Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 258
PubMed Score 1961.90
PubTator Score 1544.58

Knowledge Summary


No data available


  Differential Expression (6)

Disease log2 FC p
Waldenstrons macroglobulinemia 1.439 2.2e-02
osteosarcoma -6.012 1.1e-09
COPD -1.100 4.6e-02
lung adenocarcinoma -2.100 2.9e-11
Breast cancer 1.600 4.0e-02
psoriasis 2.600 3.9e-52


Accession P49913 Q71SN9
Symbols LL37



2FBS   2FBU   2FCG   2K6O   2LMF   4EYC  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA Inparanoid

Gene RIF (224)

26903652 Data indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress increase sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) production, in turn activating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)-mediated cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) synthesis.
26873992 higher nasal levels are associated with protection against RSV infection, directly damages viral envelopes and disrupts viral particles
26778002 Taken together, these observations suggest that activation of human mast cells by LL-37 could be modified by TLR2 ligands and the function of human mast cells could be switched from allergic reactions to innate immune response.
26585423 In rhinovirus infected cystic fibrosis patients, LL37 was inversely correlated with viral load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
26556394 The human cathelicidin LL-37--A pore-forming antibacterial peptide and host-cell modulator.
26502164 LL-37 interacts with negatively charged membranes forming a stable aggregate, which may produce toroidal pores. There is also an aggregate with a higher oligomeric degree for interaction of LL-37 with neutral membranes.
26468750 The authors show that the group A Streptococcus surface-associated M1 protein sequesters and neutralizes LL-37 antimicrobial activity through its N-terminal domain.
26433491 we discuss 1,25D3-induced down-regulation of cytokine/chemokine production and stimulation of hCAP-18/LL-37 gene expression which represent two very important pathways for 1,25D3-evoked regulation of the innate immune response--{REVIEW}
26422567 Cathelicidin appears to play different roles in the development of pulmonary sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.
26416907 Chlamydial plasmid-encoded virulence factor Pgp3 neutralizes the antichlamydial activity of human cathelicidin LL-37.
26351280 LL-37 modulates the response of macrophages during infection, controlling the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
26297208 this study provides evidence for the ability of LL37 to bind and internalize viral or endogenous DNA into non-immune cells.
26119962 the use of hCAP-18 levels in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients, was assessed.
26116509 The results demonstrate that internalized LL-37 traffics to endosomes and lysosomes and contributes to intracellular clearance of bacteria by human macrophages, coinciding with increased reactive oxygen species and lysosome formation.
26100635 Lipopolysaccharide phosphorylation by the WaaY kinase affects the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
26053625 Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcription factor important for activating innate immune effectors, and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (CRAMP in mice) are key determinants of C. albicans colonization resistance.
25931489 LL37, HMGB1 and S100A9 are increased in serum during exacerbation in COPD patients
25841238 hCAP-18/LL-37 represents a previously unrecognised pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma microenvironment factor that plays a critical role in pancreatic cancer stem cell-mediated tumourigenesis.
25597616 lower LL-37 levels may be associated with the development of interstitial lung disease
25596923 Data suggest that expression of cathelicidin and CYP24A1 (vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase) is up-regulated in placental extravillous trophoblasts by vitamin D metabolites 1,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
25596747 Cathelicidin, expressed by immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, promotes colon cancer growth through activation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways.
25535966 The aim of this project was to examine the functional impact of the human cathelicidin LL-37 and the mouse cathelicidin-related AMP (CRAMP) on the pathogenesis of lupus and arthritis.
25512526 the effect of pH on the activity of an ASL defensin, human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), and the cathelicidin-related peptide, LL-37. We found that reducing pH from 8.0 to 6.8 reduced the ability of both peptides to kill Staphylococcus aureus.
25510482 pulmonary TB patients with a vitamin D deficiency had significantly reduced local levels of the vitamin D-inducible antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in granulomatous lesions compared to distal parenchyma from the infected lung.
25470744 LL37 is highly expressed in psoriasis skin. LL37 is a T-cell autoantigen in psoriasis.
25435436 hCAP18/LL-37 induces pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators, via the MyD88/NF-kappaB pathway.
25378408 Signal transduction by LL-37 through CsrS reflects a direct ligand/receptor interaction.
25378136 Cathelicidin LL-37 forms oligomers with a loose hydrophobic core in physiological solutions which persists in biological membranes.
25354286 Neonates with congenital pneumonia had significantly higher serum cathelicidin and lower serum 25(OH)D compared to controls.
25330301 palmoplantar pustulosis vesicle fluid contains the proteinase required for LL-37 processing and also may directly upregulate IL-8 in lesional keratinocytes, in turn contributing to the subsequent inflammation of PPP lesional skin
25306296 Cathelicidin LL-37 modulates the proinflammatory and proangiogenic effects of UV radiation and thereby contributes to enhanced sensitivity to sun exposure in rosacea.
25305315 CAMP induces IL-36gamma expression leading to initiation of skin inflammation and occasional exacerbations of psoriasis.
25268344 These findings indicate that LL-37 favorably induces IL-8 expression and secretion in HGECs, suggesting both direct and indirect involvement of LL-37 in neutrophil recruitment into an inflammatory site within diseased periodontal tissues.
25197165 Circulating levels of interferon- (IFN)-gamma, interleukin- (IL)-1RA, IL-2, and IL-23, and LL-37 were significantly higher in patients with psoriasis than in healthy controls.
25101632 Review on the antibacterial activity of human cathelicidin-18 (LL-37).
25092290 LL-37 peptide enhanced signal transduction by Toll-like receptor 3 is regulated by pH.
25089904 These data demonstrate inducible expression of hCAP18/LL-37 in the female lower reproductive tract.
25078430 dominant negative Brahma significantly inhibited C/EBPalpha as well as 1,25(OH)2D3 mediated induction of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide transcription
25012862 NETs treated with LL-37 are distinctly more resistant to S. aureus nuclease degradation than nontreated NETs.
24947511 Competition assays, cross-linking experiments, limited proteolysis, and mass spectrometry revealed that LL-37 binds by specific hydrophobic interactions to the His-40-Lys-50 segment of actin, located in the DNase I binding loop.
24903994 These data provide the experimental evidence that telomere shortening and related inflammatory proteins are associated with human IgAN, and it could be a new direction for the disease progression study.
24903937 Report elevated LL-37 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with pulmonary tuberculosis.
24901072 LL-37 induced TACE and EGFR activation, as well as TGF-alpha and MUC5AC mucin production by NCI-H292 cells.
24862212 These data provide novel evidence that, in addition to its antimicrobial and other immunoregulatory functions, LL-37 contributes to cutaneous immunity by strengthening the skin's barrier function.
24821067 Untreated HIV infection may contribute to lower LL-37 levels, independent of vitamin D levels. ART treatment may potentially mitigate this decrease in LL-37 levels.
24798231 After adjustment for age, race, sex, and HIV duration, the association between LL-37 and CD4 remained significant. HIV and/or HIV-related variables may alter the expected positive relationship between vitamin D and LL-37.
24771854 Citrullination alters immunomodulatory function of LL-37 essential for prevention of endotoxin-induced sepsis.
24763694 A model of LL-37 bound to DNA was generated, which reveals amino termini alpha-helices of dimerized LL-37 bind the major groove of DNA, with numerous DNA contacts made by LL-37 basic residues.
24747281 The concentrations of LL37, alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-2 defensins were determined by ELISA. Serum AMPs did not change during attacks and did not correlate with acute phase reactants.
24736410 LL-37 elicits a biphasic release of eicosanoids in macrophages with early, Ca(2+)-dependent formation of LTB4 and TXA2 followed by a late peak of TXA2, generated via induction of COX-2 by internalized LL-37.
24666281 LL-37 and its derivatives may contribute to the control of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
24454930 LL-37 potently inhibits the LPS/ATP-induced pyroptosis by both neutralizing the action of LPS and inhibiting the response of P2X7 to ATP.
24394186 These findings demonstrate that a localized gene therapy with LL-37 is a promising approach for the treatment of wounds
24383796 LL-37 played an important role in DNA-triggered inflammation. Thus, we have identified a link between cytosolic DNA, LL-37 and autoinflammation in cholesteatoma, providing new potential targets for the treatment of this disease.
24349231 Physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1.
24291709 LL-37 enhances the mucus production in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways, thus contributing to the progression of COPD.
24286516 Data suggest that serum levels of cathelicidin LL37 and IFN-alpha may reflect both local renal inflammation and systemic inflammation.
24117320 LL-37 forms amphipathic helical structures and self-assembles under physiological conditions.
23953711 Polymorphism in cathelicidin gene (CAMP) that alters Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha::ARNT) binding is not associated with tuberculosis.
23834289 These results indicate that Neisseria meningitidis selectively exploits the epithelial microenvironment in order to protect itself from LL-37 via a RhoA and Cdc42 mediated mechanism.
23766266 Our results identify a novel proangiogenic role of LL-37, suggesting that the axis LL-37/COX-1/PGE2 followed by EP3 signaling is amenable to therapeutic intervention in pathological angiogenesis.
23760318 In psoriasis patients with co-morbidities, the blood levels of cathelicidin were higher compared to controls.
23499548 visfatin enhances CAMP, hBD-2, hBD-3, and S100A7 production in human keratinocytes and their orthologs in murine imiquimod-treated psoriatic skin.
23452544 Human monocytic cells, whose CAMP production is up-regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3-vitamin D receptor pathway, accelerate antimicrobial function of autophagolysosome in Mycobacterium marinum infection.
23424670 versican V1 enhances hCAP18/LL-37 expression in macrophages through activation of TLR2 and subsequent vitamin D-dependent mechanisms which promote ovarian tumor progression in vitro
23406612 LL-37 reduces the osteoblast cell number by promoting apoptosis, and furthermore, LL-37 stimulates Ca(2+) inflow via a mechanism independent of voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels.
23406372 Described is for the first time the X-ray crystal structure of the human cathelin-like domain of the sole human cathelicidin, LL37.
23383108 A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 downregulates the expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) in peptide-treated PBMCs
23332157 LL-37 produced by HSV-2-infected keratinocytes enhances HIV infection of Langerhans cells.
23328115 Study presents results that demonstrate downregulation of LL-37 activity during overwhelming infection.
23283724 Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin promotes adhesion of classical monocytes.
23274176 Our data suggest that the human cathelicidin may be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells to chemotherapy.
23267025 LL-37 activates caspase-1 in human macrophages, resulting in release of active IL-1beta & IL-18. LL-37 activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome utilizes P2X7 receptor-mediated potassium efflux. This is enhanced in lupus.
23246832 Besides its antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses, LL-37 plays a role in chemotaxis, immunomodulation, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, & tumor surveillance.
23241112 elevated LL-37 levels both in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and epithelial lining fluid (ELF)in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
23217559 HDAC1, LL-37 and VHL can modulate the production of VEGF via HIF-1alpha in HaCaT cells
23142587 In this report, human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 was expressed as a fusion with a thioredoxin-SUMO dual-tag.
23100468 LL-37 activates a GPCR-p53-Bax/Bak/Bcl-2 signaling cascade that triggers AIF/EndoG-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
23095809 The pro-inflammatory effects of LL-37 may be essential for initiating oral mucosal inflammation in periodontal disease.
23052388 LL-37 did not induce viral aggregation under electron microscopy.
23045480 IL-13 induces vitamin D-dependent hCAP18/LL-37 expression in bronchial epithelial cells most likely by increasing CYP27B1.
23038277 Sinonasal epithelial cells can generate active vitamin D, which significantly increases the expression of cathelicidin
22943069 LL37 induces VEGF-A production in HPL cells via ERK and NF-kappaB signaling cascades, which may result in angiogenesis, thereby contributing to periodontal regeneration.
22927244 we found that LL37 very efficiently transports self-DNA into monocytes, leading the production of type I IFNs
22901663 Letter: Report IL-36-mediated psoriasin and LL-37 production in keratinocytes via MAPK/NFkappaaB pathway.
22841393 PUFAs failed to induce cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide or CYP24A1 mRNA expression in HT29, U937 and HaCaT cell lines, but curcumin up-regulated CAMP mRNA and protein levels in U937 cells.
22815956 cathelicidin is increased in amniotic fluid in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM)
22781454 LL-37 may participate in the aggravation of asthma. The elevated concentrations of LL-37 in eosinophilic asthma is probably due to the resolved suppression of LL-37 expression by eosinophilic inflammation.
22759465 These findings suggest that TNFalpha-mediated repression of SRC3 contributes to alveolar macrophage cathelicidin deficiency in severe sarcoidosis despite healthy vitD3 levels.
22695798 Vitamin D increases expression in cultured sebocytes
22674298 Data suggest that cathelicidin peptide LL37 can be an ef fi cient prognostic marker for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and a potent therapeutic target against it.
22516952 These findings established the signaling pathway mediating the chemokine induction activity of LL-37 in primary keratinocytes and the synergistic effect of LL-37 on the cell response to flagellin.
22336091 results reinforce the belief that LL-37 is an important molecule of immunity in the oral environment and it seems to play a protective role against caries
22246800 The role of the Src family kinase Lyn in the immunomodulatory activities of cathelicidin peptide LL-37 on monocytic cells
22184422 In contrast, a deficiency of the Treponema denticola major outer sheath protein increased resistance to LL-37.
22095714 The antibacterial effect of LL-37 involves an LL-37-dependent increase in lung cell stiffness that prevents epithelial invasion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
22069323 identified MrgX2 as a novel G protein-coupled receptor for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 and demonstrated that unlike most G protein-coupled receptors it is resistant to agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization.
22039520 LL37 and several cell-penetrating peptides can enhance signaling by TLR3 and enable TLR3 to respond to viral dsRNA
22036268 In the palatine tonsils LL-37 is exclusively expressed by neutrophils and a subset of dendritic cells, it induces secretion of the cytokines CCL5 and CXCL9, expression of IFN-gamma and MX-1 and down-regulates chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR6.
22023339 Xog1p is one of the LL37/hBD-3 targets, and elevated beta-1,3-exoglucanase activity reduces C. albicans adhesion to plastic.
21858032 Data indicate that LL-37 (CAMP) was the most up-regulated gene linked to EPC differentiation.
21850017 Keratinocytes in psoriatic lesional skin express increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 that similarly localizes with elevated expression of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
21832078 ER stress increases CAMP expression via NF-kappaB-C/EBPalpha activation, independent of VDR, illuminating a novel VDR-independent role for ER stress in stimulating innate immunity.
21790937 Altogether, these data demonstrate that cathelicidin plays an important role in controlling intracellular survival of mycobacteria.
21732986 LL-37 may be associated with skin sclerosis by inhibiting apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts.
21713010 Data reveal that Xog1p, originally identified from LL-37 binding, has a role in C. albicans adhesion to polystyrene and, by inference, attach to host cells via direct or indirect manners.
21685939 Functional experiments showed that LL-37-dependent activation of the IGF-1 receptor signaling resulted in increased migratory and invasive potential of malignant cells.
21562016 Data show that the expression of LL-37, pDCs and IFN-alpha was increased in the skin of patients with active SLE.
21529380 Prolonged exposure to IL-4/13 during mucociliary differentiation contributes to antimicrobial defence by increasing the expression and release of LL37 and mucus.
21518024 Circulating LL-37 may be a biomarker for severity of childhood eczema, which supports the importance of innate immunity in eczema pathogenesis
21470491 LL-37 secretion in response to Staphylococcus aureus challenge is dysregulated in Wegener's granulomatasis, and this might be one reason for higher S. aureus colonisation rates in WG.
21463582 The detection of transmembrane pores induced by LL-37, is reported.
21211790 A novel missense mutation of CAMP gene p.S34N mutation in CAMP gene seems to be contributing factor for generalized aggressive periodontitis, but not for chronic periodontitis.
21179490 analysis of vitamin D induction of the human antimicrobial Peptide cathelicidin in the urinary bladder
20970965 PPARgamma regulates the 1,25D-induced hBD-3 and cathelicidin expression in keratinocytes through the regulation of AP-1 and p38 activity.
20849904 Elevated serum LL-37 levels in patients with psoriasis vulgaris may act both as effectors and regulators of immune responses through regulation of a variety of cytokines.
20685090 The results revealed that IG-19 was the shortest fragment within LL-37 that exhibited antibacterial activity. LL-31, missing six residues at the C-terminus of LL-37, exhibited the strongest killing effect Burkholderia thailandensis.
20661475 Curli promoted adherence to epithelial cells and resistance against the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37
20653851 Basal expression of LL-37 and human beta-defensin-2 was not changed in atopic individuals as compared with that in normals.
20646232 hCAP-18/LL-37 has an important role in innate response during periodontal inflammation. Local deficiency in hCAP-18/LL-37 might be a confounding effect in the pathogenesis of generalized aggressive periodontitis.
20624254 Levels of uPAR, PAI-1 and CAP18 were elevated in induced sputum of COPD I + II and COPD III + IV patients, compared with those of healthy non-smokers and healthy smokers.
20610648 LL-37 can (re)direct macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory profile. These macrophages play important roles in the clearance of infections and tissue homeostasis.
20600427 role of CAP18 peptide fragment (LL-37) in innate immunity toward mycobacterial infections [REVIEW]
20556966 The expressions of LL-37 and IL-8 in nasal polyps suggest that they may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis.
20375583 LL-37-stimulated production of IL-6 in airway epithelial cells via activation of NFkappaB signaling pathway.
20190140 The ability of beta-defensins and cathelicidin LL-37 to stimulate the production and release of IL-31 by human mast cells provides a novel mechanism by which skin-derived antimicrobial peptides/proteins may contribute to inflammatory reactions
20140902 LL-37 significantly decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines from stimulated human neutrophils. It induced the production of ROS and the engulfment of bacteria into neutrophils.
20097832 The synergistic induction of apoptosis by LL-37 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa required specific bacteria-epithelial cell interactions with whole, live bacteria, and bacterial invasion of the epithelial cell.
20090765 Increased protease activity and differential processing of cathelicidin accompanied increased KLK expression
20054823 LL-37 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through activation of BMP4 signaling via a proteasome-dependent mechanism.
20042575 The ability of LL-37 to enhance delivery of CpG-rich islands to stimulate immune cells is independent of its amphipathic structure and its bactericidal property.
19949065 we demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of cathelicidin in NK cell antitumor function.
19894716 results support carpeting or toroidal pore mechanisms of membrane disruption by LL-37
19812202 LL-37 modulates interferon (IFN)-gamma responses during both the innate and adaptive phases of immune responses, indicating a new immunomodulatory role for this endogenous peptide.
19808939 The role of the cathelicidin LL-37 in defense of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts and the oral cavity, skin, and eye is considered. Review.
19800862 Data show that SMAP-29 discriminates against negatively charged phospholipids in a similar way to LL-37.
19750480 LL-37 may act as a functional ligand for CXCR2 on human neutrophils.
19703986 LL37 can bind self-RNA released by dying cells, protect it from extracellular degradation, and transport it into endosomal compartments of dendritic cells.
19645825 Epression of CAP18 in atopic dermatitis lesions is suppressed in response to acute injury. Topical application of a vitamin D solution effectively induced the production of CAP18 in eczema lesions.
19625657 Interaction of LL-37 and human mast cells initiates an effective feedback loop to limit cathelicidin activity during inflammation, whereas platelet-derived chemokine CXCL4 protects LL-37 from cleavage by beta-tryptase.
19542465 A novel mechanism is elucidated by which LL-37, although present in large quantities, is essentially inactive against microbes in the cystic fibrosis lung. This is due mainly to complex formation with glycosaminoglycans.
19531482 cAMP stringently regulates human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression in the mucosal epithelial cells by activating cAMP-response element-binding protein, AP-1, and inducible cAMP early repressor
19527294 These data indicate that low concentrations of LL-37 may alter epithelial responses to infecting microorganisms in vivo.
19390494 Data show that the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37, constitutively expressed in the skin barrier of the newborn, significantly inhibited growth of S. epidermidis indicating its importance for the ecological stability of the skin microbiota.
19389235 association between vitamin D status and plasma LL-37, which suggests that systemic LL-37 levels may be regulated by vitamin D status
19346112 data suggest that expression of cathelicidin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells may be closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors
19265148 A novel regulatory mechanism for Toll-like receptor (TLR2)-dependent innate responses to mycobacteria involves crosstalk between NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and TLR2 and the expression of macrophage cathelicidin.
19263072 Salivary LL-37 concentrations increased following exercise
19245866 Bile salts control the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin through nuclear receptors (farnesoid X receptor and vitamin D receptor) in the human biliary epithelium.
19234121 These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells.
19183447 High CAP18 is associated with breast cancer metastasis.
19166322 The mechanism of immunomodulation of LL-37 and LL-37 fragments is lipopoly-saccharide binding
19133797 In individuals initiating chronic hemodialysis, low baseline levels of CAP18, a vitamin D-regulated antimicrobial protein, are independently associated with an increased risk of death attributable to infection.
19014773 Administration of oral vitamin D induces cathelicidin production in atopic individuals
18936485 LL-37 has the paradoxical effect of stimulating CsrRS-regulated virulence gene expression, thereby enhancing GAS pathogenicity during infection.
18818205 analysis of the structure of cathelicidin LL-37 and its smallest antimicrobial peptide KR-12 in lipid micelles
18765670 P2X(7) is involved in the proliferative cell response to LL-37 and that the structural/aggregational properties of LL-37 determine its capacity to modulate the activation state of P2X(7).
18717821 The authors show that enteric pathogens suppress LL-37 and HBD-1 expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) exerting the most dramatic effects.
18703682 Myeloid cells of patients with severe congenital neutropenia are capable of producin pro-LL37.
18657865 lithocholic acid enhances CAMP transcription, and does so additively with butyrate.
18579695 these results indicate that the MEK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways play a critical role in the regulation of inducible LL-37 gene expression in A549 cells infected with M. bovis BCG.
18490458 the findings provide in vivo support of the hypothesis that SpeB-mediated inactivation of LL-37 at the streptococcal surface represents a bacterial resistance mechanism at the infected tissue site in patients with severe GAS tissue infections.
18258235 Both hCAP-18/SOB3 messenger RNA and hCAP-18/SOB3 protein were detected in testis germinal cells (from late spermatogonia to spermatozoa) and in the epididymal epithelium.
18200058 Sebocytes express functional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides and can act to kill propionibacterium acnes.
18166145 LL-37 may exert its antimicrobial effects by compromising the membrane barrier properties of the target microbes by a mechanism involving cytotoxic oligomers.
18059019 LL-37 can directly stimulate mucus synthesis through activation of MUC1 and MUC2 expression and MAP kinase pathway in human colonic cells.
17960624 hCAP-18/LL-37 is significantly overexpressed in ovarian tumors and suggest LL-37 may contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis through direct stimulation of tumor cells, initiation of angiogenesis and recruitment of immune cells.
17943182 The epigenetic control of gene transcription by histone acetylation is important for 1,25D3-regulated cathelicidin and CD14 expression.
17922409 The expression of Cathelicidin and human beta-defensin 2 mRNA in patients with infective cellulitis and normal controls is reported.
17882905 This study shows expression of CAMP (cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide) in nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis patients, supporting its role in innate defenses against inhaled pathogens.
17873860 data uncover a fundamental role of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide (LL37) in breaking innate tolerance to self-DNA and suggest that this pathway may drive autoimmunity in psoriasis
17805349 LL-37 significantly improved re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation.
17764778 The host defence peptide cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 acts as growth factor for human lung cancer.
17709140 Negative and positive regulatory elements within the hCAP18 gene promoter provide new insights into the possible molecular basis of myeloid gene expression.
17676051 confirm the role of cathelicidin in skin inflammatory responses and suggest an explanation for the pathogenesis of rosacea by demonstrating that an exacerbated innate immune response can reproduce elements of this disease
17675463 cathelicidin is required for the 1,25D(3)-triggered antimicrobial activity against intracellular M. tuberculosis.
17627504 demonstrates that LL-37 inhibits HIV-1 replication in PBMC, including primary CD4(+) T cells; inhibition was readily reproduced using various HIV-1 isolates without detectable changes in the target cell expression of HIV-1 chemokine receptors
17621825 significantly up-regulated at the mRNA and protein level in chronic rhinosinusitis patients in response to fungal allergens.
17400609 fMLF stimulation promotes redistribution of hCAP-18 to the surface of human neutrophils
17181861 Study shows that LL-37 is present in atherosclerotic lesions and that it induces death of vascular smooth muscle cells, suggesting a role for LL-37 as a mediator of immune cell-induced death of vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis.
17041145 We propose that LL-37 is a regulator of host defense responses at the intersection of innate and adaptive immune systems.
17015740 LL-37 is a soluble factor responsible for a part of the bactericidal activity of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells
17012259 KLK5 and KLK7 were shown to control activation of CAP18 and also influence further processing to smaller peptides with alternate biological activity; the balance of proteolytic activity at an epithelial interface will control innate immune defense
16998135 The concentrations of salivary hCAP18 and LL-37 were found to be higher in individuals with Down syndrome than in controls, but secretion rates were similar.
16926414 Human gingival epithelial cells constitutively express hBD1 and inducibly express hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 on exposure to A. actinomycetemcomitans.
16764694 LL-37, released upon triggering of innate immunity, may affect cellular adaptive immunity through interaction with immature dendritic cells.
16751768 Data describe the production and function of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides LL-37, its precursor hCAP-18 and its ortholog CRAMP in epithelial cells of human and mouse urinary tract, respectively.
16750994 LL-37 is a regulator of the inflammatory process in various inflammatory lung diseases by enhancing IL-8 production.
16645154 LL-37 is produced in atherosclerotic lesions, where it may function as an immune modulator by activating adhesion molecule and chemokine expression, thus enhancing innate immunity in atherosclerosis.
16630942 role of cathelicidin in host susceptibility to HSV infection
16497887 reported here that Toll-like receptor activation of macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1-hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis
16493063 LL-37 not only kills bacteria, but also modulates/suppresses neutrophil apoptosis via the activation of formyl-peptide receptor-like 1 and P2X7 purinergic receptor in bacterial infections.
16456005 proposition that the natural human host defense peptide LL-37 plays roles in the delicate balancing of inflammatory responses in homeostasis as well as in combating sepsis induced by certain TLR agonists
16236890 Induced-sputum innate immune factor levels discriminate inflammatory changes in cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma.
16177113 LL-37 induces keratinocyte migration via heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated transactivation of the EGF receptor
16034119 Human cathelicidin LL-37 activates normal human keratinocytes to secrete IL-18
15953032 results in this study suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae may gain a survival advantage in the female genital tract by downregulating LL-37 expression
15864780 ASK1-p38 cascade regulates the innate immunity of the skin by forming an immune barrier consisting of hBD, LL37, and TLR2 during epidermal differentiation.
15778507 The human cathelicidin hCAP-18/LL-37 peptide is reviewed in detail in the context of its role in lung physiology and defense.
15778390 proteolytic processing may alter the balance between cathelicidin antimicrobial and host immunostimulatory functions
15717688 its deficiency in acute myeloid leukemia may be one of the explanations for susceptibility to infection among these patients.
15675959 fluorescent bacteria colocalize with cathelicidin in granules both intracellularly and at the cell surface in keratinocytes
15661923 In contrast to beta-defensin-1 and -2, LL-37 mRNA expression is not detected in neonatal airway epithelial cultures.
15645239 LL-37 may prevent sepsis and be useful in lower doses for treating sepsis. However, LL-37 appears to have adverse effects when used at higher doses for treating sepsis.
15609314 hCAP18/LL-37 may promote tumor cell growth in breast cancer
15591123 Effects of neutrophil defensins and hCAP-18/LL-37 on airway epithelial cells. (review)
15531744 cathelicidin is secreted in mammary gland and human milk, has antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can contribute to the anti-infectious properties of milk
15500911 identified as component of human trypanosome lytic factor 1 (TLF1)
15364108 Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid both increased hCAP-18/LL-37 expression in cultured sinus epithelium as assessed by immunohistochemistry, where maximal stimulation occurred at 100 ng ml(-1) lipopolysaccharide or 10 microg ml(-1) lipoteichoic
15322010 Proteus mirabilis ZapA metalloprotease readily cleaves LL37 and this proteolysis results in significantly reduced bactericidal activity
15222757 the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayers is perturbed by the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37
15067080 Endogenous LL37 may promote interleukin-1 beta processing and release via direct activation of monocyte P2X7 purinoceptors.
15004180 Cathelicidin LL-37 induces activation of both the p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in monocytes and epithelial cells.
14978112 After secretion onto the skin surface, CAMP is processed by a serine protease-dependent mechanism into multiple novel antimicrobial peptides distinct from the cathelicidin LL-37, with enhanced antimicrobial action.
14561157 antibacterial peptides may modulate the inflammatory responses by recruiting mast cells to inflammation foci and inducing the degranulation as well as prostaglandin production from this cell population--REVIEW
12782669 LL-37/hCAP-18 is a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide with a central role in innate immunity by linking host defense and inflammation with angiogenesis and arteriogenesis
12767238 LL37 has a toroidal pore mechanism of lipid bilayer disruption
12759353 human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide-18 in seminal plasma is processed to generate a 38-amino acid antimicrobial peptide ALL-38 by the prostate-derived protease gastricsin when incubated at a pH corresponding to the vaginal pH
12713586 human cathelicidin represents an elegant multifunctional effector molecule for innate immune defense of the skin
12612195 human cathelicidin (LL-37/hCAP/18) and beta-defensin-2 demonstrated synergistic antimicrobial activity and efficiently killed group B Streptococcus, an important neonatal pathogen.
12603850 high levels are produced in skin in vivo upon wounding; results suggest its C-terminal fragment LL-37 plays a part in wound closure and that its reduction in chronic wounds impairs re-epithelialization and may contribute to their failure to heal
12366839 degradation and inactivation by proteinases of pathogenic bacteria
12351523 study showed the presence of intact cationic antimicrobial protein-18 in sperm, prostasomes and ultracentrifuged seminal plasma; may have an important role in antimicrobial defence during human reproduction
12244186 CAP-18 up-regulates 29 genes as well as the expression of chemokines in macrophages and mouse lung, human A549 epithelial cells, and whole human blood, without stimulating the proinflammatory cytokine TNF alpha; and it downregulates another 20 genes.

AA Sequence

KSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPRTES                                            141 - 170

Text Mined References (259)

PMID Year Title
26903652 2016 ER stress stimulates production of the key antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, by forming a previously unidentified intracellular S1P signaling complex.
26873992 2016 Cathelicidins Have Direct Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Vitro and Protective Function In Vivo in Mice and Humans.
26778002 2016 The modulatory effect of TLR2 on LL-37-induced human mast cells activation.
26585423 2016 Vitamin D represses rhinovirus replication in cystic fibrosis cells by inducing LL-37.
26556394 2016 The human cathelicidin LL-37--A pore-forming antibacterial peptide and host-cell modulator.
26502164 2015 A Spectroscopic Study of the Aggregation State of the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 in Bacterial versus Host Cell Model Membranes.
26468750 2015 Group A Streptococcal M1 Protein Sequesters Cathelicidin to Evade Innate Immune Killing.
26433491 2016 Vitamin D3 modulates the innate immune response through regulation of the hCAP-18/LL-37 gene expression and cytokine production.
26422567 2015 Cathelicidin as a link between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.
26416907 2015 Chlamydial plasmid-encoded virulence factor Pgp3 neutralizes the antichlamydial activity of human cathelicidin LL-37.
26351280 2015 LL-37 immunomodulatory activity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macrophages.
26297208 2015 LL37 inhibits the inflammatory endothelial response induced by viral or endogenous DNA.
26119962 2015 The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies: a prospective study.
26116509 2015 P2X7 Receptor Regulates Internalization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 by Human Macrophages That Promotes Intracellular Pathogen Clearance.
26100635 2015 Lipopolysaccharide Phosphorylation by the WaaY Kinase Affects the Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37.
26053625 2015 Activation of HIF-1? and LL-37 by commensal bacteria inhibits Candida albicans colonization.
25931489 2015 Increased serum levels of LL37, HMGB1 and S100A9 during exacerbation in COPD patients.
25841238 2015 Microenvironmental hCAP-18/LL-37 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by activating its cancer stem cell compartment.
25597616 2015 Decrease of LL-37 in systemic sclerosis: a new marker for interstitial lung disease?
25596923 2015 Vitamin D promotes human extravillous trophoblast invasion in vitro.
25596747 2015 Cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by macrophages, promotes colon cancer by activating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
25535966 2014 No evidence of pathogenic involvement of cathelicidins in patient cohorts and mouse models of lupus and arthritis.
25512526 2014 pH modulates the activity and synergism of the airway surface liquid antimicrobials ?-defensin-3 and LL-37.
25510482 2015 Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with a vitamin D deficiency demonstrate low local expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 but enhanced FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and IgG-secreting cells.
25470744 2014 The antimicrobial peptide LL37 is a T-cell autoantigen in psoriasis.
25435436 2015 Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein 18 (hCAP18/LL-37) is increased in foetal membranes and myometrium after spontaneous labour and delivery.
25378408 2014 The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 binds directly to CsrS, a sensor histidine kinase of group A Streptococcus, to activate expression of virulence factors.
25378136 2015 New aspects of the structure and mode of action of the human cathelicidin LL-37 revealed by the intrinsic probe p-cyanophenylalanine.
25354286 2015 Diagnostic value of anti-microbial peptide, cathelicidin in congenital pneumonia.
25330301 2014 Vesicular LL-37 contributes to inflammation of the lesional skin of palmoplantar pustulosis.
25306296 2014 Cathelicidin peptide LL-37 increases UVB-triggered inflammasome activation: possible implications for rosacea.
25305315 2014 Alarmin function of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37 through IL-36? induction in human epidermal keratinocytes.
25268344 2014 Favorable interleukin-8 induction in human gingival epithelial cells by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
25197165 2014 Serum levels of LL-37 and inflammatory cytokines in plaque and guttate psoriasis.
25101632 2014 Antibacterial function of the human cathelicidin-18 peptide (LL-37) between theory and practice.
25092290 2014 LL-37 peptide enhancement of signal transduction by Toll-like receptor 3 is regulated by pH: identification of a peptide antagonist of LL-37.
25089904 2014 Human cathelicidin production by the cervix.
25078430 2015 C/EBP? and the Vitamin D Receptor Cooperate in the Regulation of Cathelicidin in Lung Epithelial Cells.
25012862 2014 Novel role of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in the protection of neutrophil extracellular traps against degradation by bacterial nucleases.
24947511 2014 Actin enables the antimicrobial action of LL-37 peptide in the presence of microbial proteases.
24903994 2014 Proteins induced by telomere dysfunction are associated with human IgA nephropathy.
24903937 2014 Cathelicidin and human ?-defensin 2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with pulmonary tuberculosis.
24901072 2014 The human Cathelicidin LL-37 induces MUC5AC mucin production by airway epithelial cells via TACE-TGF-?-EGFR pathway.
24862212 2014 The human cathelicidin LL-37 host defense peptide upregulates tight junction-related proteins and increases human epidermal keratinocyte barrier function.
24821067 2014 Plasma LL-37 correlates with vitamin D and is reduced in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected individuals not receiving antiretroviral therapy.
24798231 2014 LL-37 concentrations and the relationship to vitamin D, immune status, and inflammation in HIV-infected children and young adults.
24771854 2014 Citrullination alters immunomodulatory function of LL-37 essential for prevention of endotoxin-induced sepsis.
24763694 2014 Cationic antimicrobial peptides promote microbial mutagenesis and pathoadaptation in chronic infections.
24747281 2014 Serum antimicrobial peptides in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.
24736410 2014 Cathelicidin LL-37 induces time-resolved release of LTB4 and TXA2 by human macrophages and triggers eicosanoid generation in vivo.
24666281 2014 Human cathelicidin LL-37 and its derivative IG-19 regulate interleukin-32-induced inflammation.
24454930 2014 Antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide LL-37 inhibits the LPS/ATP-induced pyroptosis of macrophages by dual mechanism.
24394186 2014 Skin electroporation of a plasmid encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 host defense peptide promotes wound healing.
24383796 2014 Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in cholesteatoma enables keratinocyte reactivity with cytosolic DNA.
24349231 2013 Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
24291709 2014 The human cathelicidin LL-37 enhances airway mucus production in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
24286516 2013 The influence of cathelicidin LL37 in human anti-neutrophils cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis.
24117320 2014 Native oligomerization determines the mode of action and biological activities of human cathelicidin LL-37.
23953711 2014 Polymorphism in cathelicidin gene (CAMP) that alters Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1?::ARNT) binding is not associated with tuberculosis.
23834289 2013 Meningococcal resistance to antimicrobial peptides is mediated by bacterial adhesion and host cell RhoA and Cdc42 signalling.
23766266 2013 Cathelicidin LL-37 induces angiogenesis via PGE2-EP3 signaling in endothelial cells, in vivo inhibition by aspirin.
23760318 Measurement of vitamin D and cathelicidin (LL-37) levels in patients of psoriasis with co-morbidities.
23533145 2013 In-depth proteomic analyses of exosomes isolated from expressed prostatic secretions in urine.
23499548 2013 Visfatin enhances the production of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, human ?-defensin-2, human ?-defensin-3, and S100A7 in human keratinocytes and their orthologs in murine imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin.
23452544 2013 Vitamin D-dependent cathelicidin inhibits Mycobacterium marinum infection in human monocytic cells.
23424670 2013 Tumor-produced versican V1 enhances hCAP18/LL-37 expression in macrophages through activation of TLR2 and vitamin D3 signaling to promote ovarian cancer progression in vitro.
23406612 2013 The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 alters human osteoblast Ca2+ handling and induces Ca2+-independent apoptosis.
23406372 2013 Structural and functional analysis of the pro-domain of human cathelicidin, LL-37.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
23332157 2013 Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 produced by HSV-2-infected keratinocytes enhances HIV infection of Langerhans cells.
23328115 2013 Cathelicidin LL-37 bloodstream surveillance is down regulated during septic shock.
23283724 2013 Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin promotes adhesion of classical monocytes.
23274176 2013 Reversal of ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance by human cathelicidin and its analogs in cancer cells.
23267025 2013 Neutrophil extracellular trap-associated protein activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is enhanced in lupus macrophages.
23246832 2012 A comprehensive summary of LL-37, the factotum human cathelicidin peptide.
23241112 Cathelicidin LL-37 in bronchoalveolar lavage and epithelial lining fluids from COPD patients and healthy individuals.
23217559 2012 Vascular endothelial growth factor production is induced by histone deacetylase 1 and suppressed by von Hippel-Lindau protein in HaCaT cells.
23142587 2013 Production of human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in Escherichia coli using a thioredoxin-SUMO dual fusion system.
23100468 2012 Host immune defense peptide LL-37 activates caspase-independent apoptosis and suppresses colon cancer.
23095809 2013 Involvement of the P2X7 purinergic receptor and c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 induction by LL-37.
23052388 2013 The human cathelicidin LL-37 inhibits influenza A viruses through a mechanism distinct from that of surfactant protein D or defensins.
23045480 2012 Interleukin 13 exposure enhances vitamin D-mediated expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18/LL-37 in bronchial epithelial cells.
23038277 2013 Sinonasal epithelial cells synthesize active vitamin D, augmenting host innate immune function.
22943069 2013 Antimicrobial peptide LL37 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in human periodontal ligament cells.
22927244 2012 Cytosolic sensing of extracellular self-DNA transported into monocytes by the antimicrobial peptide LL37.
22901663 2012 Interleukin-36 cytokines enhance the production of host defense peptides psoriasin and LL-37 by human keratinocytes through activation of MAPKs and NF-?B.
22841393 2013 Curcumin induces human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression through a vitamin D receptor-independent pathway.
22815956 2012 Amniotic fluid cathelicidin in PPROM pregnancies: from proteomic discovery to assessing its potential in inflammatory complications diagnosis.
22781454 2012 [Post-therapeutic change of cathelicidin LL-37 in asthmatics of different inflammatory phenotypes].
22759465 2012 Alveolar macrophage cathelicidin deficiency in severe sarcoidosis.
22695798 2012 Vitamin D increases expression of cathelicidin in cultured sebocytes.
22674298 The over expression of cathelicidin peptide LL37 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: the peptide marker for the prognosis of cancer.
22516952 2012 Signaling pathways mediating chemokine induction in keratinocytes by cathelicidin LL-37 and flagellin.
22336091 2012 Salivary concentration of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in children.
22246800 2012 The role of the Src family kinase Lyn in the immunomodulatory activities of cathelicidin peptide LL-37 on monocytic cells.
22184422 2012 The antibacterial activity of LL-37 against Treponema denticola is dentilisin protease independent and facilitated by the major outer sheath protein virulence factor.
22095714 2011 Cathelicidin LL-37 increases lung epithelial cell stiffness, decreases transepithelial permeability, and prevents epithelial invasion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
22069323 2011 Mas-related gene X2 (MrgX2) is a novel G protein-coupled receptor for the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in human mast cells: resistance to receptor phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization.
22039520 2011 LL37 and cationic peptides enhance TLR3 signaling by viral double-stranded RNAs.
22036268 2012 The anti-microbial peptide LL-37 modulates immune responses in the palatine tonsils where it is exclusively expressed by neutrophils and a subset of dendritic cells.
22023339 2012 LL37 and hBD-3 elevate the ?-1,3-exoglucanase activity of Candida albicans Xog1p, resulting in reduced fungal adhesion to plastic.
21858032 2011 Successful in vitro expansion and differentiation of cord blood derived CD34+ cells into early endothelial progenitor cells reveals highly differential gene expression.
21850017 2012 Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in psoriasis enables keratinocyte reactivity against TLR9 ligands.
21832078 2011 Regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, vitamin D receptor-independent pathway.
21790937 2011 Cathelicidin is involved in the intracellular killing of mycobacteria in macrophages.
21732986 2011 LL-37 suppresses sodium nitroprusside-induced apoptosis of systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts.
21713010 2011 Characterizing the role of cell-wall ?-1,3-exoglucanase Xog1p in Candida albicans adhesion by the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
21685939 2012 Identification of the cathelicidin peptide LL-37 as agonist for the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor.
21562016 2011 LL-37 expression in the skin in systemic lupus erythematosus.
21529380 2011 IL-4 and IL-13 exposure during mucociliary differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells increases antimicrobial activity and expression of antimicrobial peptides.
21518024 2012 Circulating LL-37 is a biomarker for eczema severity in children.
21470491 Antimicrobial peptides in nasal secretion and mucosa with respect to S. aureus colonisation in Wegener´s granulomatosis.
21463582 2011 Transmembrane pores formed by human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
21211790 2011 A novel p.S34N mutation of CAMP gene in patients with periodontal disease.
21179490 2010 Vitamin D induction of the human antimicrobial Peptide cathelicidin in the urinary bladder.
21115716 2011 Role of defensins in corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa traversal.
20970965 2010 PPAR? mediates innate immunity by regulating the 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induced hBD-3 and cathelicidin in human keratinocytes.
20849904 2010 Increased serum leucine, leucine-37 levels in psoriasis: positive and negative feedback loops of leucine, leucine-37 and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines.
20685090 2010 Antimicrobial activities of LL-37 and its truncated variants against Burkholderia thailandensis.
20661475 2010 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli modulates immune responses and its curli fimbriae interact with the antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
20653851 Expression of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 and hBD-2 in nonlesional skin of atopic individuals.
20646232 2011 Antimicrobial peptide hCAP-18/LL-37 protein and mRNA expressions in different periodontal diseases.
20624254 2010 Urokinase-type plasminogen activator system and human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 in serum and induced sputum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
20610648 2010 LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.
20600427 2010 The human cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37: a multifunctional peptide involved in mycobacterial infections.
20556966 2010 [Expressions of LL-37 and IL-8 in chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps].
20375583 2009 Host defence peptide LL-37 induces IL-6 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.
20209079 2010 The Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta-protein is an antimicrobial peptide.
20190140 2010 Antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin LL-37 induce the secretion of a pruritogenic cytokine IL-31 by human mast cells.
20140902 2010 The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 modulates the inflammatory and host defense response of human neutrophils.
20097832 2010 The human cathelicidin LL-37 preferentially promotes apoptosis of infected airway epithelium.
20090765 2010 Kallikrein expression and cathelicidin processing are independently controlled in keratinocytes by calcium, vitamin D(3), and retinoic acid.
20054823 2010 The host defense peptide LL-37 activates the tumor-suppressing bone morphogenetic protein signaling via inhibition of proteasome in gastric cancer cells.
20042575 2010 LL-37 promotes rapid sensing of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides by B lymphocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
19949065 2010 The host defense peptide cathelicidin is required for NK cell-mediated suppression of tumor growth.
19894716 2009 Fluorescence and UV resonance Raman study of peptide-vesicle interactions of human cathelicidin LL-37 and its F6W and F17W mutants.
19812202 2009 Human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 modulates the effects of IFN-gamma on APCs.
19808939 2010 Human defensins and LL-37 in mucosal immunity.
19800862 2010 A comparative study on the interactions of SMAP-29 with lipid monolayers.
19750480 2009 Evidence that cathelicidin peptide LL-37 may act as a functional ligand for CXCR2 on human neutrophils.
19703986 2009 Self-RNA-antimicrobial peptide complexes activate human dendritic cells through TLR7 and TLR8.
19645825 2010 Injury downregulates the expression of the human cathelicidin protein hCAP18/LL-37 in atopic dermatitis.
19625657 2009 The cathelicidin LL-37 activates human mast cells and is degraded by mast cell tryptase: counter-regulation by CXCL4.
19542465 2009 LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.
19531482 2009 cAMP stringently regulates human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression in the mucosal epithelial cells by activating cAMP-response element-binding protein, AP-1, and inducible cAMP early repressor.
19527294 2009 Low concentrations of LL-37 alter IL-8 production by keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells in response to proinflammatory stimuli.
19390494 2009 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from newborn infants express pilus-like structures and are inhibited by the cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide LL37.
19389235 2009 Alterations in vitamin D status and anti-microbial peptide levels in patients in the intensive care unit with sepsis.
19346112 2009 Association of human cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) gene expression with cardiovascular disease risk factors.
19265148 2009 NADPH oxidase 2 interaction with TLR2 is required for efficient innate immune responses to mycobacteria via cathelicidin expression.
19263072 2009 Salivary antimicrobial peptides (LL-37 and alpha-defensins HNP1-3), antimicrobial and IgA responses to prolonged exercise.
19245866 2009 Bile salts control the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin through nuclear receptors in the human biliary epithelium.
19234121 2009 The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.
19183447 2009 Human antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 promotes a metastatic phenotype in breast cancer.
19166322 2009 Structure-function relationship of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and LL-37 fragments in the modulation of TLR responses.
19133797 2009 Low plasma level of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18) predicts increased infectious disease mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
19056867 2009 Large-scale proteomics and phosphoproteomics of urinary exosomes.
19014773 2008 Administration of oral vitamin D induces cathelicidin production in atopic individuals.
18936485 2008 Induction of group A Streptococcus virulence by a human antimicrobial peptide.
18818205 2008 Structures of human host defense cathelicidin LL-37 and its smallest antimicrobial peptide KR-12 in lipid micelles.
18765670 2008 The human cathelicidin LL-37 modulates the activities of the P2X7 receptor in a structure-dependent manner.
18717821 2008 Bacterial exotoxins downregulate cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) and human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells.
18714013 2008 The major bactericidal activity of human seminal plasma is zinc-dependent and derived from fragmentation of the semenogelins.
18703682 2008 Vitamin D3 induces pro-LL-37 expression in myeloid precursors from patients with severe congenital neutropenia.
18657865 2008 PU.1 and bacterial metabolites regulate the human gene CAMP encoding antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in colon epithelial cells.
18579695 2008 Expression and secretion of cathelicidin LL-37 in human epithelial cells after infection by Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
18490458 2008 Cathelicidin LL-37 in severe Streptococcus pyogenes soft tissue infections in humans.
18258235 2008 Testicular and epididymal dual origin of hCAP-18/SOB3, a human sperm protein.
18200058 2008 Sebocytes express functional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides and can act to kill propionibacterium acnes.
18166145 2008 Binding of LL-37 to model biomembranes: insight into target vs host cell recognition.
18059019 2008 Cathelicidin stimulates colonic mucus synthesis by up-regulating MUC1 and MUC2 expression through a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
17960624 2008 Ovarian cancers overexpress the antimicrobial protein hCAP-18 and its derivative LL-37 increases ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
17943182 2008 Histone acetylation in keratinocytes enables control of the expression of cathelicidin and CD14 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
17922409 2007 Expression of antimicrobial peptides in the normal and involved skin of patients with infective cellulitis.
17882905 Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide is up-regulated in the eosinophilic mucus subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis patients.
17873860 2007 Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense self-DNA coupled with antimicrobial peptide.
17805349 2008 In vitro and in vivo wound healing-promoting activities of human cathelicidin LL-37.
17764778 2008 The host defence peptide LL-37/hCAP-18 is a growth factor for lung cancer cells.
17709140 2008 Complex regulation of human cathelicidin gene expression: novel splice variants and 5'UTR negative regulatory element.
17676051 2007 Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea.
17675463 2007 Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin.
17627504 2007 The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 inhibits HIV-1 replication.
17621825 Fungal allergens induce cathelicidin LL-37 expression in chronic rhinosinusitis patients in a nasal explant model.
17400609 2007 Localization of hCAP-18 on the surface of chemoattractant-stimulated human granulocytes: analysis using two novel hCAP-18-specific monoclonal antibodies.
17207965 2007 hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes.
17181861 2006 Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is present in atherosclerotic plaques and induces death of vascular smooth muscle cells: a laboratory study.
17041145 2006 The anti-microbial peptide LL-37 inhibits the activation of dendritic cells by TLR ligands.
17015740 2006 Release of LL-37 by activated human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells: a microbicidal weapon against Brucella suis.
17012259 2006 Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin.
16998135 2006 Salivary LL-37 secretion in individuals with Down syndrome is normal.
16926414 2006 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans outer membrane protein 100 triggers innate immunity and production of beta-defensin and the 18-kilodalton cationic antimicrobial protein through the fibronectin-integrin pathway in human gingival epithelial cells.
16764694 2006 Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 internalized by immature human dendritic cells alters their phenotype.
16751768 2006 The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection.
16750994 2006 The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 enhances IL-8 release by human airway smooth muscle cells.
16645154 2006 Involvement of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in human atherosclerosis.
16637646 2006 Solution structures of human LL-37 fragments and NMR-based identification of a minimal membrane-targeting antimicrobial and anticancer region.
16630942 2006 Cathelicidin deficiency predisposes to eczema herpeticum.
16497887 2006 Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.
16493063 2006 An antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide, human CAP18/LL-37, suppresses neutrophil apoptosis via the activation of formyl-peptide receptor-like 1 and P2X7.
16456005 2006 Modulation of the TLR-mediated inflammatory response by the endogenous human host defense peptide LL-37.
16236890 2005 Sputum cathelicidin, urokinase plasminogen activation system components, and cytokines discriminate cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma inflammation.
16177355 2005 Keratinocyte production of cathelicidin provides direct activity against bacterial skin pathogens.
16177113 2005 Induction of keratinocyte migration via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
16034119 2005 The human beta-defensins (-1, -2, -3, -4) and cathelicidin LL-37 induce IL-18 secretion through p38 and ERK MAPK activation in primary human keratinocytes.
15953032 2005 Neisseria gonorrhoeae downregulates expression of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
15864780 2005 New mechanisms of skin innate immunity: ASK1-mediated keratinocyte differentiation regulates the expression of beta-defensins, LL37, and TLR2.
15778507 2005 Pulmonary defense and the human cathelicidin hCAP-18/LL-37.
15778390 2005 Structure-function relationships among human cathelicidin peptides: dissociation of antimicrobial properties from host immunostimulatory activities.
15717688 2005 Marked reduction of LL-37/hCAP-18, an antimicrobial peptide, in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
15675959 2005 Keratinocytes store the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in lamellar bodies.
15661923 2005 Expression and activity of beta-defensins and LL-37 in the developing human lung.
15645239 2005 Effect of antibacterial cathelicidin peptide CAP18/LL-37 on sepsis in neonatal rats.
15609314 2005 Antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 is highly expressed in breast cancer and is a putative growth factor for epithelial cells.
15591123 2005 Interactions between neutrophil-derived antimicrobial peptides and airway epithelial cells.
15531744 2005 Expression and secretion of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in murine mammary glands and human milk.
15500911 2004 Characterization of primate trypanosome lytic factors.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15364108 2004 Bacterial products increase expression of the human cathelicidin hCAP-18/LL-37 in cultured human sinus epithelial cells.
15322010 2004 Proteus mirabilis ZapA metalloprotease degrades a broad spectrum of substrates, including antimicrobial peptides.
15222757 2004 Perturbation of the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayers by the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
15067080 2004 A novel P2X7 receptor activator, the human cathelicidin-derived peptide LL37, induces IL-1 beta processing and release.
15004180 2004 The human cationic peptide LL-37 induces activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 kinase pathways in primary human monocytes.
14978112 2004 Postsecretory processing generates multiple cathelicidins for enhanced topical antimicrobial defense.
14561157 2003 Epithelial cell-derived antibacterial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin: multifunctional activities on mast cells.
12860195 2003 Antimicrobial peptides in the first line defence of human colon mucosa.
12782669 2003 An angiogenic role for the human peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18.
12767238 2003 Mechanism of lipid bilayer disruption by the human antimicrobial peptide, LL-37.
12759353 2003 Processing of seminal plasma hCAP-18 to ALL-38 by gastricsin: a novel mechanism of generating antimicrobial peptides in vagina.
12713586 2003 Antimicrobial and protease inhibitory functions of the human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) prosequence.
12625579 2003 Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in chronic nasal inflammatory disease.
12612195 2003 Neonatal skin in mice and humans expresses increased levels of antimicrobial peptides: innate immunity during development of the adaptive response.
12603850 2003 The cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is involved in re-epithelialization of human skin wounds and is lacking in chronic ulcer epithelium.
12578451 2003 Expression of cathelicidin in human salivary glands.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12454100 2002 Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides are expressed in salivary glands and saliva.
12445197 2002 Cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide expression in sweat, an innate defense system for the skin.
12375270 2002 Antimicrobial peptides are expressed and produced in healthy and inflamed human synovial membranes.
12366839 2002 Proteinases of common pathogenic bacteria degrade and inactivate the antibacterial peptide LL-37.
12351523 2002 Isolation of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 from seminal plasma and its association with prostasomes.
12244186 2002 The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is a multifunctional modulator of innate immune responses.
12101274 2002 Sorting of neutrophil-specific granule protein human cathelicidin, hCAP-18, when constitutively expressed in myeloid cells.
11972628 2002 A cathelicidin family of human antibacterial peptide LL-37 induces mast cell chemotaxis.
11796631 2002 Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human colon epithelium.
11753073 2002 Cathelicidins: a family of endogenous antimicrobial peptides.
11544322 2001 Cathelicidin family of antibacterial peptides CAP18 and CAP11 inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha by blocking the binding of LPS to CD14(+) cells.
11389039 2001 Human cathelicidin, hCAP-18, is processed to the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by extracellular cleavage with proteinase 3.
11238224 2001 Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mucosal antimicrobial peptides are close homologues of human molecules.
11049988 2000 The human antimicrobial and chemotactic peptides LL-37 and alpha-defensins are expressed by specific lymphocyte and monocyte populations.
11015447 2000 LL-37, the neutrophil granule- and epithelial cell-derived cathelicidin, utilizes formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) as a receptor to chemoattract human peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells.
10858248 2000 The human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP-18) is expressed in the epithelium of human epididymis, is present in seminal plasma at high concentrations, and is attached to spermatozoa.
10225921 1999 The human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), a peptide antibiotic, is widely expressed in human squamous epithelia and colocalizes with interleukin-6.
9689116 1998 The peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18 is expressed in epithelia of the human lung where it has broad antimicrobial activity at the airway surface.
9182550 1997 The expression of the gene coding for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 is induced in human keratinocytes during inflammatory disorders.
8946956 1996 Structural, functional analysis and localization of the human CAP18 gene.
8681941 1996 The human gene FALL39 and processing of the cathelin precursor to the antibacterial peptide LL-37 in granulocytes.
7890387 1995 Human CAP18: a novel antimicrobial lipopolysaccharide-binding protein.
7624374 1995 Structure of the gene for porcine peptide antibiotic PR-39, a cathelin gene family member: comparative mapping of the locus for the human peptide antibiotic FALL-39.
7615076 1995 hCAP-18, a cathelin/pro-bactenecin-like protein of human neutrophil specific granules.
7529412 1995 FALL-39, a putative human peptide antibiotic, is cysteine-free and expressed in bone marrow and testis.