Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 116
PubMed Score 60.74
PubTator Score 48.60

Knowledge Summary

Patent (5,186)


  Differential Expression (11)

Disease log2 FC p
Waldenstrons macroglobulinemia 1.343 6.4e-04
chronic lymphocytic leukemia 1.212 2.6e-04
malignant mesothelioma -2.100 8.6e-08
oligodendroglioma 1.400 1.5e-02
psoriasis 1.700 8.4e-04
osteosarcoma 1.223 5.5e-03
sonic hedgehog group medulloblastoma 1.700 2.7e-05
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma liver m... 1.054 1.3e-02
spina bifida -2.185 2.9e-02
ovarian cancer 1.900 1.0e-07
pancreatic cancer -1.200 7.8e-03

Protein-protein Interaction (163)

MLP Assay (1)

AID Type Active / Inconclusive / Inactive Description
1982 other 0 / 0 / 0 Kinase inhibition selectivity assay for compound SID-48409448

Gene RIF (69)

26928339 Findings establish CK1varepsilon as a regulator of antiviral innate immune responses and indicate a novel mechanism of immunoregulation that involves CK1varepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of TRAF3.
26327509 CSNK1E expression is associated with disease-free survival in breast cancer patients with wild-type p53 or poor histological differentiation or in those without adjuvant chemotherapy.
26283580 a 4-locus CSNK1E haplotype encompassing the rs1534891 SNP (Z-score=2.685, permuted p=0.0076) and a 3-locus haplotype in ARNTL (Z-score=3.269, permuted p=0.0011) showed a significant association with Bipolar Disorder
26122218 CK1epsilon expression was higher in colorectal cancer tissues vs normal and was correlated with the Dukes staging and depth of invasion. Knockdown reduced cell proliferation and invasion and downregulated wnt3alpha, beta-catenin, PCNA and MMP-9.
25724478 site-specific phosphorylation of adiponectin, especially at sites targeted by CK1delta in vitro, provides an additional regulatory mechanism for modulating adiponectin complex formation and function.
25665722 The dynamical and conformational properties for each of three isoforms of CK1 are explored through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.
25521358 The results support our previous report of association of CSNK1E SNP rs1534891 with protection from heroin addiction. CSNK1E interacts with circadian rhythms and DARPP-32 and has been implicated in negative regulation of sensitivity to opioids in rodents.
25404202 Results indicate that changes in the expression levels of casein kinase 1 isoforms CK1delta and DK1epsilon in colorectal tumors correlate with patients' survival.
24947187 we validated the top two synthetic lethal gene pairs, CSNK1E-TP53 and CTNNB1-TP53, in colorectal cancer
24557581 The loss of cytoplasmic CK1epsilon expression is greatly associated with poor survival and might be an adverse survival factor.
24424021 CK1delta and CK1epsilon play a decisive role in triggering late steps of pre-40S maturation that are required for acquisition of functionality of 40S ribosomal subunits in protein translation.
24338102 Csnk1epsilon gene polymorphism (rs135745), especially the G allele, maybe associated with heroin dependence in the Han Chinese.
24180524 MST1 still inhibited the Wnt3A-induced phosphorylation of DVL2 (dishevelled 2) and Wnt/beta-catenin signalling by disturbing the interaction of DVL2 and CK1epsilon
23413191 study identified DDX3 as a regulator of the Wnt-beta-catenin network, where it acts as a regulatory subunit of CK1epsilon: in a Wnt-dependent manner, DDX3 binds CK1epsilon and directly stimulates its kinase activity and promotes phosphorylation of the scaffold protein dishevelled
22981886 These results do not support that genetic variation in CSNK1D and CSNK1E is a susceptibility factor for major psychiatric disorders in the Japanese population.
22707389 In the context of ovarian cancer, the interaction between CKIepsilon and ANT2 mediates pathogenic signalling that is distinct from the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and is essential for cell proliferation and is clinically associated with poor survival.
22609948 Identification of a novel Wnt5a-CK1varepsilon-Dvl2-Plk1-mediated primary cilia disassembly pathway.
22384121 Casein kinase 1 proteomics reveal prohibitin 2 function in molecular clock
22367616 A genetic variant in the Csnk1epsilon gene significantly enhances the probability of schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.
22113361 No evidence is provided for the association between CK1epsilon gene and personality traits in healthy Chinese-Han subjects.
21252624 CK1epsilon regulates the cellular levels of Cdc25A in parallel with Chk1-dependent Cdc25A degradation, contributing to the precise control of cell division.
20940130 Depletion of p120-catenin abolishes CK1epsilon binding to LRP5/6 and prevents CK1epsilon activation upon Wnt3a stimulation.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20508983 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20507565 Mutations in CK1epsilon inhibit Wnt/beta-catenin and activate the Wnt/Rac1/JNK and NFAT pathways to decrease cell adhesion and promote cell migration in breast cancer.
20174623 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20126544 Data show that expression of CK1epsilon is able to promote oncogenic transformation of human cells in a beta-catenin-dependent manner.
20072116 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20048001 identified CK1delta/epsilon as new regulators of YAP and uncovered an intricate mechanism of YAP regulation
19934327 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19874574 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19839995 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19805222 The degradation rate of PER2, which is regulated by CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation, was temperature-insensitive in living clock cells.
19693801 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19058789 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19043076 Casein kinase I epsilon is an upstream kinase regulating in vivo phosphorylation of topoisomerase IIalpha at Ser-1106.
18991847 Results suggest that having a genetic variant of the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene did not affect susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence or psychosis, at least in a Japanese population.
18991847 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18990770 Variations in circadian genes are associated with serum levels of androgens and IGF markers, particularly CSNK1E rs1005473:A>C.
18990770 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18708403 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18571740 DATA show that Casein kinase I epsilon (CKIvarepsilon) N408 allele is very rare in the Brazilian population and is not involved in susceptibility to circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
18571740 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18518968 These data support the hypothesis that circadian clock genes can control the cell cycle and cell survival signaling, and emphasize a central role of CK1epsilon and PERIOD2 in linking these systems.
18518925 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18400165 CK1 epsilon(tau), as a gain-of-function mutation, acts at a specific circadian phase to promote degradation of PERIOD proteins and thereby accelerate the mammalian clockwork in brain and periphery.
18262492 The results suggest that CKIepsilon is a new positive regulator of the Akt pathway. Here we propose that, rather than inhibiting PTEN function, CKIepsilon positively regulates Akt possibly by inhibiting Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A).
18258753 human casein kinase 1 epsilon cannot replace the activity of dbt in flies despite the high degree of similarity in primary sequence and kinase function
18228528 A multi-locus interaction between rs6442925 in the 5' upstream of BHLHB2, rs1534891 in CSNK1E, and rs534654 near the 3' end of the CLOCK gene, however, is significantly associated with bipolar disorder
18228528 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
17984998 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17962809 Signal transduction pathway is defined downstream of CCK2 receptor showing that CK1 delta and epsilon phosphorylate PKD2 at 3 sites, resulting in nuclear accumulation of PKD2 and phosphorylation of nuclear PKD2 substrates in human gastric cancer cells.
16818876 CKI epsilon(tau) is a highly specific gain-of-function mutation that increases in vivo phosphorylation and degradation of the circadian regulators period (PER)1 and PER2.
16616143 CKI epsilon is a novel occludin kinase that may be important for the regulation of occludin.
16557393 These findings suggest that granulovacuolar and neurofibrillary lesions occupy separate populations of neurons, and implicate CK1 isoforms in the generation of lesion-associated phosphoepitopes.
16528748 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16513652 active CKIepsilon generation may induce a negative feedback loop by phosphorylation of sites on LRP5/6 that modulate axin binding and hence beta-catenin degradation
16274701 CKIepsilon-induced down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling through PTEN leads to amplified sensitivity to apoptosis.
16237383 Observational study of gene-disease association and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
15917222 CK1epsilon and CK1gamma2 were found to bind to Per1 and to promote its degradation
15767683 CKIepsilon inhibition also slows the degradation of PER2 in cells
15747065 A negative regulatory function of CK1 in the Wnt signalling pathway, where CK1 acts as a negative regulator of the LEF-1/beta-catenin transcription complex, thereby protecting cells from development of cancer.
15187983 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15187983 the N408 allele in casein kinase 1, epsilon plays a protective role in the development of delayed sleep phase syndrome
15133026 These results suggest that CKIepsilon plays a ligand-dependent, differential, and dual regulatory role within the TGF-beta signaling pathway.
14722104 casein kinase I epsilon activity is regulated by Wnt signaling
12556519 CKI epsilon-dependent phosphorylation of Dvl enhances the formation of a complex of Dvl-1 with Frat-1 and this complex leads to the activation of Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin
11875063 The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are substrates of casein kinase Iepsilon.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (129)

PMID Year Title
26928339 2016 The kinase CK1? controls the antiviral immune response by phosphorylating the signaling adaptor TRAF3.
26496610 2015 A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances.
26327509 2015 High casein kinase 1 epsilon levels are correlated with better prognosis in subsets of patients with breast cancer.
26283580 2015 Identification of circadian gene variants in bipolar disorder in Latino populations.
25724478 2015 Gene expression levels of Casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms are correlated to adiponectin levels in adipose tissue of morbid obese patients and site-specific phosphorylation mediated by CK1 influences multimerization of adiponectin.
25665722 2015 A comparative study of structural and conformational properties of casein kinase-1 isoforms: insights from molecular dynamics and principal component analysis.
25521358 2014 Dopaminergic pathway polymorphisms and heroin addiction: further support for association of CSNK1E variants.
25500533 2014 Phosphorylation of LRRK2 by casein kinase 1? regulates trans-Golgi clustering via differential interaction with ARHGEF7.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25404202 2015 Effects of altered expression and activity levels of CK1? and ? on tumor growth and survival of colorectal cancer patients.
25241761 2014 Using an in situ proximity ligation assay to systematically profile endogenous protein-protein interactions in a pathway network.
24947187 2014 CSNK1E/CTNNB1 are synthetic lethal to TP53 in colorectal cancer and are markers for prognosis.
24557581 2014 Casein kinase 1 epsilon expression predicts poorer prognosis in low T-stage oral cancer patients.
24424021 2014 CK1? and CK1? are components of human 40S subunit precursors required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation.
24338102 2014 A population-based association study of casein kinase 1 epsilon loci with heroin dependence in Han Chinese.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24180524 2014 Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1/2 inhibits the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway by directly binding casein kinase 1?.
23455922 2013 Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS.
23413191 2013 RNA helicase DDX3 is a regulatory subunit of casein kinase 1 in Wnt-?-catenin signaling.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23109420 2013 Tiam1 regulates the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 signaling pathway and the differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
23106386 2012 Structural basis for the potent and selective inhibition of casein kinase 1 epsilon.
22981886 2012 An evaluation of polymorphisms in casein kinase 1 delta and epsilon genes in major psychiatric disorders.
22939624 2012 Quantitative analysis of HSP90-client interactions reveals principles of substrate recognition.
22707389 2012 Casein kinase I epsilon interacts with mitochondrial proteins for the growth and survival of human ovarian cancer cells.
22682247 2012 Wnt signaling through inhibition of ?-catenin degradation in an intact Axin1 complex.
22681889 2012 The mRNA-bound proteome and its global occupancy profile on protein-coding transcripts.
22609948 2012 Identification of a novel Wnt5a-CK1?-Dvl2-Plk1-mediated primary cilia disassembly pathway.
22384121 2012 Casein kinase 1 proteomics reveal prohibitin 2 function in molecular clock.
22367616 2012 Association between a casein kinase 1 ? gene polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.
22113361 2012 No association of a casein kinase 1? (CK1?) gene polymorphism with personality traits in healthy Chinese-Han subjects.
21988832 2011 Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver.
21900206 2011 A directed protein interaction network for investigating intracellular signal transduction.
21406692 2011 System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation.
21269460 2011 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
21252624 2011 CK1? targets Cdc25A for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis under normal conditions and in response to checkpoint activation.
20940130 2010 A p120-catenin-CK1epsilon complex regulates Wnt signaling.
20708156 2010 Phosphorylation by casein kinase I promotes the turnover of the Mdm2 oncoprotein via the SCF(beta-TRCP) ubiquitin ligase.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20508983 2011 Centrosome-related genes, genetic variation, and risk of breast cancer.
20507565 2010 Breast cancer-specific mutations in CK1epsilon inhibit Wnt/beta-catenin and activate the Wnt/Rac1/JNK and NFAT pathways to decrease cell adhesion and promote cell migration.
20305697 2010 Role of CK1 in GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of snail.
20174623 2010 Systematic analysis of circadian genes in a population-based sample reveals association of TIMELESS with depression and sleep disturbance.
20126544 2010 CK1epsilon is required for breast cancers dependent on beta-catenin activity.
20072116 2010 Differential association of circadian genes with mood disorders: CRY1 and NPAS2 are associated with unipolar major depression and CLOCK and VIP with bipolar disorder.
20048001 2010 A coordinated phosphorylation by Lats and CK1 regulates YAP stability through SCF(beta-TRCP).
19934327 2009 Testing the circadian gene hypothesis in prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19874574 2009 Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans.
19839995 2009 Association study of 21 circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia.
19805222 2009 CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is a temperature-insensitive, period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock.
19693801 2010 PER2 variantion is associated with depression vulnerability.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19413330 2009 Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach.
19369195 2009 Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome.
19058789 2009 A common variant in DRD3 receptor is associated with autism spectrum disorder.
19043076 2009 Casein kinase I delta/epsilon phosphorylates topoisomerase IIalpha at serine-1106 and modulates DNA cleavage activity.
18991847 2008 Association study between casein kinase 1 epsilon gene and methamphetamine dependence.
18990770 2008 Correlation between circadian gene variants and serum levels of sex steroids and insulin-like growth factor-I.
18708403 2008 Association of genetic variation in genes implicated in the beta-catenin destruction complex with risk of breast cancer.
18691976 2008 Kinase-selective enrichment enables quantitative phosphoproteomics of the kinome across the cell cycle.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18571740 2008 Casein kinase I epsilon (CKIvarepsilon) N408 allele is very rare in the Brazilian population and is not involved in susceptibility to circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
18518968 2008 Inhibition of casein kinase 1-epsilon induces cancer-cell-selective, PERIOD2-dependent growth arrest.
18518925 2008 Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction: a candidate gene association study.
18400165 2008 Setting clock speed in mammals: the CK1 epsilon tau mutation in mice accelerates circadian pacemakers by selectively destabilizing PERIOD proteins.
18262492 2008 Casein Kinase I epsilon positively regulates the Akt pathway in breast cancer cell lines.
18258753 2008 Casein kinase I epsilon does not rescue double-time function in Drosophila despite evolutionarily conserved roles in the circadian clock.
18228528 2008 Clock genes may influence bipolar disorder susceptibility and dysfunctional circadian rhythm.
17984998 2008 Variants in circadian genes and prostate cancer risk: a population-based study in China.
17962809 2007 Phosphorylation at Ser244 by CK1 determines nuclear localization and substrate targeting of PKD2.
17353931 2007 Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.
17344846 2007 Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes.
17244647 2007 Wnt-5a induces Dishevelled phosphorylation and dopaminergic differentiation via a CK1-dependent mechanism.
17218255 2007 Modeling of a human circadian mutation yields insights into clock regulation by PER2.
17192257 2007 Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry.
17081983 2006 Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.
16818876 2006 An opposite role for tau in circadian rhythms revealed by mathematical modeling.
16790549 2006 Posttranslational regulation of the mammalian circadian clock by cryptochrome and protein phosphatase 5.
16618118 2006 Dysbindin structural homologue CK1BP is an isoform-selective binding partner of human casein kinase-1.
16616143 2006 Casein kinase I epsilon associates with and phosphorylates the tight junction protein occludin.
16557393 2006 Casein kinase-1 isoforms differentially associate with neurofibrillary and granulovacuolar degeneration lesions.
16528748 2006 Suggestive evidence for association of the circadian genes PERIOD3 and ARNTL with bipolar disorder.
16513652 2006 Negative regulation of LRP6 function by casein kinase I epsilon phosphorylation.
16462731 2006 The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation.
16274701 2006 Casein kinase Iepsilon down-regulates phospho-Akt via PTEN, following genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic cells.
16237383 2006 Association between the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene region and subjective response to D-amphetamine.
16189514 2005 Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.
15917222 2005 SCFbeta-TRCP controls clock-dependent transcription via casein kinase 1-dependent degradation of the mammalian period-1 (Per1) protein.
15767683 2005 Control of mammalian circadian rhythm by CKIepsilon-regulated proteasome-mediated PER2 degradation.
15747065 2005 A second protein kinase CK1-mediated step negatively regulates Wnt signalling by disrupting the lymphocyte enhancer factor-1/beta-catenin complex.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15461802 2004 A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome.
15302935 2004 Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.
15187983 2004 A missense variation in human casein kinase I epsilon gene that induces functional alteration and shows an inverse association with circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
15133026 2004 Casein kinase Iepsilon plays a functional role in the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway.
15070676 2004 Involvement of casein kinase Iepsilon in cytokine-induced granulocytic differentiation.
15003508 2004 Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I.
14722104 2004 Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon activity by Wnt signaling.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12852856 2003 Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation.
12556519 2003 Casein kinase I epsilon enhances the binding of Dvl-1 to Frat-1 and is essential for Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12270714 2002 Centrosomal anchoring of the protein kinase CK1delta mediated by attachment to the large, coiled-coil scaffolding protein CG-NAP/AKAP450.
12221128 2002 Centrosomal proteins CG-NAP and kendrin provide microtubule nucleation sites by anchoring gamma-tubulin ring complex.
12183362 2002 The ankyrin repeat protein Diversin recruits Casein kinase Iepsilon to the beta-catenin degradation complex and acts in both canonical Wnt and Wnt/JNK signaling.
12000790 2002 Axin-mediated CKI phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser 45: a molecular switch for the Wnt pathway.
11875063 2002 The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are substrates of casein kinase Iepsilon.
11865049 2002 Control of intracellular dynamics of mammalian period proteins by casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) and CKIdelta in cultured cells.
11818547 2002 Casein kinase I phosphorylates and destabilizes the beta-catenin degradation complex.
11583622 2001 Phosphorylation of bid by casein kinases I and II regulates its cleavage by caspase 8.
11487578 2001 Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by casein kinase 1epsilon.
11425858 2001 Synergistic activation of the Wnt signaling pathway by Dvl and casein kinase Iepsilon.
11232563 2001 An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome.
11076968 2000 The centrosomal protein C-Nap1 is required for cell cycle-regulated centrosome cohesion.
10899319 2000 Cloning and characterization of rat casein kinase 1epsilon.
10848614 2000 Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon.
10790862 2000 Phosphorylation and destabilization of human period I clock protein by human casein kinase I epsilon.
10591208 1999 The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22.
10542239 1999 Identification of inhibitory autophosphorylation sites in casein kinase I epsilon.
10535959 1999 Casein kinase iepsilon in the wnt pathway: regulation of beta-catenin function.
9674431 1998 The Drosophila clock gene double-time encodes a protein closely related to human casein kinase Iepsilon.
9632646 1998 Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon and casein kinase I delta by an in vivo futile phosphorylation cycle.
9430669 1998 Autoinhibition of casein kinase I epsilon (CKI epsilon) is relieved by protein phosphatases and limited proteolysis.
9349507 1997 p53 is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by the delta and epsilon isoforms of casein kinase 1 and enhances the level of casein kinase 1 delta in response to topoisomerase-directed drugs.
8125298 1994 Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.
7797465 1995 Isolation and characterization of human casein kinase I epsilon (CKI), a novel member of the CKI gene family.
7790358 1995 Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.