPP+-induced caspase-mediated death pathway and DNA fragmentation factor-45 cleavage in SK-N-SH cultured cells.
17525332 2007 ATM and ATR substrate analysis reveals extensive protein networks responsive to DNA damage.
17353931 2007 Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.
16964243 2006 A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.
16950395 2006 hCLE/CGI-99, a human protein that interacts with the influenza virus polymerase, is a mRNA transcription modulator.
16710414 2006 The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.
16619042 2006 Apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor maintains chromosome stability in a P53-independent manner.
16432220 2006 A unique role of the DNA fragmentation factor in maintaining genomic stability.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
16189514 2005 Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.
15572351 2005 Interaction of DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) with DNA reveals an unprecedented mechanism for nuclease inhibition and suggests that DFF can be activated in a DNA-bound state.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15324660 2004 Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14675622 2003 Antiapoptotic regulation by hepatitis C virus core protein through up-regulation of inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase.
12748178 2003 Subunit structures and stoichiometries of human DNA fragmentation factor proteins before and after induction of apoptosis.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12467059 2002 Decreased expression of DFF45/ICAD is correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
12181128 2002 Hypoxia-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and DFF45/ICAD in human failed cardiomyocytes.
12144788 2002 Solution structure of the DFF-C domain of DFF45/ICAD. A structural basis for the regulation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation.
11929840 2002 Growth phase-dependent expression of ICAD-L/DFF45 modulates the pattern of apoptosis in human colonic cancer cells.
11870543 2002 Analyses of apoptotic regulators CASP9 and DFFA at 1P36.2, reveal rare allele variants in human neuroblastoma tumours.
11752060 2001 Implications of CAD and DNase II in ischemic neuronal necrosis specific for the primate hippocampus.
11406587 2001 Direct cleavage of the human DNA fragmentation factor-45 by granzyme B induces caspase-activated DNase release and DNA fragmentation.
11371636 2001 Solution structure of DFF40 and DFF45 N-terminal domain complex and mutual chaperone activity of DFF40 and DFF45.
11004695 2000 Frequent nuclear localization of ICAD and cytoplasmic co-expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in human lymphomas.
10976014 2000 Destruction of bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis.
10932250 2000 Structure of the heterodimeric complex between CAD domains of CAD and ICAD.
10619428 1999 Solution structure of the CIDE-N domain of CIDE-B and a model for CIDE-N/CIDE-N interactions in the DNA fragmentation pathway of apoptosis.
10527861 1999 Multiple domains of DFF45 bind synergistically to DFF40: roles of caspase cleavage and sequestration of activator domain of DFF40.
10527860 1999 Study of DFF45 in its role of chaperone and inhibitor: two independent inhibitory domains of DFF40 nuclease activity.
10497265 1999 Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with HER-2/neu overexpression in human breast cancer cells.
10409614 1999 Functional interaction of DFF35 and DFF45 with caspase-activated DNA fragmentation nuclease DFF40.
10318789 1999 Activation of the apoptotic endonuclease DFF40 (caspase-activated DNase or nuclease). Oligomerization and direct interaction with histone H1.
9605855 1997 Assignment of the DNA fragmentation factor gene (DFFA) to human chromosome bands 1p36.3-->p36.2 by in situ hybridization.
9564035 1998 CIDE, a novel family of cell death activators with homology to the 45 kDa subunit of the DNA fragmentation factor.
9422506 1998 A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD.
9108473 1997 DFF, a heterodimeric protein that functions downstream of caspase-3 to trigger DNA fragmentation during apoptosis.
8125298 1994 Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.