Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 33
PubMed Score 273.85
PubTator Score 44.68

Knowledge Summary


No data available



Accession Q9HAY6 A0AV48 A0AV50 Q9NVH5
Symbols BCO


PANTHER Protein Class (2)

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Protein-protein Interaction (1)

Gene RIF (26)

25445224 This study indicates that the competitive actions of HNF-1alpha and HNF-4alpha on their overlapping binding sites in the human BCMO1 gene promoter oppositely regulate BCMO1 gene expression in the human small intestine.
25270992 Data suggest that beta-cryptoxanthin is a poorer substrate for BCMO1 than is beta-carotene; however, the comparatively high bioavailability of beta-cryptoxanthin from foods makes beta-cryptoxanthin-rich fruits good sources of vitamin A. [REVIEW]
24668807 Together with the data from (18)O-retinal-H2(16)O and (16)O-retinal-H2(18)O incubations to account for nonenzymatic oxygen exchange, our results show that BCO1 incorporates only oxygen from O2 into retinal. Thus, BCO1 is a dioxygenase.
24668807 Incubation of beta-carotene and recombinant human BCMO1 in either H2(18)O-(16)O2 or H2(16)O-(18)O2 medium yields two retinal products both of which contain oxygen atoms originating solely from O2 gas. The results show that BCMO1 is a dioxygenase and not a monooxygenase as previously thought.
24586510 Specific BCMO1 SNPs should be determined when assessing the effects of carotenoid supplementation on macular pigment and that their expression may be influenced by retinal disease.
24187135 Substrate specificity of purified recombinant human beta-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1).
24106281 a stepwise cleavage by BCO2 and BCO1 with APO10ol as an intermediate could provide a mechanism to tailor asymmetric carotenoids such as beta-cryptoxanthin for vitamin A production.
24071514 CMO1 is expressed in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells and converts beta-carotene into retinal and biologically active retinoic acids.
23803888 Inhibition of BCMO1 expression is associated with increased invasiveness of colon cancer cells and increased expression of MMP7 and MMP28. beta-Carotene can upregulate BCMO1 and reverse these effects.
23727499 Purified BCMO1 is a monomeric enzymatically active soluble protein that does not require cofactors and displays a turnover rate of about 8 molecules of beta,beta-carotene per second.
23656756 BCMO1 SNP had a statistically significant association with HDL plasma levels.
23517913 Individual responsiveness to dietary carotenoids was associated with genetic variants of the carotenoid metabolizing enzyme beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1.
23134893 genetic association study in US women of European descent: Data suggest that 2 SNP in BCMO1 (rs4889286; rs12934922) are associated with plasma carotenoid level (i.e., alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin). (data from Nurses Health Study)
22113863 investigated the effects of 4 identified SNP 5' upstream from the BCMO1 gene on beta-carotene conversion efficiency; found that three of the four intronic SNPs reduced the catalytic activity of BCMO1 in female volunteers
21091228 These results suggest that BCMO1 and CD36 are implicated in plasma and retina concentrations of lutein and that genetic variants in these genes can modulate blood and retina concentrations of lutein.
20599666 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BCMO1 gene have been discovered causing observably reduced BCMO1 activity
20221844 Hydrophobic mutations (K108F and K108L) at this position substantially decreased the affinity of the enzyme for substrates with ionone rings at both ends, such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthine.
19844255 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19662379 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19185284 Identification of novel common variants associated with circulating carotenoid levels and known lipid variants associated with alpha-tocopherol levels in variations of this enzyme.
19185284 Observational study, meta-analysis, and genome-wide association study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19103647 Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding BCOM1 alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers.
19103647 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
18282583 T3 is an important hormone for the regulation of vitamin A and beta-carotene metabolism-related gene expression in human small intestinal cells.
17951468 Haploinsufficiency of the CMO1 enzyme caused hypercarotenemia and hypovitaminosis A in individuals consuming a carotenoid-containing and vitamin A-deficient diet.
16504037 Study demonstrates that human intestinal cell BCMO1 expression is dependent on the functional cooperation between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and myocyte enhancer factor 2 isoforms.

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (33)

PMID Year Title
25445224 2014 Competitive regulation of human intestinal ?-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) gene expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1? and HNF-4?.
25270992 2015 Beta-cryptoxanthin as a source of vitamin A.
24668807 2014 The human enzyme that converts dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A is a dioxygenase.
24586510 2014 The relationship between BCMO1 gene variants and macular pigment optical density in persons with and without age-related macular degeneration.
24187135 2013 Substrate specificity of purified recombinant human ?-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1).
24106281 2013 Two carotenoid oxygenases contribute to mammalian provitamin A metabolism.
24071514 2013 ?-carotene regulates expression of ?-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase in human alveolar epithelial cells.
23803888 2013 ?,?-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase and its substrate ?-carotene modulate migration and invasion in colorectal carcinoma cells.
23727499 2013 Characterization of human ?,?-carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) as a soluble monomeric enzyme.
23656756 2013 Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCMO1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults.
23517913 2013 Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms.
23134893 2012 ?-Carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to plasma carotenoid and retinol concentrations in women of European descent.
22113863 2012 Single nucleotide polymorphisms upstream from the ?-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase gene influence provitamin A conversion efficiency in female volunteers.
21091228 2011 Genetic variants in BCMO1 and CD36 are associated with plasma lutein concentrations and macular pigment optical density in humans.
20599666 2010 Molecular and dietary regulation of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1).
20221844 2010 Hydrophobicity of residue 108 specifically affects the affinity of human beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase for substrates with two ionone rings.
19844255 2010 Fine mapping and association studies of a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol linkage region on chromosome 16 in French-Canadian subjects.
19662379 2009 Circulating beta-carotene levels and type 2 diabetes-cause or effect?
19185284 2009 Common variation in the beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 gene affects circulating levels of carotenoids: a genome-wide association study.
19103647 2009 Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding beta-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers.
18464913 2008 A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).
18295589 2008 In vitro and in vivo characterization of retinoid synthesis from beta-carotene.
18282583 2008 Triiodothyronine stimulates CMO1 gene expression in human intestinal Caco-2 BBe cells.
17951468 2007 Loss-of-function mutation in carotenoid 15,15'-monooxygenase identified in a patient with hypercarotenemia and hypovitaminosis A.
16504037 2006 Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARgamma in human intestinal beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase gene expression.
15983114 2005 Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 9',10'-monooxygenase in human tissues.
15583024 2004 Overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from cholesterol to active steroid hormones.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11401432 2001 Cloning and characterization of a human beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase that is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium.
10799297 2000 Cloning and expression of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase.
10766819 2000 Filling the gap in vitamin A research. Molecular identification of an enzyme cleaving beta-carotene to retinal.