Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 233
PubMed Score 87.06
PubTator Score 517.35

Knowledge Summary


No data available


Accession O15263 Q52LC0
Symbols BD-2



1E4Q   1FD3   1FD4   1FQQ  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (217)

26950997 In periodontitis, TLR2 gene hyperexpression was accompanied by the reduction of expression of anti-microbial peptide HBD-2, as well as in an increase of production of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta by epithelial cells of periodontium mucosa.
26773532 EMMPRIN, MMP8, hyaluronan, beta-defensing-2, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are elevated in women with vaginal inflammation
26539799 HBD2 or HBD3 cointernalized with virions in endosomes, formed oligomers, and reduced infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus.
26536271 Study found that HBD2 bound tightly to Mc1r with an affinity similar to that of HBD3
26448160 human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and BD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes.
26434201 A higher frequency of a lower (<4) copy number of the DEFB4 gene was observed in patients with Multiple Sclerosis as compared with the controls.
26350435 BD2 secreted by the mesenchymal stem cells via TLR- 4 signalling pathway is one of the critical paracrine factors mediating microbicidal effects against E. coli.
26244639 Methylglyoxal and glyoxal in vitro irreversibly adduct to the recombinant human BD-2 peptide, and significantly reduce antimicrobial and chemotactic functions.
26038828 there is a significant link between innate immunity deregulation through disruption of cationic peptides (hBDs) and the potential development of colon cancer.
26025437 The copy numbers of DEFB4 gene may be associated with ankylosing spondylitis and involved in disease progression.
25944908 Unlike classical gating modifiers of toxin peptides from animal venoms, which generally bind to the Kv channel S3-S4 linker, hBD2 only targets residues in both the N and C termini of the S1-S2 linker to influence channel gating
25517613 Enteric alpha-defensin HD5 and beta-defensin hBD2 shared similar toxin-unfolding effects with HNP1, albeit to different degrees.
25503380 We found that RNA interference-induced Caspase-12 silencing increased NOD1, hBD1 and hBD2 expression
25417183 We conclude that plant-made recombinant beta-defensins (phBD-1 and phBD-2) are promising antimicrobial substances and have the potential to become additional tools against salmonellosis, particularly when used in combination.
25381795 our simulation shows that C3 peptides(C3 is a chimera from human b-defensins 2 and 3) can make anionic lipids clustered in the bacterial membrane.
25263616 Paracrine signaling involving IL-1 of choriodecidual origin is likely a critical driver for amnion HBD-2 increases in response to Group-B-Streptococcus infection of extraplacental membranes.
25226614 HBD-2 is overexpressed in tumor tissues removed from patients with esophageal SCC.
25178103 There is an association between decreased DEFB4 copy number, elevated serum hBD-2 and IL-22 levels, and dermatophytosis in patients.
25057107 We conclude that it is unlikely that DEFB4 plays a role in Huntington's disease pathogenesis.
24927104 Study showed that DNA hypermethylation is involved in decreased expression of hBD-2 in oral carcinoma cells (OCC), and that increased expression of hBD-2 inhibited OCC proliferation and invasion.
24903937 Report non significant elevation in beta-defensin 2 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with pulmonary tuberculosis.
24894820 Results suggest that SIRT1 mediates the induction of hBD2 and IL-8 gene expression levels in A549 cell by S. pneumoniae. SIRT1 may play a key role in host immune and defense response in A549.
24831548 EGFR inhibitors suppressed keratinocyte expression of hBD2 and 3 induced by S. epidermidis.
24747281 The concentrations of LL37, alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-2 defensins were determined by ELISA. Serum AMPs did not change during attacks and did not correlate with acute phase reactants.
24691279 hBD-2 exerts its growth suppression effect toward human melanoma cells via downregulation of B-Raf, cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, upregulation of p21(WAF1) expression and activation of pRB.
24577404 Increased DEFB2 in the T-zone prevents the progress of comedones to papulopustular leasions in acne.
24564045 The salivary beta-defensin concentration was significantly higher in patients with oral mucosal diseases than in healthy volunteers; furthermore, in patients, the concentration was significantly higher before treatment than after treatment.
24386991 beta-defensin-2 and interleukin-4 receptor are biomarkers that improve the prediction of poor-outcome over clinical variables in the acute phase of stroke
24368180 Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-induced binding of p65 NF-kappaB to the distal NF-kappaB binding motif of DEFB4 enhances NTHi-induced DEFB4 regulation in epithelial cells.
24307989 S100A12 and hBD2 correlate with the fecal microbiota thus linking the intestinal innate immune response to the bacterial colonization.
24191013 Focal targeting by human beta-defensin 2 disrupts localized virulence factor assembly sites in Enterococcus faecalis.
24120511 Data show that Lactobacillus crispatus promotes epithelial cell defense against Candida albicans infection through the involvement of TLR2/4, IL-8 and human beta-defensin 2 and 3, suggesting this Lactobacillus as an anti-infective agent against C. albicans.
24077667 The aim was to study fecal MMP-9 and HBD-2 in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease to compare their performance to calprotectin and to study whether they would provide additional value in categorizing patients according to their disease subtype.
24019264 results suggested an association between decreased DEFB4 CN and serum hBD-2 levels and periodontitis severity.
23925144 Preterm neonates show lower human beta-defensin-2 levels in cord blood compared with term neonates. Low human beta-defensin-2 levels in preterm neonates might be associated with an increased risk of late-onset sepsis.
23819923 Bladder cancer cells produce HBD-2 when they are infected by BCG to defend themselves against BCG internalisation, which plays an important role during the initiation and propagation of the immunotherapeutic response in bladder cancer cells.
23776172 study demonstrates that HBD2 and 3 activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells by enhancing the intracellular uptake of CpG and self DNA and promote DNA-induced IFN-alpha production in a TLR9-dependent manner
23774076 Expressions of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA are up-regulated in nongonococcal cervicitis, suggesting the role of mucosal immunity in nongonococcal cervicitis.
23734009 HBD2 blockade of the Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels may represent a new type of cross-talk between immune and cardiovascular systems
23698749 hBD2 and hBD3 induce sustained divalent calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and substantial degranulation in human mast cells, with hBD3 being more potent.
23647067 A significant correlation was found between hBD-2, disturbed skin barrier function and disease severity.
23625220 Pneumolysin produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae is required for inducing hos beta-defensin 2 whose expression is under the control of p38 MAP and MKP1.
23614747 Older individuals expressed hBD-2 more frequently in skin.
23562109 defensin beta 4A was implicated in Streptococcus agalactiae growth suppression in ex vivo human extraplacental membranes with evidence of signal transduction across the tissue
23548528 Allergic rhinitis suppresses HBD-2, an epithelial antimicrobial peptide, in the tonsils.
23519334 Malassezia furfur modulated IL8 and beta-defensin 2 expression during infection.
23499548 visfatin enhances CAMP, hBD-2, hBD-3, and S100A7 production in human keratinocytes and their orthologs in murine imiquimod-treated psoriatic skin.
23466823 We found copy number variation of DEFB4 was a host genetic factor conferring susceptibility to cervical cancer. A lower DEFB4 copy number was associated with susceptibility to cervical cancer.
23398087 Production of HBD2 and elafin by vaginal epithelial cells is sensitive to E, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle.
23198942 TFF3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta defensins 2 (hBD2) and beta defensins 4
23194186 these observations suggest that there may be an interracial difference in DEFB4/103A copy numbers between admixed populations and a relationship between DEFB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and DEFB4/103A copy number variation
22902431 In severe necrotizing enterocolitis, low hBD2 expression was accompanied by low TLR4/MD2 expression, suggesting an inadequate response to luminal bacteria, possibly predisposing those infants to the development of NEC.
22860513 Both Streptococcus gordonii and Porphyromonas gingivalis induced the mRNA-expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 in gingival epithelial cells as well as fibroblasts after 24 hrs.
22837109 Studies indicate beta-defensins (DEFB4, DEFB103, DEFB104), chemokine ligand 3 like 1 (CCL3L1), Fc gamma receptor 3B (FCGR3B), and complement component C4 (C4) for copy number variation in disease association.
22761444 a highly size-specific, TLR4-dependent, innate defense response to fragmented HA contributes to intestinal epithelium barrier defense through the induction of intracellular HbetaD2 protein.
22742591 The beta-defensin 2 gene was expressed when NCTC 2544 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides. Expression of the beta-defensin 2 gene was also found in cells treated with hyaluronic acid and Plantaricin A preparations.
22739795 There is an association of beta-defensin copy number and psoriasis in three cohorts of European origin.
22645023 The probiotic group also showed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 but increased antimicrobial peptide hBD-2.
22564496 results showed strong beta-defensin-4 immunoexpression in explanted tissue from osteoarthritis cartilage and weak beta-defensin-4 expression in control cartilage
22537555 Andrographolide (1.0-10 micromol/L) can upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in a dose-dependent manner.
22500651 The authors identified rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture supernatants that are able to prevent the pathogen-induced BD-2 response in keratinocytes.
22450687 our results indicate that HIV-1 Tat can up-regulate the expression of hBD-2 via JNK-NF-kappaB/AP-1-dependent pathways in human B cells.
22450687 Extracellular HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) via JNK/NF-KappaB/AP-1-dependent pathways in human B cells
22444247 HBD2 is expressed in tonsils and its levels are reduced in patients with allergic rhinitis.
22438960 The epithelial expression of TLR4 and of HBD2 was assessed in surgical specimens from current smokers COPD (s-COPD; n = 17), ex-smokers COPD (ex-s-COPD; n = 8), smokers without COPD (S; n = 12), and from non-smoker non-COPD subjects (C; n = 13).
22391815 The role of Immunosuppressive neutrophils on the production of human beta-defensins (HBDs), important molecules on host antimicrobial innate immunities, by human keratinocytes was studied.
22386945 Binding of peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal region of human-beta-defensins-1-3 with model membranes investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry.
22384213 Using a large, unique cohort of pediatric CA-SAB, this study found no significant association between DEFB1 genetic variation or DEFB4/DEFB103 gene copy number and susceptibility for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia
22302058 We found that a higher DEFB4 gene copy number was associated with both systemic lupus erythematosus and ANCA-associated small vasculitis.
22296408 Differential regulation of the expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 might play an important role in pneumococci pneumonia.
22209221 Pre-exposition to nicotine seems to reduce a stimulating effect of TNF-alpha on the gene expression of hBD-2 in HaCaT keratinocytes.
22137028 increased serum levels in atopic dermatitis
22093109 High fecal HBD2 levels at 6 months were associated with an increased risk for allergic sensitization by the age of 5 years
22050386 There was a higher frequency of a lower copy number of the DEFB4 gene in patients with ischemic stroke as compared with healthy controls
21956461 results suggest that in malignant epithelial cells beta-defensin-2 (BD-2)may control cell growth via arrest of G1/S transition and activation of retinoblastoma protein
21913811 Platelets display potent antimicrobial activity and release human beta-defensin 2.
21843332 Under the condition of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws an increased expression of hBD-1,-2,-3 is detectable.
21834467 Variations of HBD-2 and TLR-2 gene expression in patients presenting with lichen ruber planus under effect of ultraviolet irradiation
21631237 The stimulation of human fetal membranes with S. agalactiae induced a differential and tissue-specific profile of HBD-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 secretion.
21529380 Prolonged exposure to IL-4/13 during mucociliary differentiation contributes to antimicrobial defence by increasing the expression and release of hBD-2 and mucus.
21520074 Human beta-defensin 2 exhibits further functions than antimicrobial peptide activity in cultured bone cells, including stimulation of proliferation and differentiation.
21394999 Decrease of HBD-2 gene expression may result in corneal damage in TED patients.
21385545 Our results suggest that copy number variation of DEFB4 may not contribute to the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease
21383053 These findings strongly support the modulation of early beta-defensin 2 expression as a mechanism used by type I Toxoplasma gondii parasites to mediate immune evasion
21328884 TLR9 and HBD-2 gene expression in the conjunctiva and cornea was studied in children with dendriform herpetic keratitis. The latter showed a significant (more than 20-fold) increase in TLR9 gene expression as compared in healthy children.
21280982 hBD-1 might function as a tumor suppressor gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma, while hBD-2 and -3 might be protooncogenes.
21270758 Human beta-defensin-2 expression levels may depend on differentiation grade of lung adenocarcinoma.
21248725 Gene expression of epithelial innate immune markers beta-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 is increased following the inhibition of HDAC and DNMT
21178014 Activated T helper (Th)17 cells induce production of BD-2, but neither BD-1 nor BD-3, by normal human epidermal keratinocytes.
21132301 elevated serum levels of human neutrophil peptides and hBD2 in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) patients suggest a role for both defensins in WG pathogenesis.
21122132 extraplacental membranes can react differentialy to the arrival of E. coli, secreting HBD2 and HBD3 mainly in the choriodecidua region.
21105373 In the subjects without pathology of the organ of vision, the conjunctival epithelial cells exhibited HBD-2; in the patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, the baseline HBD-2 gene expression was significantly higher.
21062008 Glycosaminoglycan-defensin complexes are likely to play an important role in chemotaxis and in presenting defensins to their receptors.
20980773 The potential role of fecal HBD2 in detecting necrotizing enterocolitis is suggested.
20848773 Inflammatory stimuli may induce the transcription and expression of HBD2 gene in intestinal epithelial cells.
20819126 In periodontally healthy subjects, salivary beta-defensin 2 levels are not influenced by stress.
20724351 Serum levels of hBD2 are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus; correlations of hBD2 to established disease activity parameters and distinct clinical situations suggest that innate immune mechanisms are activated
20720450 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20653851 Basal expression of LL-37 and human beta-defensin-2 was not changed in atopic individuals as compared with that in normals.
20650771 The expressions of hBD-2 mRNA and protein are significantly increased in patients with good response to endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis.
20647256 inducible expression by Chlamydophila pneumoniae in brain capillary endothelial cells
20634980 Data implicate Sphk-1 in HBD-2 regulation in oral keratinocytes which also involves the activation of PI3K, AKT, GSK-3beta and ERK 1/2.
20629326 HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 may protect fallopian tubes during microbial infection.
20618959 The beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides hBD1, hBD2 and hBD3 were expressed by immature dendritic cells as well as gingival epithelial cells.
20483750 human beta-defensin (hBD)2 and 3 and their mouse orthologs, beta-defensin 4 and 14 contribute to the innate and adaptive immune response in their role as chemoattractants
20378733 Genomic copy number variation of beta-defensin encoding genes has a functional role in airway epithelial cells, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD
20378733 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20231411 These results suggest that a pathway including p38 MAPK, IKK, and NF-kappaB activation is required for beta-defensin-2 induction in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin.
20229195 In the colonic mucosa hBD-2 facilitates cholinergic Ca(2+)-regulated epithelial Cl(-) secretion.
20154223 Infection with Legionella pneumophila markedly increased beta-defensin-2 production, and the response was attenuated in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR5 transient knockdown cells.
20128731 The mRNA level of the beta defensin 2 did not differ significantly between the two subgroups.
20095493 Expression of beta-defensin-2 in pulmonary epithelial cells could be induced by lentinan in a concentration and time-dependent manner.
20068036 Data show that recombinant mBD4:Ig and hBD2:Ig fusion proteins retained potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and that these fusion proteins showed specific binding to CCR6-expressing cells.
20032992 free fatty acids may provide direct antibacterial activities against P. acnes and enhance the skin's innate antibacterial defense by inducing the expression of hBD-2 in sebocytes
20023216 hBD2 induces APOBEC3G expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in CD4+ T lymphocytes via CCR6. The increased expression of APOBEC3G results in HIV inhibition.
20006664 hBD-2 is expressed in vascular endothelial cells associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. TGF-beta 1 and IL-1 beta induce hBD-2 transcript and peptide expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
19948723 strong molecular links between vitamin D deficiency and the genetics of Crohn disease, a chronic incurable inflammatory bowel condition, as Crohn's pathogenesis is associated with attenuated NOD2 or DEFB2/HBD2 function
19819163 REsults describe the expression of human beta-defensin-1 and -2 in vaginal epithelial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide and the effects on HBD-2 expression by 17beta-estradiol and progesterone.
19809410 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19760202 Avocado sugars (AV119) activate keratinocyte protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinases, leading to AP-1 and HBD-2 gene activation.
19735472 U937 cells and monocytes responded to C. pneumoniae in a TLR4-dependent manner with induction of mRNA and protein of HBD-2. The treatment of cells with TLR4-neutralizing antibody resulted in a decrease in C. pneumoniae-induced HBD-2 production.
19702947 HBD-2 basal messenger RNA expression was significantly lower in OSCC. The ability to be induced was significantly reduced in OSCC for HBD-2.
19617917 Colonic HBD2 was dysregulated at mRNA and protein level in IBD. Inflammatory status and stimulus but not germline variations influenced these changes
19554343 Second trimester amniotic fluid HBD2 might be a predictor of premature rupture of membranes.
19412702 Samples of bacteria-colonized synovial membranes produce higher levels of HBD-2 when compared with samples of healthy tissues.
19266104 DEFB-2 systemic levels in psoriasis are largely determined by secretion from involved skin and not by genomic copy number.
19249126 hBD-2 is produced mainly by dermal macrophages, leaving a relative deficiency of hBD-2 in the epidermis of acne inversa lesions.
19233848 CCR6 regulation of the actin cytoskeleton orchestrates human beta defensin-2- and CCL20-mediated restitution of colonic epithelial cells
19212651 RXM modulates mast cell activation induced by hBD-2 via a Ca2+ signal pathway, thereby possibly alleviating chronic airway inflammation.
19212650 SEA producing S. aureus induced the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as HBD-2
19194307 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19172136 data confirm the possibility of quantifying beta-defensin-2 (HBD2)in feces and indicate that colitis in Crohn disease and colitis in ulcerative colitis differ from each other with respect to their ability to secrete HBD2
19141978 Expression of hBD-2 mRNA was detected in patients with nasal polyps and recurrent nasal polyps, but rare in the recovered patients and the control subjects.
19121950 Results showed that exogenous farnesol promoted epithelial cell defense against C. albicans infection through the involvement of TLR2, IL-6, and human beta-defensin 2.
19080508 The concentrations of human defensin 5, HBD1, and HBD2 in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients were higher than in controls.
19063971 NMR spectroscopy of beta-defensin 2
19056110 The ineffective IL-17-dependent upregulation of HBD-2 in patients with AE is due to a partial inhibition by the type 2 microenvironment, which could partially explain why patients with AE do not clear S aureus.
18641349 defensin beta 2 production is mediated by TLR2 and TLR4 activation and involves a c-Fos-mediated, protein kinase C-dependent signaling pathway
18635180 HBD-2 and HD-5 may be involved in defending against invasion by BV-related microorganisms and the decrease in IL-4 concentration may increase susceptibility to bacterial vaginosis
18627502 expression was found even in non-inflamed pseudocysts such as mucoceles
18603327 Data show that M. bovis BCG-induced human beta-defensin mRNA expression in A549 cells is regulated at least in part through activation of signaling proteins of PKC, JNK and PI3K.
18601854 Houttuynia Cordata can up-regulate expression of HBD-2 mRNA in SPC-A-1 pulmonary epithelial cells.
18578886 Beta defensin 2 induction by NTHi takes place through the TLR2 dependent MyD88-IRAK1-TRAF6-p38 MAPK pathway in airway mucosa.
18566581 Human beta-defensins-1 and -2 are often up-regulated in human lung tumors
18556347 Leptin may promote cutaneous antimicrobial defense, inflammation, and wound repair via hBD-2
18452706 Francisella tularensis LVS infection induced elevated levels of hBD-2 mRNA in human airway epithelial cells.
18449938 hBD-2 expression may play a dual role in vivo, i.e. in impaired intestinal barrier function observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
18371140 The median number of HBD-2 gene copies between responders and partial/nonresponders was similar.
18362142 the NF-kappaB binding cofactor, IkappaB-zeta, was up-regulated by IL-17A, and the knockdown of IkappaB-zeta significantly diminished the IL-17A-induced hBD-2 expression.
18059266 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18059266 Comparison of data from 190 Dutch affected individuals and 303 controls suggested an association between increased defensin gene copy number and psoriasis (P = 1.65 10-6, t-test).
17986621 These findings indicate the involvement of phospholipase D activation in hBD-2 up-regulation in gingival epithelial cells, which correlates with the state of epithelial differentiation.
17928537 Histamine stimulates H1 receptor and potentiates TNF-alpha- or IFN-gamma-induced hBD-2 production dependent on NF-kappaB, AP-1, or STAT1 in human keratinocytes.
17922409 The expression of Cathelicidin and human beta-defensin 2 mRNA in patients with infective cellulitis and normal controls is reported.
17760820 human beta defensin-2 genes in the gingival epithelium show differential expression in patients with specific periodontal diseases, and aggressive and chronic periodontitis types demonstrate different gingival beta defensin-2 expression patterns.
17415576 As compared to healthy controls, skin of patients with mycosis fungoides (non-lesional and lesional) and atopic dermatitis patients showed significantly lower hBD-1 mRNA expression and significantly higher hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA expression.
17403538 epithelial cells, did not secrete IL-6, IL-8 or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in response to NOD1 and NOD2 agonists; stimulation with NODs ligands induced beta-defensin 2 generation in all epithelial cells examined
17392834 Changes in skin barrier structure and function, epidermal proliferation, and differentiation including pronounced protein expression of human beta-defensin 2 are present in tinea corporis.
17298411 results of the present study suggest immune regulatory functions in odontoblast-like cells
17283097 Induced by flagellin of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.
17254301 Beta-defensin 2 from some mammals may work as monomers while those in others, including humans, work as oligomers.
17000004 These data suggest that M. bovis BCG induces HBD-2 mRNA expression in A549 lung epithelial cells at least in part mediated through intracellular calcium flux as well as activation of p38MAPK
16909382 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16909382 A lower HBD-2 gene copy number in the beta-defensin locus predisposes to colonic Crohn's Disease , most likely through diminished beta-defensin expression.
16762333 Studies of hbetaD-2 mRNA regulation in epithelial cells infected with M. bovis BCG provide insight into how its expression may be enhanced to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
16741514 hyphal-invasion-dependent inhibition of defensin expression in oral epithelium that undermines the host surveillance system represents a hitherto undescribed novel pathogenic mechanism of C. albicans
16433908 IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.
16417227 Activation of NF-kappaB (p50-p65) and AP-1 are crucial events for induction of hBD-2 in keratinocytes upon IL-1beta and Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulation.
16319062 NOD2 serves as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor to enhance host defense by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides such as hBD-2
16269090 This study suggested that hBD-4 plays a significant role in the innate immunity of the lower respiratory tract.
16242370 These findings suggest that S. aureus induces beta defensin-2 production through TLR2-mediated pathways in human corneal epithelial cells .
16219107 This data defines an additional role for TLR4 in the host defense in the lung.
16201312 Insufficient upregulation of hBD2 in both diabetic foot and venous calf ulcers may suggest the pathological role of this protein in the chronicity of ulcers
16201065 These results suggested the possibility that hBD2 may be a molecular marker of gastric mucosal inflammation, irrespective of the presence/absence of Helicobacter pylori infection.
16097044 Concentrations in gastric juice, but not in plasma, were significantly higher in H pylori-positive than -negative subjects.
16034119 Human beta defensin-2 and -4 activate normal human keratinocytes to secrete IL-18
15985221 results suggest that the two NF-(kappa)B binding sites contribute to LPS-mediated hBD-2 transcription while the NF-IL6 binding site represses LPS-independent hBD-2 transcription in HeLa cells
15829297 The expression of HBD-2 and two other beta-defensins was correlated with induction profiles in gingival keratinocytes.
15820309 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15727258 DEFB4 gene is duplicated on human chromosome 8p.
15661923 HBD-2 is the most prevalent beta-defensin in human lung cultures and neonatal tissues.
15547668 data suggested that in addition to being antimicrobial peptides, HBD-2 may also have a pathophysiological role as proinflammatory mediators
15529375 The expression of HBD-2 in microbicidal doses suggests that antimicrobial peptides may contribute to host defense mechanisms in articular joints.
15502724 The bronchoalveolar lavage HBD2 concentrations were significantly elevated in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. HBD2 did not increase in histologically quiescent lung allografts.
15385474 probiotic bacteria may stimulate the intestinal innate defense through the upregulation of inducible antimicrobial peptides such as hBD-2
15382127 in the intrahepatic biliary tree, hBD-2 is expressed in response to local infection and/or active inflammation, whereas hBD-1 may constitute a preexisting component of the biliary antimicrobial defense system.
15240151 Together, these results suggest that IL-1beta induces HBD-2 mRNA expression in A549 cells, and the induction seems to be at least in part mediated through activation of signaling proteins PKC, p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K, but not ERK.
15161058 Malignant transformation induces alteration of hBD-2 expression and leads to a reduced hBD-2 expression and subsequentially to Candida colonization on oral squamous cell carcinoma.
15013761 MEF activated HBD2 promoter activity, and increased the endogenous HBD2 transcription level. The activated HBD2 promoter activity was attenuated by the antisense MEF RNA input and the loss of the ETS binding site in the HBD2 promoter
15004048 Aerobic bacteria were 100% susceptible to HBD-2 and HBD-3, whereas only 21.4 and 50% of the anaerobes were susceptible to HBD-2 and HBD-3.
14981906 HBD-2 may lead to the death of normal keratinocytes adjacent to the squamous cell carcinomas, which might, in turn, indirectly assist in the multiplication of tumor cells.
14963722 beta-defensins are integral components of innate host defenses playing an essential part in the resistance of the human skin surfaces against M. furfur uptake and other microbial invasion.
14760942 endogenous PGE2 is involved in the hBD-2 and E-cadherin responses of human gingival epithelial cells to A. actinomycetemcomitans. hBD-2 mRNA was induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans
14714554 Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes
14703118 the level of expression of hBD-1 mRNA is lower and that of hBD-3 was higher than that of hBD-2 in reconstructed epidermis
14688115 results indicate that commensal and pathogenic bacteria utilize different pathways in hBD-2 induction
12958190 Toll-like receptor 2 mediates hBD2 gene induction through NF-kappaB in lung epithelial cells.
12892899 human endometrium expresses both HBD3 and HBD4 in a cycle-dependent manner; these natural antimicrobials will contribute to innate defences present in human endometrium protecting against uterine infection
12832046 upregulation by neutrophil elastase in bronchial epithelial cells
12821122 MIP-3alpha and BD-2 have the ability to stimulate odontoblast differentiation in addition to their more traditional role in inflammation
12710950 In human epidermis, HBD-2 protein is packaged in lamellar bodies.
12612195 present in newborn skin; cathelicidin (LL-37/hCAP/18) and beta-defensin-2 demonstrated synergistic antimicrobial activity and efficiently killed group B Streptococcus, an important neonatal pathogen
12537649 Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)
12522054 Induction of betaD-2 but relative tolerance to it may enable S. epidermidis to survive on the skin surface, whereas lack of stimulation of betaD-2 expression by S. pyogenes may be important in its ability to evade innate defenses and cause skin disease.
12489997 Human tumor cells carrying HBD-2 were implanted sc into NOD/SDCID mice to allow tumor formation. E. coli was then injected into each tumor. Homogenized tumors were analyzed for cfu and found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity.
12488564 Expression of human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) in various gastric mucosal tissues and MKN45 gastric cancer cells with or without H. pylori; hBD-2 may be involved in the pathophysiology of H. pylori-induced gastritis
12421237 dexamethasone inhibitis hbd-2 gene expression. both NF-kappa beta and AP-1 transcription factors are essential for hbd-2 gene expression
12389997 Upregulation of human beta-defensin 2 peptide expression in oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and candidiasis. Not a strong chemotactic attractant for Langerhans cells in pathological conditions of oral epithelium.
12381917 Proximal and distal RTC showed constitutive expression of human beta-defensin 1 and human beta-defensin.
12183584 Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) lipooligosaccharide htrB mutants exhibited greater than 45-fold-increased sensitivity to human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) compared to the wild type.
12174890 High concentration in oral squamous cell carcinoma
12063167 Activation of a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway is required for IL-1alpha-induced upregulation of beta-defensin 2 in human middle ear epithelial cells.
11934878 may participate in the recruitment of mast cells to inflammation foci
11751976 the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in beta-defensin-2 gene transcription in gingival epithelial cells
11741980 HBD-3 is a dimer, while HBD-1 and HBD-2 are monomeric. Subsequently, the NMR solution structures of HBD1 and HBD3 were determined using standard homonuclear techniques and compared with the previously determined solution structure of HBD2
11728477 expression increased by FliC of Salmonella enteritidis
10404637 The encoded peptide displays antibacterial activity against Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria, including P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In addition, this peptide is active against C. albicans.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (233)

PMID Year Title
26773532 2016 Vaginal Inflammation: Association between Leukocyte Concentration and Levels of Immune Mediators.
26539799 2016 Human beta-defensins 2 and -3 cointernalize with human immunodeficiency virus via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and reduce infectivity of intracellular virions in tonsil epithelial cells.
26536271 2015 Electrostatic Similarity Analysis of Human ?-Defensin Binding in the Melanocortin System.
26448160 2015 CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection.
26350435 2016 Antibacterial effect of mesenchymal stem cells against Escherichia coli is mediated by secretion of beta- defensin- 2 via toll- like receptor 4 signalling.
26244639 2015 Modification of ?-Defensin-2 by Dicarbonyls Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal Inhibits Antibacterial and Chemotactic Function In Vitro.
26038828 2015 Expression and new exon mutations of the human Beta defensins and their association on colon cancer development.
26025437 2016 Association of ?-defensin gene copy number variations with ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese population: A case-control study.
25944908 2015 Kv Channel S1-S2 Linker Working as a Binding Site of Human ?-Defensin 2 for Channel Activation Modulation.
25517613 2014 Human defensins facilitate local unfolding of thermodynamically unstable regions of bacterial protein toxins.
25503380 2014 Caspase-12 silencing attenuates inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke extract on NOD1 signaling and hBDs expression in human oral mucosal epithelial cells.
25417183 2015 Utilization of plant-derived recombinant human ?-defensins (hBD-1 and hBD-2) for averting salmonellosis.
25381795 2015 Insight into the impact of environments on structure of chimera C3 of human ?-defensins 2 and 3 from molecular dynamics simulations.
25263616 2015 Role of cytokine signaling in group B Streptococcus-stimulated expression of human beta defensin-2 in human extraplacental membranes.
25226614 2014 Overexpression of human ?-defensin 2 promotes growth and invasion during esophageal carcinogenesis.
25178103 2015 Low DEFB4 copy number and high systemic hBD-2 and IL-22 levels are associated with dermatophytosis.
25057107 2013 ?-Defensin genomic copy number does not influence the age of onset in Huntington's Disease.
24927104 2014 HBD-2 is downregulated in oral carcinoma cells by DNA hypermethylation, and increased expression of hBD-2 by DNA demethylation and gene transfection inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.
24903937 2014 Cathelicidin and human ?-defensin 2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with pulmonary tuberculosis.
24894820 2014 Role of SIRT1 in Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced human ?-defensin-2 and interleukin-8 expression in A549 cell.
24831548 2014 Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors selectively inhibit the expressions of human ?-defensins induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis.
24747281 2014 Serum antimicrobial peptides in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.
24691279 2014 Involvement of human beta-defensin-2 in regulation of malignant potential of cultured human melanoma cells.
24577404 2014 Regional difference of inflammatory acne lesions according to ?-defensin-2 expression.
24564045 2013 Evaluation of hbetaD-1 and hbetaD-2 levels in saliva of patients with oral mucosal diseases.
24386991 2014 Role of beta-defensin 2 and interleukin-4 receptor as stroke outcome biomarkers.
24368180 2014 Distal NF-kB binding motif functions as an enhancer for nontypeable H. influenzae-induced DEFB4 regulation in epithelial cells.
24307989 2013 S100A12 and hBD2 correlate with the composition of the fecal microflora in ELBW infants and expansion of E. coli is associated with NEC.
24191013 2013 Focal targeting by human ?-defensin 2 disrupts localized virulence factor assembly sites in Enterococcus faecalis.
24120511 Lactobacillus crispatus modulates epithelial cell defense against Candida albicans through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, interleukin 8 and human ?-defensins 2 and 3.
24077667 2014 Fecal calprotectin, MMP-9, and human beta-defensin-2 levels in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
24019264 2013 Beta-defensin-2 genomic copy number variation and chronic periodontitis.
23925144 2013 Association of human beta-defensin-2 serum levels and sepsis in preterm neonates*.
23819923 2013 Human ?-defensin 2 may inhibit internalisation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in bladder cancer cells.
23776172 2013 ?-Defensin 2 and 3 promote the uptake of self or CpG DNA, enhance IFN-? production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and promote inflammation.
23774076 2013 Human ?-defensin messenger RNA is overexpressed in the cervical epithelia of patients with nongonococcal cervicitis.
23734009 2013 Human ?-defensin 2 is a novel opener of Ca2+-activated potassium channels and induces vasodilation and hypotension in monkeys.
23698749 2013 ?-Defensins activate human mast cells via Mas-related gene X2.
23647067 2013 Human ?-defensin-2 as a marker for disease severity and skin barrier properties in atopic dermatitis.
23625220 2013 Pneumolysin-mediated expression of ?-defensin 2 is coordinated by p38 MAP kinase-MKP1 in human airway cells.
23614747 2013 Differential expression and in vivo secretion of the antimicrobial peptides psoriasin (S100A7), RNase 7, human beta-defensin-2 and -3 in healthy human skin.
23562109 2013 Antimicrobial peptide response to group B Streptococcus in human extraplacental membranes in culture.
23548528 2013 Effect of allergic rhinitis on the expression of human ?-defensin 2 in tonsils.
23519334 2013 Epigenetic regulation of IL-8 and ?-defensin genes in human keratinocytes in response to Malassezia furfur.
23499548 2013 Visfatin enhances the production of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, human ?-defensin-2, human ?-defensin-3, and S100A7 in human keratinocytes and their orthologs in murine imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin.
23466823 2013 Copy number variation of the antimicrobial-gene, defensin beta 4, is associated with susceptibility to cervical cancer.
23398087 2013 Innate immunity in the vagina (part I): estradiol inhibits HBD2 and elafin secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells.
23198942 2012 Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29.
23194186 2013 Variation in human ?-defensin genes: new insights from a multi-population study.
22902431 2012 Human ?-defensin 2 expression in ELBW infants with severe necrotizing enterocolitis.
22860513 2012 Antimicrobial responses of primary gingival cells to Porphyromonas gingivalis.
22837109 2013 Correlating multiallelic copy number polymorphisms with disease susceptibility.
22761444 2012 Specific-sized hyaluronan fragments promote expression of human ?-defensin 2 in intestinal epithelium.
22742591 2012 The antimicrobial peptide pheromone Plantaricin A increases antioxidant defenses of human keratinocytes and modulates the expression of filaggrin, involucrin, ?-defensin 2 and tumor necrosis factor-? genes.
22739795 2012 Association of ?-defensin copy number and psoriasis in three cohorts of European origin.
22645023 2013 Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 enhances systemic immunity in elderly subjects.
22564496 2012 ?-Defensin-4 (HBD-4) is expressed in chondrocytes derived from normal and osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in PEGDA scaffold.
22537555 2012 Andrographolide exerted its antimicrobial effects by upregulation of human ?-defensin-2 induced through p38 MAPK and NF-?B pathway in human lung epithelial cells.
22500651 2012 Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived rhamnolipids subvert the host innate immune response through manipulation of the human beta-defensin-2 expression.
22450687 2012 Extracellular HIV-1 Tat induces human beta-defensin-2 production via NF-kappaB/AP-1 dependent pathways in human B cells.
22444247 2012 Reduced tonsillar expression of human ?-defensin 1, 2 and 3 in allergic rhinitis.
22438960 2012 Beta defensin-2 is reduced in central but not in distal airways of smoker COPD patients.
22391815 2012 Impaired ability of burn patient neutrophils to stimulate ?-defensin production by keratinocytes.
22386945 2012 Binding of peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal region of human-?-defensins-1-3 with model membranes investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry.
22384213 2012 Genetic variability in beta-defensins is not associated with susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.
22302058 2012 Higher DEFB4 genomic copy number in SLE and ANCA-associated small vasculitis.
22296408 2012 Streptococcus pneumoniae induces human ?-defensin-2 and -3 in human lung epithelium.
22209221 2012 HBD-1 and hBD-2 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes stimulated with nicotine.
22137028 2012 Increased serum human ?-defensin-2 levels in atopic dermatitis: relationship to IL-22 and oncostatin M.
22093109 2012 Intestinal defensin secretion in infancy is associated with the emergence of sensitization and atopic dermatitis.
22050386 2012 Genetic polymorphisms of human ?-defensins in patients with ischemic stroke.
21956461 2011 Human beta-defensin-2 controls cell cycle in malignant epithelial cells: in vitro study.
21913811 2012 Platelets display potent antimicrobial activity and release human beta-defensin 2.
21843332 2011 Increased human defensine levels hint at an inflammatory etiology of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: an immunohistological study.
21834467 [Variations of HBD-2 and TLR-2 gene expression in patients presenting with lichen ruber planus under effect of ultraviolet irradiation].
21631237 2012 Evidence of in vitro differential secretion of human beta-defensins-1, -2, and -3 after selective exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae in human fetal membranes.
21529380 2011 IL-4 and IL-13 exposure during mucociliary differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells increases antimicrobial activity and expression of antimicrobial peptides.
21520074 2012 Human ?-defensins differently affect proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblast-like MG63 cells.
21394999 [Risk factors of corneal damage in patients with Thyroid Eye Disease].
21385545 Copy number variation of ?-defensin genes in Behçet's disease.
21383053 2011 Modulation of early ?-defensin-2 production as a mechanism developed by type I Toxoplasma gondii to evade human intestinal immunity.
21328884 [TLR9 and HBD-2 gene expression by conjunctival and corneal cells in children with dendriform herpetic keratitis].
21280982 2011 Human beta-defensin-1, -2, and -3 exhibit opposite effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation.
21270758 2010 Immunohistochemical analysis of beta-defensin-2 expression in human lung tumors.
21248725 2011 Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria.
21178014 2011 CCL20 and ?-defensin-2 induce arrest of human Th17 cells on inflamed endothelium in vitro under flow conditions.
21132301 2011 Altered serum levels of human neutrophil peptides (HNP) and human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) in Wegener's granulomatosis.
21122132 2010 Tissue-specific human beta-defensins (HBD)1, HBD2, and HBD3 secretion from human extra-placental membranes stimulated with Escherichia coli.
21115716 2011 Role of defensins in corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa traversal.
21105373 [Expression of the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin-2 in the conjunctival epithelial cells in primary open-angle glaucoma and over time in the postoperative period].
21062008 2010 Interaction of human ?-defensin 2 (HBD2) with glycosaminoglycans.
20980773 2010 Fecal expression of human ?-defensin-2 following birth.
20848773 2010 [Study on the molecular expression and regulation of toll pathway in HT-29 cells].
20819126 2010 Psychological stress has no association with salivary levels of ?-defensin 2 and ?-defensin 3.
20724351 2010 Elevated levels of human beta-defensin 2 and human neutrophil peptides in systemic lupus erythematosus.
20720450 2010 Polymorphisms of beta defensins are associated with the risk of severe acute pancreatitis.
20653851 Expression of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 and hBD-2 in nonlesional skin of atopic individuals.
20650771 2010 [Expression of human beta-defensin after endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis].
20647256 2011 Inducible expression of human ?-defensin 2 by Chlamydophila pneumoniae in brain capillary endothelial cells.
20634980 2010 Sphingosine kinase-1 is required for toll mediated beta-defensin 2 induction in human oral keratinocytes.
20629326 2010 [The relationship between HalphaD-5 and HbetaD-2 in infertile women's fimbriae tubes with adhesions and atresias].
20618959 2010 Differential and coordinated expression of defensins and cytokines by gingival epithelial cells and dendritic cells in response to oral bacteria.
20483750 2010 Human beta-defensin 2 and 3 and their mouse orthologs induce chemotaxis through interaction with CCR2.
20378733 2010 Genomic copy number determines functional expression of {beta}-defensin 2 in airway epithelial cells and associates with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
20231411 2010 Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin induces human beta-defensin-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase/I kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB-dependent pathway.
20229195 2010 Human beta-defensin-2 increases cholinergic response in colon epithelium.
20154223 2010 Induction of human ?-defensin-2 in pulmonary epithelial cells by Legionella pneumophila: involvement of TLR2 and TLR5, p38 MAPK, JNK, NF-?B, and AP-1.
20128731 2010 Low expression of human beta-defensin 1 in duodenum of celiac patients is partially restored by a gluten-free diet.
20095493 2009 [Lentinan induces the expression of human-beta-defensin-2 in pulmonary epithelial cells].
20068036 2010 Specific binding and chemotactic activity of mBD4 and its functional orthologue hBD2 to CCR6-expressing cells.
20032992 2010 Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression.
20023216 2010 CCR6 ligands inhibit HIV by inducing APOBEC3G.
20006664 2010 Expression of human beta-defensin-2 in intratumoral vascular endothelium and in endothelial cells induced by transforming growth factor beta.
19948723 2010 Direct and indirect induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-defensin beta2 innate immune pathway defective in Crohn disease.
19819163 2010 Modulation of human beta-defensin-2 expression by 17beta-estradiol and progesterone in vaginal epithelial cells.
19809410 2010 Association of higher DEFB4 genomic copy number with Crohn's disease.
19760202 2010 Patented natural avocado sugars modulate the HBD-2 expression in human keratinocytes through the involvement of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinases.
19735472 2009 Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) mediates human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) induction in response to Chlamydia pneumoniae in mononuclear cells.
19702947 2009 Loss of human beta-defensin 1, 2, and 3 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
19617917 2009 Dysregulation of human beta-defensin-2 protein in inflammatory bowel disease.
19554343 2010 The role of human beta defensins 2 and 3 in the second trimester amniotic fluid in predicting preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes.
19412702 2009 The antimicrobial peptide HBD-2 and the Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 are induced in synovial membranes in case of septic arthritis.
19266104 2009 Beta-defensin-2 protein is a serum biomarker for disease activity in psoriasis and reaches biologically relevant concentrations in lesional skin.
19249126 2009 Human beta-defensin-2 and psoriasin are overexpressed in lesions of acne inversa.
19233848 2009 CCR6 regulation of the actin cytoskeleton orchestrates human beta defensin-2- and CCL20-mediated restitution of colonic epithelial cells.
19212651 2009 Inhibitory action of roxithromycin on histamine release and prostaglandin D2 production from beta-defensin 2-stimulated mast cells.
19212650 2009 Roles of SEA-expressing Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from an atopic dermatitis patient, on expressions of human beta-defensin-2 and inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT cells.
19194307 2009 Copy number variation of defensin genes and HIV infection in Brazilian children.
19172136 2009 Fecal beta-defensin-2 in children with inflammatory bowel diseases.
19141978 2008 [Expression and significance of human beta-defensin in recurrent nasal polyps].
19121950 2009 Farnesol promotes epithelial cell defense against Candida albicans through Toll-like receptor 2 expression, interleukin-6 and human beta-defensin 2 production.
19080508 2008 [Study on vaginal production of human defensins and the correlated pathogenetic factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis].
19063971 2009 Preparation of isotopically labelled recombinant beta-defensin for NMR studies.
19056110 2009 IL-17 in atopic eczema: linking allergen-specific adaptive and microbial-triggered innate immune response.
18641349 2008 Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid increases the self-defense of skin epithelium by induction of beta-defensin 2 via TLR2 and TLR4.
18635180 2008 Human defensins and cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid of women with bacterial vaginosis.
18627502 2008 Expression of human beta-defensin -1, -2, and -3 in non-inflamed pseudocyst, mucoceles.
18603327 2008 Regulation of human beta-defensin-2 by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG): involvement of PKC, JNK, and PI3K in human lung epithelial cell line (A549).
18601854 2008 [Houttuynia Cordata induces expression of human beta-defensin-2 mRNA in pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro].
18578886 2008 Induction of beta defensin 2 by NTHi requires TLR2 mediated MyD88 and IRAK-TRAF6-p38MAPK signaling pathway in human middle ear epithelial cells.
18566581 2008 Expression of human beta-defensins-1, 2 and 4 mRNA in human lung tumor tissue: a pilot study.
18556347 2008 Leptin enhances human beta-defensin-2 production in human keratinocytes.
18452706 2008 Antimicrobial activity of human beta-defensins and induction by Francisella.
18449938 2008 Human beta defensin 2 promotes intestinal wound healing in vitro.
18371140 2008 NOD2/CARD15 gene variants are linked to failure of antibiotic treatment in perianal fistulating Crohn's disease.
18362142 2008 Requirements for two proximal NF-kappaB binding sites and IkappaB-zeta in IL-17A-induced human beta-defensin 2 expression by conducting airway epithelium.
18059266 2008 Psoriasis is associated with increased beta-defensin genomic copy number.
17986621 2008 Involvement of phospholipase D in regulating expression of anti-microbial peptide human beta-defensin-2.
17928537 2007 Histamine enhances the production of human beta-defensin-2 in human keratinocytes.
17922409 2007 Expression of antimicrobial peptides in the normal and involved skin of patients with infective cellulitis.
17760820 2007 Human beta defensin-1 and -2 expression in the gingiva of patients with specific periodontal diseases.
17415576 2007 Expression of human beta-defensins in patients with mycosis fungoides.
17403538 2007 Various human epithelial cells express functional Toll-like receptors, NOD1 and NOD2 to produce anti-microbial peptides, but not proinflammatory cytokines.
17392834 2007 Barrier function, epidermal differentiation, and human beta-defensin 2 expression in tinea corporis.
17298411 2007 Immune regulatory functions of human beta-defensin-2 in odontoblast-like cells.
17283097 2007 Induction of human beta-defensin 2 by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is mediated through flagellin.
17254301 2006 Modelling study of dimerization in mammalian defensins.
17000004 2007 Mycobacterium bovis-mediated induction of human beta-defensin-2 in epithelial cells is controlled by intracellular calcium and p38MAPK.
16909382 2006 A chromosome 8 gene-cluster polymorphism with low human beta-defensin 2 gene copy number predisposes to Crohn disease of the colon.
16762333 2006 Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) stimulates human beta-defensin-2 gene transcription in human epithelial cells.
16741514 2006 Hyphal invasion of Candida albicans inhibits the expression of human beta-defensins in experimental oral candidiasis.
16433908 2006 Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells.
16417227 2006 Pseudomonas aeruginosa- and IL-1beta-mediated induction of human beta-defensin-2 in keratinocytes is controlled by NF-kappaB and AP-1.
16319062 2006 NOD2/CARD15 mediates induction of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-2.
16269090 2005 Isolation of human beta-defensin-4 in lung tissue and its increase in lower respiratory tract infection.
16242370 2006 Toll-like receptor 2-mediated expression of beta-defensin-2 in human corneal epithelial cells.
16219107 2005 Respiratory epithelial cells require Toll-like receptor 4 for induction of human beta-defensin 2 by lipopolysaccharide.
16201312 2005 Expression of natural antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin-2 and Langerhans cell accumulation in epidermis from human non-healing leg ulcers.
16201065 Investigation of the possibility of human-beta defensin 2 (hBD2) as a molecular marker of gastric mucosal inflammation.
16097044 2005 High concentrations of human beta-defensin 2 in gastric juice of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.
16034119 2005 The human beta-defensins (-1, -2, -3, -4) and cathelicidin LL-37 induce IL-18 secretion through p38 and ERK MAPK activation in primary human keratinocytes.
15985221 2005 Transcriptional regulation of beta-defensin-2 by lipopolysaccharide in cultured human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells.
15829297 2005 Correlation between beta-defensin expression and induction profiles in gingival keratinocytes.
15820309 2005 Distribution of human beta-defensin polymorphisms in various control and cystic fibrosis populations.
15727258 2004 Evidence for duplication of the human defensin gene DEFB4 in chromosomal region 8p22-23 and implications for the analysis of SNP allele distribution.
15661923 2005 Expression and activity of beta-defensins and LL-37 in the developing human lung.
15547668 2004 Pathophysiological role of human beta-defensins 2 in gastric mucosa.
15529375 2004 Production of endogenous antibiotics in articular cartilage.
15502724 2004 Increased bronchoalveolar lavage human beta-defensin type 2 in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15385474 2004 NF-kappaB- and AP-1-mediated induction of human beta defensin-2 in intestinal epithelial cells by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917: a novel effect of a probiotic bacterium.
15382127 2004 Peptide antibiotic human beta-defensin-1 and -2 contribute to antimicrobial defense of the intrahepatic biliary tree.
15240151 2004 Up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 by interleukin-1beta in A549 cells: involvement of PI3K, PKC, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-kappaB.
15161058 Human beta-defensin-2 in oral cancer with opportunistic Candida infection.
15013761 2004 MEF up-regulates human beta-defensin 2 expression in epithelial cells.
15004048 2004 Human beta-defensins 2 and 3 demonstrate strain-selective activity against oral microorganisms.
14981906 Different expression patterns of beta-defensins in human squamous cell carcinomas.
14963722 2004 Malassezia furfur induces the expression of beta-defensin-2 in human keratinocytes in a protein kinase C-dependent manner.
14760942 2003 Syntheses of prostaglandin E2 and E-cadherin and gene expression of beta-defensin-2 by human gingival epithelial cells in response to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
14714554 2003 Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes.
14703118 2003 Use of human reconstructed epidermis to analyze the regulation of beta-defensin hBD-1, hBD-2, and hBD-3 expression in response to LPS.
14688115 2004 Innate immune response of oral and foreskin keratinocytes: utilization of different signaling pathways by various bacterial species.
12958190 2003 Airway epithelia regulate expression of human beta-defensin 2 through Toll-like receptor 2.
12892899 2003 Differential expression of the natural antimicrobials, beta-defensins 3 and 4, in human endometrium.
12832046 2003 Neutrophil elastase up-regulates human beta-defensin-2 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.
12821122 2003 Macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha and beta-defensin-2 stimulate dentin sialophosphoprotein gene expression in human pulp cells.
12710950 2003 In human epidermis, beta-defensin 2 is packaged in lamellar bodies.
12612195 2003 Neonatal skin in mice and humans expresses increased levels of antimicrobial peptides: innate immunity during development of the adaptive response.
12537649 2002 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in beta-defensin genes in different ethnic populations.
12522054 2003 Keratinocyte expression of human beta defensin 2 following bacterial infection: role in cutaneous host defense.
12519391 2003 Increased expression of antimicrobial peptides and lysozyme in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis.
12489997 2002 A model for antimicrobial gene therapy: demonstration of human beta-defensin 2 antimicrobial activities in vivo.
12488564 2003 Human beta-defensin-2 induction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal tissues: antimicrobial effect of overexpression.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12421237 2002 Molecular mechanisms underlying human beta-defensin-2 gene expression in a human airway cell line (LC2/ad).
12411706 2002 Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by beta-defensin 2.
12395153 2002 Dynamic alteration of human beta-defensin 2 localization from cytoplasm to intercellular space in psoriatic skin.
12389997 2002 Upregulation of human beta-defensin 2 peptide expression in oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and candidiasis. an immunohistochemical study.
12381917 2002 Bactericidal activity of renal tubular cells: the putative role of human beta-defensins.
12183584 2002 Susceptibility of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to human beta-defensins is influenced by lipooligosaccharide acylation.
12174890 High concentration of beta-defensin-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
12063167 2002 Activation of a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway is required for IL-1alpha-induced upregulation of beta-defensin 2 in human middle ear epithelial cells.
12010514 2002 Chemical synthesis of beta-defensins and LEAP-1/hepcidin.
11934878 2002 Epithelial cell-derived human beta-defensin-2 acts as a chemotaxin for mast cells through a pertussis toxin-sensitive and phospholipase C-dependent pathway.
11741980 2002 The solution structures of the human beta-defensins lead to a better understanding of the potent bactericidal activity of HBD3 against Staphylococcus aureus.
11714914 2001 Structure determination of human and murine beta-defensins reveals structural conservation in the absence of significant sequence similarity.
11714836 2001 Mediators of innate immunity that target immature, but not mature, dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens.
11453504 Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by maxillary sinus mucosa.
11442756 2001 Expression of the peptide antibiotics human beta defensin-1 and human beta defensin-2 in normal human skin.
11005092 2000 [hBD-2 gene expression in nasal mucosa].
10906336 2000 The structure of human beta-defensin-2 shows evidence of higher order oligomerization.
10837369 2000 Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta, but not IL-6, induce human beta-defensin-2 in respiratory epithelia.
10603376 2000 Transcriptional regulation of beta-defensin gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells.
10521347 1999 Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6.
10456937 1999 Molecular cloning and characterization of rat genes encoding homologues of human beta-defensins.
10404637 1999 Human beta-defensin-2.
10338476 1999 Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands.
9831658 1998 Structure and mapping of the human beta-defensin HBD-2 gene and its expression at sites of inflammation.
9825219 1998 Epithelial antimicrobial peptides: review and significance for oral applications.
9727055 1998 Human beta-defensin 2 is a salt-sensitive peptide antibiotic expressed in human lung.
9202117 1997 A peptide antibiotic from human skin.