Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 93
PubMed Score 247.29
PubTator Score 268.41

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

TINX Plot

Expression

  Differential Expression (4)

Disease log2 FC p
Atopic dermatitis 1.800 7.0e-04
tuberculosis -2.600 3.2e-07
interstitial cystitis 1.500 1.7e-03
psoriasis 2.100 1.8e-85

Synonym

Accession O00626 A0N0Q6 B2R4W2
Symbols MDC
ABCD-1
SCYA22
STCP-1
DC/B-CK
A-152E5.1

Gene

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

 MGI Phenotype (1)

Gene RIF (75)

PMID Text
26432403 type I IFN blocks the regulatory T cell-attracting chemokine CCL22 and thus helps limit the recruitment of regulatory T cells to tumors
26341115 increased amounts released by neutrophils from fibromyalgia patients
26093920 Distinctive Treg associated CCR4-CCL22 expression profile with altered frequency of Th17/Treg cell in the immunopathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris.
25970596 First-episode psychosis patients had higher serum CCL22, which decreased substantially following antipsychotic treatment.
25922986 Our results demonstrate that CCL22 is expressed in human placenta. Decidual expression was only observed in miscarriage conditions and correlates with Treg infiltration.
25722218 The serum CCL22 levels were affected by genetic variations at SNP rs223818. Accordingly, SNP rs223818 may play a role in the susceptibility to breast cancer.
25647263 Elevated levels of CCL22 found in the ascites could create a chemokine gradient aiding in Treg cells migration. Increased Tregs percentage in the local microenvironment of ovarian cancer might be an important mechanism of immunosuppression.
25604093 Circulating CCL22 levels are related to both glioma risk and survival duration independent of age, histology, grade and IDH mutation status. CCL22 should be considered a marker of immune status with potential prognostic value
25352172 CCL22 could be an immune marker in ANCA-associated vasculitis.
25148803 CCR4 C1014T and CCL22 C16A genetic variations were neither associated with the risk, nor with the progression of colorectal cancer in Iranian population
25136780 CCL22 is a novel mediator of lung inflammation following hemorrhage and resuscitation
25117529 Sesamin suppressed lipopolysaccharide induced CCL22 expression in monocytes through the ER/PPAR-a, the MAPK-p38 pathway, the NFkB-p65 pathway and the epigenetic regulation by suppressing histone H3/H4 acetylation in the CCL22 promoter region.
24397961 increased expression in the thymus of myasthenia gravis patients
24254331 Suggest that lower CCL22 levels may play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis in women.
24124553 both CCL22 and TGF-beta1 are candidate chemoattractants for intratumoral Foxp3 (+)Tregs infiltration; however, unlike the later, CCL22 is an independent prognostic predictor of BC patients.
23898208 HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (CCL22) in human primary T cells
23782855 Autistic children had significantly higher serum levels of MDC than healthy controls
23383108 HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (CCL22) in human primary T cells
23340773 These data reveal an elevated serum concentration of Th2-attracting chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.
23268288 genetic polymorphism is not associated with breast carcinoma in Southern Iranian population
23265706 Data suggest that decreased levels of plasmatic CCL22 may contribute to CD4(+) lymphopaenia.
23180648 lymph node metastasis of CCR4(+) HNSCC is promoted by CCL22 in an autocrine or M2-like macrophage-dependent paracrine manner.
23106659 High cord blood levels of the Th2 related chemokine CCL22 were significantly associated with high total- IgE levels during the first 6 years of life, but not with specific sensitization, asthma, eczema or allergic rhinitis.
22975373 findings suggest that HBV infection and activity of the TGF-beta-miR-34a-CCL22 axis serve as potent etiological factors to predispose hepatocellular carcinoma patients for the development of portal vein tumor thrombus
22322668 Data show that PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, CCL17, and CCL22 mRNA was identified in papillomas.
22125604 Data suggest that variants of C-C motif chemokine 22 (CCL22) play a role in susceptibility to atopic dermatitis (AD) in a gain-of-function manner.
21823987 results suggested that suppression of the CCL22 gene using Salmonella induced anti-inflammatory effects
21327296 Data show that, for the small macrophages in COPD, increased transcript and protein levels for CCL2, CCL7, CCL13 and CCL22 with a more than 100-fold increase for CCL13 mRNA.
21129807 Contact between monocyte-derived dendritic cells and HCV-JFH1-infected Huh7 cells induced the expression of CCL17 and CCL22.
20625996 These results indicate that intracellular reactive oxygen species and MAPK kinases both contribute to IFN-gamma-stimulated production of TARC and CCL22 by increasing NF-kappaB activation.
20525891 Plasma concentration of CCL22 correlates with the frequency of circulating CD4-positive FoxP3-positive (CD4+FoxP3+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1-infected subjects.
20503287 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20348247 chemokine CCL22 may have a role in abdominal aortic aneurysm
20337996 CCL22 may be responsible for the infiltration of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells into the pleural space of patients with tuberculous pleurisy.
20237496 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20002703 CCL17 and CCL22 within the tumor are related to the increased population of Foxp3(+) T-regs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
19942450 Data show that MDC/CCL22 is present in the synovial membrane of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and in synovial fluid of patients with RA and PsA, which would enable migration of CCR4 expressing memory cells.
19756997 Endocrine disrupting chemicals suppressed CCL22 and IP-10 levels in cultured monocytes via, at least in part, the MKK1/2-ERK MAPK pathway and histone H4 acetylation.
19371952 The adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system has an inhibitory role in IFN-gamma plus TNF-alpha-stimulated production of TARC and MDC in HaCaT keratinocytes by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation through p38 MAPK pathway.
19298002 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19258923 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19244125 Regulatory T cells recruited through CCL22/CCR4 are selectively activated in lymphoid infiltrates surrounding primary breast tumors and lead to an adverse clinical outcome.
19175890 Development of allergic disease is associated with a more marked Th2-like deviation already at birth, shown as increased levels of cord blood IgE and MDC (CCL22) and higher ratios of MDC (CCL22) to IP-10 (CXCL10) and I-TAC (CXCL11).
18547160 The increased level of CCL17 and CCL22 release was important for acute myelogenous leukemia dendritic cell (AML-DC) chemotaxis of normal T cells.
18515987 There are elevated concentrations of the chemokines MDC, eotaxin, I-TAC, and MCP-1 in malignant pleural effusions.
18435706 serum CCR4 ligands (CCL17 and CCL22)may be useful inflammatory markers for assessing atopic dermatitis severity in children
18287226 although IE86 does repress the UL144-mediated activation of a synthetic NFkB promoter, it is unable to block UL144-mediated activation of the CCL22 promoter, and this lack of responsiveness to IE86 appears to be regulated by binding of CREB.
18271928 Latent membrane protein 1-expressing tumor cells in age-related Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder were selectively positive for CCL17 and CCL22.
18266834 Serum concentrations of CCL17, CCL22, and CCL27 correlate well with the extent and intensity of Atopic dermatitis (AD) in infants. Of the three Th2 chemokines examined, serum CCL27 correlated most significantly with the severity of AD
18224687 Significantly higher CCL22 expression is associated with gastric cancer
18208895 MDC/CCL22 is likely to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis in females only, possibly influencing the intracerebral recruitment of Th2 cells, which produce anti-inflammatory cytokines
18178833 HTLV-1-infected T cells produce CCL22 through Tax and selectively interact with CCR4+CD4+ T cells, resulting in preferential transmission of HTLV-1 to CCR4+CD4+ T cells.
18047937 CCL19, CCL20 and CCL22 factors could play an additive role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process leading to bronchiolar fibro-obliteration in lung transplant patients
17979978 There were no significant differences in CCL17 and CCL22 expression in PBMCs, sera and lesional skins of patients with intrinsic and extrinsic atopic dermatitis.
17967467 A trend towards a decreased allelic frequency of the A allele of the CCL22 C/A SNP as well as of the T allele of the CCL17 C/T SNP was found in MS patients compared with controls.
17967467 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17703412 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17517104 Ragweed stimulation significantly increased the production of the Th2-associated cytokines IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in allergic patients
17008059 These data suggest that the CCL22 level produced by monocyte derived dendritic cells thus reflects the disease activity of Atopic dermatitis (AD) and it may also play an important role regarding the production of CCL22 in the pathogenesis of AD.
16614259 CCL22 stimulates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-independent phosphorylation of the novel delta isoform of PKC at threonine 505, situated within its activation loop--an event closely associated with increased catalytic activity.
16583210 Both a Th1 chemoattractant (CXCL9) and Th2 chemoattractants, CCL17 and CCL22, cooperatively play a role in the development of autoimmune blistering disease.
16453150 MDC/CCL22 has a role in inhibiting progression of lung cancer
16343773 HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (CCL22) in human primary T cells
15944327 Elevated bronchial mucosal expression of MDC/CCL22 is implicated in asthma pathogenesis; its action is partly through selective development and retention, or recruitment of T helper type 2, not Th1, receptor-bearing cells.
15813816 findings indicate TARC and MDC are actively involved in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and their expression, opposite to that of eotaxin, is strongly associated with clinical picture of atopic dermatitis.
15210758 CCL17 and CCL22, which are constitutively produced by immature DCs, mediate both T cell polarization and attraction.
15187160 CCL22 induced accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate in the leukemic T cell line CEM. CCL22 also had the ability to chemoattract human Th2 cells and CEM cells in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner.
15113590 Serum levels of TARC and MDC in atopic dermatitis patients were significantly higher than those found in normal controls.
14962085 IL-4/IL-13 and IFN-gamma induce alternations in the distribution of adherens junctions in a different fashion and thereby contribute to the reciprocal regulation of TARC/MDC production.
14747532 selectively induced in EBV-infected B cells by LMP-1 protein
12949249 CCL22 is an antimicrobial protein with bacteriocidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus.
12715916 important role in the production of antigen specific IgE by T-B cell interaction and in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis
12642832 Neither MDC release nor MDC mRNA was detected in any of the 3 types of fibroblasts stimulated with any of the cytokines examined.
11981828 Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells are endowed with the capacity to attract CD4+, CD40L+ T cells by producing CCL22, suggesting a vicious circle, leading to the progressive accumulation of the neoplastic cells.
9826729 HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (CCL22) in human primary T cells

AA Sequence

MDRLQTALLVVLVLLAVALQATEAGPYGANMEDSVCCRDYVRYRLPLRVVKHFYWTSDSCPRPGVVLLTF      1 - 70
RDKEICADPRVPWVKMILNKLSQ                                                    71 - 93
//

Text Mined References (95)

PMID Year Title
26432403 2015 Suppression of intratumoral CCL22 by type i interferon inhibits migration of regulatory T cells and blocks cancer progression.
26341115 2016 Altered release of chemokines by phagocytes from fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study.
26093920 2015 Distinctive Treg associated CCR4-CCL22 expression profile with altered frequency of Th17/Treg cell in the immunopathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris.
25970596 2015 Altered activation of innate immunity associates with white matter volume and diffusion in first-episode psychosis.
25922986 2015 Expression of CCL22 and Infiltration by Regulatory T Cells are Increased in the Decidua of Human Miscarriage Placentas.
25722218 2015 Higher circulating levels of chemokine CCL22 in patients with breast cancer: evaluation of the influences of tumor stage and chemokine gene polymorphism.
25647263 2015 Macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 and regulatory T cells in ovarian cancer patients.
25604093 2015 Serum macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 levels are associated with glioma risk, CD4 T cell lymphopenia and survival time.
25352172 2015 Increase in Th17-associated CCL20 and decrease in Th2-associated CCL22 plasma chemokines in active ANCA-associated vasculitis.
25148803 2014 CCR4 C1014T and CCL22 C16A genetic variations in the Iranian patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma.
25136780 2014 Macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) is a novel mediator of lung inflammation following hemorrhage and resuscitation.
25117529 2014 Sesamin suppresses macrophage-derived chemokine expression in human monocytes via epigenetic regulation.
24397961 2014 Innate immunity in myasthenia gravis thymus: pathogenic effects of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling on autoimmunity.
24254331 2014 Lower serum levels of Th2-related chemokine CCL22 in women patients with multiple sclerosis: a comparison between patients and healthy women.
24124553 2013 Tumor secretion of CCL22 activates intratumoral Treg infiltration and is independent prognostic predictor of breast cancer.
23782855 2013 Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children.
23340773 2013 CCR4 agonists CCL22 and CCL17 are elevated in pediatric OMS sera: rapid and selective down-regulation of CCL22 by ACTH or corticosteroids.
23268288 2012 CCL22 16C/a genetic variation is not associated with breast carcinoma in Southern Iranian population.
23265706 2013 Patients with metastatic breast cancer leading to CD4+ T cell lymphopaenia have poor outcome.
23180648 2013 Autocrine and paracrine loops between cancer cells and macrophages promote lymph node metastasis via CCR4/CCL22 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
23106659 2012 Cord blood Th2-related chemokine CCL22 levels associate with elevated total-IgE during preschool age.
22975373 2012 TGF-?-miR-34a-CCL22 signaling-induced Treg cell recruitment promotes venous metastases of HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma.
22322668 2012 Immune suppression in premalignant respiratory papillomas: enriched functional CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and PD-1/PD-L1/L2 expression.
22125604 2011 Variants of C-C motif chemokine 22 (CCL22) are associated with susceptibility to atopic dermatitis: case-control studies.
21823987 2012 Suppression of inflammation by recombinant Salmonella typhimurium harboring CCL22 microRNA.
21327296 2011 Chemokine expression by small sputum macrophages in COPD.
21129807 2011 Hepatitis C virus induces the expression of CCL17 and CCL22 chemokines that attract regulatory T cells to the site of infection.
20625996 2011 Reactive oxygen species are involved in the IFN-?-stimulated production of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT keratinocytes.
20525891 2010 Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-induced CC chemokine ligand 22 maintains a high frequency of functional FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.
20503287 2010 Interleukin-9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: an opposite effect in boys and girls.
20348247 2010 The novel association of the chemokine CCL22 with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
20337996 2010 CCL22 is involved in the recruitment of CD4+CD25 high T cells into tuberculous pleural effusions.
20237496 2010 New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine.
20002703 2010 CCL17 and CCL22 chemokines within tumor microenvironment are related to infiltration of regulatory T cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
19942450 2010 Expression of MDC/CCL22 and its receptor CCR4 in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis.
19756997 2010 Suppressive effect on MDC and IP-10 expression in monocytes by endocrine disruptor chemicals.
19371952 2009 The adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system suppresses TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 production through p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB in HaCaT keratinocytes.
19298002 2009 Genetic polymorphism in chemokine CCL22 and susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection-related gastric carcinoma.
19258923 2009 Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling genes and innate immune genes.
19244125 2009 Regulatory T cells recruited through CCL22/CCR4 are selectively activated in lymphoid infiltrates surrounding primary breast tumors and lead to an adverse clinical outcome.
19175890 2009 Cord blood cytokines and chemokines and development of allergic disease.
18547160 2008 In vitro induction of a dendritic cell phenotype in primary human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blasts alters the chemokine release profile and increases the levels of T cell chemotactic CCL17 and CCL22.
18515987 2008 The local cytokine and chemokine milieu within malignant effusions.
18435706 2008 Serum concentrations of CCR4 ligands in relation to clinical severity of atopic dermatitis in Egyptian children.
18287226 2008 NF-kappaB-mediated activation of the chemokine CCL22 by the product of the human cytomegalovirus gene UL144 escapes regulation by viral IE86.
18271928 2008 Expression of CCL17 and CCL22 by latent membrane protein 1-positive tumor cells in age-related Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.
18266834 2008 Serum levels of Th2 chemokines, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL27, were the important markers of severity in infantile atopic dermatitis.
18224687 2008 CCL17 and CCL22 chemokines within tumor microenvironment are related to accumulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in gastric cancer.
18208895 2008 MDC/CCL22 intrathecal levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.
18178833 2008 Tax-inducible production of CC chemokine ligand 22 by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T cells promotes preferential transmission of HTLV-1 to CCR4-expressing CD4+ T cells.
18047937 2008 Chemokine redundancy in BOS pathogenesis. A possible role also for the CC chemokines: MIP3-beta, MIP3-alpha, MDC and their specific receptors.
17979978 2008 Increased expression of CC chemokine ligand 18 in extrinsic atopic dermatitis patients.
17967467 2008 Gender-specific influence of the chromosome 16 chemokine gene cluster on the susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis.
17703412 2007 Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes.
17517104 2007 Immunoreactivity profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis.
17008059 2006 Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22 produced by monocyte derived dendritic cells reflects the disease activity in patients with atopic dermatitis.
16614259 2006 Evidence that phospholipase-C-dependent, calcium-independent mechanisms are required for directional migration of T-lymphocytes in response to the CCR4 ligands CCL17 and CCL22.
16583210 2006 Both Th1 and Th2 chemokines are elevated in sera of patients with autoimmune blistering diseases.
16453150 2006 Expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22 in human lung cancer.
16344560 2006 Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.
15944327 2005 Thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression is increased in asthmatic airways and correlates with expression of Th2-attracting chemokines and disease severity.
15813816 2005 Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine and eotaxin as markers of severity of atopic dermatitis.
15714581 2005 CCL22-induced responses are powerfully enhanced by synergy inducing chemokines via CCR4: evidence for the involvement of first beta-strand of chemokine.
15616553 2004 The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15210758 2004 Immature dendritic cells (DCs) use chemokines and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, but not DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin, to stimulate CD4+ T cells in the absence of exogenous antigen.
15187160 2004 Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinases by the CCR4 ligand macrophage-derived chemokine is a dispensable signal for T lymphocyte chemotaxis.
15113590 2004 Both Th2 and Th1 chemokines (TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and Mig/CXCL9) are elevated in sera from patients with atopic dermatitis.
15067078 2004 Differential recognition and scavenging of native and truncated macrophage-derived chemokine (macrophage-derived chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 22) by the D6 decoy receptor.
14962085 2004 Reciprocal regulation of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/macrophage-derived chemokine production by interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and interferon-gamma in HaCaT keratinocytes is mediated by alternations in E-cadherin distribution.
14747532 2004 Selective induction of Th2-attracting chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 in human B cells by latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus.
14718574 2004 The human plasma proteome: a nonredundant list developed by combination of four separate sources.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12949249 2003 Many chemokines including CCL20/MIP-3alpha display antimicrobial activity.
12851650 2003 Platelet chemokines and chemokine receptors: linking hemostasis, inflammation, and host defense.
12715916 2003 TARC and MDC are produced by CD40 activated human B cells and are elevated in the sera of infantile atopic dermatitis patients.
12642832 2003 Differential expression of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) by human fibroblasts from cornea, skin, and lung.
12485447 2002 Increased CCR4 expression in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12407016 2002 Systemic chemokine and chemokine receptor responses are divergent in allergic versus non-allergic humans.
12193695 2002 Quantitative differences in chemokine receptor engagement generate diversity in integrin-dependent lymphocyte adhesion.
11818437 2002 Role of chemokines in the biology of natural killer cells.
11792124 2001 Gene expression profiles for Fc epsilon RI, cytokines and chemokines upon Fc epsilon RI activation in human cultured mast cells derived from peripheral blood.
11390394 2001 Kinetic investigation of chemokine truncation by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV reveals a striking selectivity within the chemokine family.
11352815 2001 Production of MDC/CCL22 by human intestinal epithelial cells.
11241286 2001 Dendritic cells as a major source of macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 in vitro and in vivo.
10861057 2000 Macrophage-derived chemokine and EBI1-ligand chemokine attract human thymocytes in different stage of development and are produced by distinct subsets of medullary epithelial cells: possible implications for negative selection.
10493829 1999 Genome duplications and other features in 12 Mb of DNA sequence from human chromosome 16p and 16q.
9933589 1999 Truncation of macrophage-derived chemokine by CD26/ dipeptidyl-peptidase IV beyond its predicted cleavage site affects chemotactic activity and CC chemokine receptor 4 interaction.
9743322 1998 Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity and altered chemotactic potency of NH2-terminally processed macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) imply an additional MDC receptor.
9691168 1998 Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC (SCYA17) are clustered on chromosome 16q13.
9430724 1998 Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4.
9381181 1997 Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by the beta-chemokine MDC.
9312138 1997 Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel CC chemokine, stimulated T cell chemotactic protein (STCP-1) that specifically acts on activated T lymphocytes.
9151897 1997 Human macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), a novel chemoattractant for monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and natural killer cells.