Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 206
PubMed Score 96.26
PubTator Score 2910.25

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

Expression

  Differential Expression (6)

Disease log2 FC p
psoriasis 1.400 1.5e-04
atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor -1.200 2.2e-04
medulloblastoma -1.100 9.6e-04
medulloblastoma, large-cell -2.000 2.8e-05
adult high grade glioma -1.300 1.3e-03
ovarian cancer 1.400 1.9e-05

 GWAS Trait (1)

Gene RIF (143)

PMID Text
26976600 Bcl-xL binds to dual BH3-like domains in the InsP3 receptor carboxyl terminus and regulates control of cell viability.
26722503 we can conclude that patients with small cell lung carcinoma represent downregulation of Bad and the latter could be served as a useful biomarker for the outcomes of SCLC.
26721202 Valproic acid sensitized TRAIL-resistant papillary thyroid carcinoma cells to apoptotic cell death through involvement of Nrf2 and Bcl-xL.
26668309 A Novel Naphthalimide Compound Restores p53 Function in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Reorganizing the Bak.Bcl-xl Complex and Triggering Transcriptional Regulation.
26590798 This studypredict response ketogenic dietary therapies. showed that Common variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not responase to ketogenic diet therapy.
26581978 These data suggest that miR-BART20-5p plays an important role in latency maintenance and tumor persistence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma by inhibiting BAD-mediated caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.
26506422 Bcl-xL is responsible for TRAIL resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Bcl-2 family inhibitors could represent promising reagents to sensitize human pancreatic cancers to TRAIL.
26063499 LA provoked a down regulation of two anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL protein and a strong induction of the BH3-only protein Bim.
25907960 Bh3 domain induced conformational changes in Bcl-Xl revealed by crystal structure and comparative analysis.
25872771 These data suggest that Bcl-XL binds to RyR channels via its BH4 domain, but also its BH3 domain, more specific Lys87, contributes to the interaction.
25653146 The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is thus associated with the development of human cancers likely influenced by the protein levels of pBAD.
25538080 In resistant cells, RAS effector pathways maintained BAD phosphorylation in the presence of JAK inhibitors, yielding a specific dependence on BCL-XL for survival.
25524600 Study support that mitochondrial ERb prevents cell apoptosis through its interaction with bad protein and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in a ligand-independent manner.
25499972 BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer.
25215949 BAD expression correlates with disease stage in prostate cancer, suggesting a role of BAD in tumor advancement.
24947039 Taken together, these data indicate that the downregulation of Bad and Bim plays a significant role in the autophagy-induced chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
24901052 Rapamycin-enhanced mitomycin C-induced apoptotic death is mediated through the S6K1-Bad-Bak pathway in peritoneal carcinomatosis.
24865460 Results suggest that regulation of the proapoptotic activity of BAD plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanisms resulting in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease tumor formation.
24614958 We observed higher expression levels of BCL-2, BCL-XL, BAX, and BAD genes in postmenopausal patients with pelvic organ prolapse compared with controls as well as overexpression of all four genes in parametrial tissue compared with vaginal tissue.
24421315 Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) induces anti-apoptotic effects on macrophages through Akt and Bad phosphorylation.
24247158 Cur-NPs upregulated the protein expression levels of Bad and downregulated the protein expression level of p-Akt in U2OS cells
24040284 BAD dephosphorylation and decreased expression of MCL1 induce rapid apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
24038028 Using gene reporter assays, we show that promoter variations in 11 intrinsic apoptosis genes, including ADPRT, APAF1, BCL2, BAD, BID, MCL1, BIRC4, BCL2L1, ENDOG, YWHAB, and YWHAQ, influence promoter activity in an allele-specific manner.
23811558 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
23794242 Our results identify for the first time the downstream targets of insulin, cyclin D1, and BAD, elucidate a new molecular mechanism of insulin in promoting cell proliferation and apoptosis
23547889 AIF-1 can protect rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes from apoptosis induced by NO by upregulating the expression of p-Akt and p-BAD.
23135712 These data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.
22805310 RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT1 in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) cells was sufficient to increase expression of the apoptotic mediators Fas and Bad and to elevate the sensitivity of STS cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis
22464442 mechanism of proapoptotic BH3 proteins Bad and Bid binding to Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 in breast cancer cells
22214866 A mild redox imbalance associated with a slight reduction of the GSH pool commits U937 cells to apoptosis, however prevented by events leading to PI3K/Akt-dependent mitochondrial loss of BAD.
22172950 the regulation of BAD by uremic toxins and report the sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cells to apoptosis upon BAD induction was explored.
22096607 ndings demonstrate that Pak1 phosphorylates BAD directly at S111, but phosphorylated S112 through Raf-1.
22057915 Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin stimulates Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 through activation of ERK1/2 and Akt, which decreased sensitivity of lung cancer cells to mTOR inhibition.
22011203 BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis.
21918885 study provided clinical evidence that loss of Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer
21849418 The BAD apoptosis pathway influences OVCA chemosensitivity and overall survival, likely via modulation of BAD phosphorylation.
21674599 Increased expression of Bad, Bax, and decreased ratios of Bcl-2/Bax, Bcl-2/Bad suggest increased apoptotic activity or sensitivity to induction of apoptosis in vaginal tissues of women with pelvic organ prolapse.
21444773 PRMT1-mediated methylation of BAD inhibits phosphorylation by Akt.
21419810 Data suggest that glioma cell survival occurs through a PI(3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-iota/BAD mediated pathway.
21317286 identified BAD serine 134 to be strongly involved in survival signaling of B-RAF-V600E-containing tumor cells and found that phosphorylation of BAD at this residue is critical for efficient proliferation in these cells.
21302807 Hepatoma-derived growth factor knock-down was found to induce the expression of the proapoptotic protein, Bad, and also inactivate ERK
21187157 inhibition of LY294002-induced apoptosis by androgen is a function of an androgen receptor-dependent genomic signaling pathway leading to increase in Bcl-xL expression as well as Pim-1-dependen pathway mediated via phosphorylation of Bad at ser75
21081150 Data show that in aqueous solution, the C-terminal part of BAD exhibits a well-ordered structure and stable conformation while in a lipid environment, the helical propensity considerably increases.
20877624 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20855536 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20810912 Data suggest that downregulation of p53 in hypoxia reduces or eliminates apoptosis and BAD expression transduced by the p53 pathway in syncytiotrophoblasts, thereby limiting cell death and maintaining the integrity of this critical villous component.
20700721 Significant levels of Bad in the mitochondria of monocytes/macrophages were detected and these signaling pathways converged in Bad phosphorylation.
20691103 Low BAD is associated with lymph node metastasis and chemosensitivity in breast carcinoma.
20647330 Reduced BAD protein expression is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20596645 AF1q up-regulation of BAD is through its effect on NF-kappaB and this may hint of its oncogenic mechanism in cancer.
20339252 Myricetin inhibits Akt survival signaling and induces Bad-mediated apoptosis in a low dose ultraviolet (UV)-B-irradiated HaCaT human immortalized keratinocytes
20043968 PKG-Ialpha directly phosphorylates Bad at ser155, which may participate anti-apoptotic/cytoprotective effects in neural cells
20012528 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19895838 Data show that RAF not only neutralizes BAD's pro-apoptotic activity but activates it for a new function as a pore.
19882362 the Akt phosphorylation and inactivation of its downstream target, BAD may play a role in survival of breast cancer cell
19773546 Bim, and Mcl-1, but not Bad, integrate death signaling triggered by concomitant disruption of the PI3K/Akt and MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathways in human leukemia cells.
19730683 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19679565 Data show low or moderate methylation was found in seven selected genes BAD, BBC3, CAV1, CDK2AP1, NPM1, PRKCDBP and THEM4.
19667065 Results indicate that RAF kinases represent, besides protein kinase A, PAK, and Akt/protein kinase B, in vivo BAD-phosphorylating kinases.
19641507 BAD was the 1st BH3-only protein linked to proximal survival signals through phosphorylation by survival kinases. BAD helps coordinate mitochondrial fuel metabolism and the apoptotic machinery. Review.
19624871 Ginsenoside Rg3 decreased both Pim-3 and pBad expressions in a dose-dependent manner in PANC-1 cells.
19593445 results suggest that increased expression of BAD provides a proliferative advantage to prostate tumors, while BAD dephosphorylation increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis
19587239 MAP4K3 orchestrates activation of BAX via the concerted posttranscriptional modulation of PUMA, BAD, and BIM.
19508210 computational investigation of conformation of BAD complexes formed with Bcl-xL, 14-3-3 epsilon protein, and protein kinase A
19171933 {beta}-Arrestin-2 Mediates Anti-apoptotic Signaling through Regulation of BAD Phosphorylation.
18973553 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
18852119 The study provides the first evidence that AF1q plays a critical role in the regulation of apoptosis and drug resistance.
18832722 two different pathways mediated by downstream products of arachidonic acid metabolism converge in Bad phosphorylation emphasizes the relevance of this strategy for the regulation of macrophage survival to peroxynitrite at the inflammatory sites.
18798227 PTH induction of apoptosis is mediated by translocation of mitochondria to the perinuclear region, dephosphorylation of Akt, dephosphorylation of Bad and its movement to the mitochondria, release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo, activating casp3.
18775810 JAK2 promotes cell survival by signaling through the Pim/BAD/BCL-xL pathway
18651222 HDGF knock-down was found to induce the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad and also inactivate ERK and Akt, which in turn led to dephosphorylation of Bad at Ser-112, Ser-136, and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
18651163 mRNA expressions of Hsp70, Hsp32 and Bax significantly increased in mononuclear blood cells after marathon running, whereas Hsp27 and Bad mRNA expression levels showed no significant changes.
18636124 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
18593990 Bad and Bid proteins have roles in survival for patients with stage II and III colon cancers
18568448 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
18508827 haem oxygenase-1 plays a central role in NNK-mediated cell proliferation by promoting the expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1/Cid1), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 and B-cell lymphoma-2 but inhibiting the activity of Bad
18508762 B-Raf-initiated inactivation of Bad and Bim only partly contributes to the anti-apoptotic activities of this oncogene and that other points within the cell death machinery are also targeted by deregulated ERK signaling
18449891 miR-15b and miR-16 could play a role in the development of MDR in gastric cancer cells at least in part by modulation of apoptosis via targeting BCL2.
18420586 caspases activate a previously unrecognized proapoptotic function of HER-2 by releasing a Bad-like cell death effector
18402774 C-RAF activation promotes BAD poly-ubiquitylation in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion, and increases the turn-over of this protein through proteasomal degradation.
18391004 Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in epithelial cells infected with N. gonorrheae targeted Bad and Bim for downregulation at the protein level.
18276761 EGF signals via p38 MAPK to increase phosphorylation of BADser112 and thereby limit trophoblast apoptosis.
18246127 Bad and Bim are major B-RAF responsive proteins regulating apoptosis in melanoma cells.
18165867 In the absence of serum, the suppression of either Bad, Bim or Bid expression delayed cell death under several stress conditions
18006502 Raf-1 in beta-cells led to a striking loss of Bad phosphorylation at serine 112 and an increase in the protein levels of both Bad and Bax
17900801 AG490 enhances UCN-01-induced cytotoxicity in p53 defective cell lines by suppression of BAD phosphorylation and induction of BAX and PARP cleavage
17696989 reelin binds to apoE receptors activating the PI3 K/Akt pathway causing phosphorylation of BAD which protects cells from apoptosis
17696955 decreased expression of p-BAD in malignant gastric epithelial cells suggested loss of p-BAD expression may play a role in gastric tumorigenesis; data also suggest BAD mutation may not be a direct target of inactivation in gastric tumorigenesis
17670745 a novel role for BAD in cell cycle regulation dependent upon its phosphorylation state and independent of the BAD/BCL2 interaction and apoptosis.
17557568 data presented here indicate that BH3 domain mutation of the proapoptotic genes Bad, Bmf and Bcl-G is rare in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and may not contribute to the apoptosis-resistance mechanisms of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
17544220 Lysophosphatidic acid prevents apoptosis of Caco-2 colonic neoplasms via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of BAD.
17541305 Bcl-2 induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in renal cell tumors grown in the orthotopic sites, though no appreciable effects were observed in vitro.
17499381 The presence of wild type PRV US3, but not of the point-mutated PRV US3, results in phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bad protein in PRV-infected HEp-2 cells.
17457084 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
17446862 The functional and physical interaction between Bcl-X(L) and a BH3-like domain in BECN1 was studied.
17438366 BH3-only proteins and BH3 mimetics induce autophagy by competitively disrupting the interaction between BECN1 and BAX and Bcl-2.
17420275 GATA1 and GFI1B interplay to regulate bcl-X protein transcription.
17404594 p53 can form a complex with dephosphorylated Bad thereby converting it to a pro-apoptotic player.
17393317 Expression of p-BAD was increased in the colorectal cancer cells and may possibly alter the cell death regulation during colorectal tumorigenesis.
17287851 Akt/Bad pathway generates a progressive resistance to apoptosis, at a time HTLV-I genes expression is silenced.
17110373 dissociation of Bad from Bcl-xL and an increase in the intracellular level of Bcl-xL are responsible for development of acquired TRAIL resistance
17011751 Raf-1 and B-Raf promote protein kinase C theta interaction with BAD.
16978419 Mycobacterium leprae inhibits apoptosis in THP-1 cells by downregulation of Bad and Bak and upregulation of Mcl-1 gene expression.
16949642 The high expression of bad in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in most classical Hodgkin's lymphomas (HLs)indicates that this protein may play predominant role in the regulation of apoptosis in classical HLs.
16932738 AKT-induced BAD phosphorylation and its subsequent cytoplasmic sequestration by 14-3-3zeta is a major mechanism responsible for the postponement of UVB-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes.
16908594 Bad translocation to mitochondria plays a critical role in Tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells.
16847055 EGF protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis by inducing BAD phosphorylation via redundant signaling pathways
16843435 doxorubicin-stimulated phosphorylation of Bad in cells expressing dominant negative p38 MAPK was impeded by the inhibition of PI3-kinase
16785131 Cytogenetic investigation of a nodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma carrying an IGH-BCL2-fusion revealed a homogeneously staining region at chromosome 1p21-22.
16767165 Phosphorylation of BAD or inhibition of its translocation to the mitochondria are critical survival pathways in LNCaP tumor cells.
16728406 antiapoptotic signaling pathways activated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, epidermal growth factor, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in prostate cancer cells converge on BAD
16710454 Sequestration of BAD away from mitochondria provides C. trachomatis with mechanism to protect host cell from apoptosis via interaction of a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion protein with host-cell phosphoserine-binding protein. (BAD protein)
16603546 the interaction of BAD with membranes is tied to binding of 14-3-3 protein and activation and membrane translocation of Bcl-XL
16484005 There was no somatic mutation of BH3 domains of Bad, Bmf and Bcl-G genes in transitional cell carcinoma samples. The data presented here indicate that BH3 domain mutation of these genes is rare in TCCs and may not contribute to the pathogenesis of TCCs.
16445909 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
16297499 Bcl-xL mRNA overexpression may suggest poor prognosis in NSCLC.
16148027 Bax, Bad, and Bim are upregulated, while Bcl-2 is downregulated in human neuroblastoma cells treated with propargylamine
15901741 BAD induces apoptosis upon detecting the coincidence of G2/M phase and growth factor deprivation
15849194 Pak1-dependent Raf-1 phosphorylation regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association
15767261 AR and IGF1 cooperate to prevent apoptosis by activating a specific PKC-p90(rsk)-dependent pathway, which leads to Bad and Bax inactivation.
15751984 A recombinant fusion protein linking human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to the N-terminus of the proapoptotic protein BAD delivers BAD into tumor cells, where it restores the apoptotic pathway.
15731037 degraded during Chlamydia trachomatis infection
15231831 mechanisms that regulate the conversion of BAD from an anti-death to a pro-death factor include alternative splicing that produces N-terminally truncated BAD(S)and conversion by caspases into a pro-death fragment that resembles the short splice variant
15226424 constitutively active Rac1 is shown to stimulate the phosphorylation of Bad, thereby suppressing drug-induced caspase activation and apoptosis in human lymphoma cells; Rac1 activation leads to Bad phosphorylation specifically at serine-75
15078178 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
15033904 Bad gene is occasionally mutated in colon cancer
14767529 Bad is increased in quercetin-treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
12965220 Mutation of BAD within the BH3 domain modulates its apoptotic function.
12954615 BAD is a substrate for pim-2 oncogene proto-oncogene
12754297 BAD-mediated sensitivity of prosstatic cancer cells to TRAIL depends on the phosphorylation status of BAD WT and tBAD.
12657644 study suggests that the cleavage of 14-3-3 protein during apoptosis promotes cell death by releasing the associated Bad protein from the 14-3-3 protein and facilitates Bad translocation to the mitochondria and its interaction with Bcl-x(L)
12239175 role of PI3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation and altered transcription in cytokine-mediated neutrophil survival
12087097 effects of paclitaxel on BAD phosphorylation in ovarian cancer cells
12084714 BAD cleavage and apoptosis in tumor cells in response to raloxifene
11994280 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
11908866 Na-butyrate and trichostatin A increased the expression of the Bad protein. The results suggest that HDAC inhibitors such as SB and TSA induce apoptosis through an increase in Bad protein in human glioma cells in vitro.
11878929 results suggest that direct interaction of Bad with pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 family contributes to the progress of Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis
11839683 Protein kinase A RIalpha antisense inhibition of PC3M prostate cancer cell growth: Bcl-2 hyperphosphorylation, Bax up-regulation, and Bad-hypophosphorylation
11781193 expression in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous human prostate
11739707 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells
11689886 HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of BAD in Tat-expressing cells and HIV-1-infected cells

AA Sequence

MFQIPEFEPSEQEDSSSAERGLGPSPAGDGPSGSGKHHRQAPGLLWDASHQQEQPTSSSHHGGAGAVEIR      1 - 70
SRHSSYPAGTEDDEGMGEEPSPFRGRSRSAPPNLWAAQRYGRELRRMSDEFVDSFKKGLPRPKSAGTATQ     71 - 140
MRQSSSWTRVFQSWWDRNLGRGSSAPSQ                                              141 - 168
//

Text Mined References (216)

PMID Year Title
26976600 2016 Biphasic regulation of InsP3 receptor gating by dual Ca2+ release channel BH3-like domains mediates Bcl-xL control of cell viability.
26722503 2015 The downregulation of Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter indicates worse outcomes in patients with small cell lung carcinoma.
26721202 2016 Downregulation of Nrf2 by the combination of TRAIL and Valproic acid induces apoptotic cell death of TRAIL-resistant papillary thyroid cancer cells via suppression of Bcl-xL.
26668309 2016 A Novel Naphthalimide Compound Restores p53 Function in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Reorganizing the Bak·Bcl-xl Complex and Triggering Transcriptional Regulation.
26590798 2015 Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy.
26581978 2015 Epstein-Barr Virus MicroRNA miR-BART20-5p Suppresses Lytic Induction by Inhibiting BAD-Mediated caspase-3-Dependent Apoptosis.
26506422 2015 Bcl-xL inhibition by molecular-targeting drugs sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL.
26063499 2015 Lipoic acid decreases Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and up regulates Bim on ovarian carcinoma cells leading to cell death.
25907960 2015 Bh3 induced conformational changes in Bcl-Xl revealed by crystal structure and comparative analysis.
25872771 2015 Ryanodine receptors are targeted by anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL involving its BH4 domain and Lys87 from its BH3 domain.
25653146 2015 BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.
25538080 2014 RAS signaling promotes resistance to JAK inhibitors by suppressing BAD-mediated apoptosis.
25524600 2015 Mitochondrial estrogen receptor ? inhibits cell apoptosis via interaction with Bad in a ligand-independent manner.
25499972 2015 BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25241761 2014 Using an in situ proximity ligation assay to systematically profile endogenous protein-protein interactions in a pathway network.
25215949 2014 Targeting proapoptotic protein BAD inhibits survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells.
24947039 2014 Autophagy inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis through downregulating Bad and Bim in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
24901052 2014 Rapamycin-enhanced mitomycin C-induced apoptotic death is mediated through the S6K1-Bad-Bak pathway in peritoneal carcinomatosis.
24865460 2014 mTOR pathway is activated by PKA in adrenocortical cells and participates in vivo to apoptosis resistance in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
24614958 2014 Alteration of apoptosis-related genes in postmenopausal women with uterine prolapse.
24421315 2014 Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) induces anti-apoptotic effects on macrophages through Akt and Bad phosphorylation.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24247158 2014 Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles enhance apoptotic cell death of U2OS human osteosarcoma cells through the Akt-Bad signaling pathway.
24129315 2014 Immunoaffinity enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis of protein methylation.
24040284 2013 BAD dephosphorylation and decreased expression of MCL-1 induce rapid apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
24038028 2014 Impact of promoter polymorphisms in key regulators of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway on the outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
24008843 2013 Structure homology and interaction redundancy for discovering virus-host protein interactions.
23794242 2013 Insulin induces C2C12 cell proliferation and apoptosis through regulation of cyclin D1 and BAD expression.
23547889 2013 Protective effect of allograft inflammatory factor-1 on the apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in patients with rheumatic arthritis induced by nitro oxide donor sodium nitroprusside.
23397142 2013 Analysis of protein-protein interactions in cross-talk pathways reveals CRKL protein as a novel prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.
23186163 2013 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
23135712 2013 Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.
22837380 2012 A novel sarcoidosis risk locus for Europeans on chromosome 11q13.1.
22814378 2012 N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB.
22805310 2012 Unphosphorylated STAT1 promotes sarcoma development through repressing expression of Fas and bad and conferring apoptotic resistance.
22464442 2012 Differences in the mechanisms of proapoptotic BH3 proteins binding to Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 quantified in live MCF-7 cells.
22423221 2012 A meta-analysis and genome-wide association study of platelet count and mean platelet volume in african americans.
22214866 2012 A moderate decline in U937 cell GSH levels triggers PI3 kinase/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation, thereby preventing an otherwise prompt apoptotic response.
22172950 2012 Upregulation of BAD, a pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL2 family, in vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to uremic conditions.
22096607 2011 p21-Activated kinase 1 (Pak1) phosphorylates BAD directly at serine 111 in vitro and indirectly through Raf-1 at serine 112.
22057915 2012 Rapamycin induces Bad phosphorylation in association with its resistance to human lung cancer cells.
22011203 2012 Overexpression of Bcl-2-associated death inhibits A549 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
22006182 2011 Active Bax and Bak are functional holins.
21988832 2011 Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver.
21918885 2012 Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
21849418 2011 BAD phosphorylation determines ovarian cancer chemosensitivity and patient survival.
21674599 2011 Expression of apoptotic factors in vaginal tissues from women with urogenital prolapse.
21444773 2011 Arginine methylation of BCL-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) counteracts its phosphorylation and inactivation by Akt.
21419810 2011 PKC-? promotes glioblastoma cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting BAD through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.
21317286 2011 BAD contributes to RAF-mediated proliferation and cooperates with B-RAF-V600E in cancer signaling.
21302807 2010 Hepatoma-derived growth factor regulates the bad-mediated apoptotic pathway and induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in stomach cancer cells.
21187157 2011 Activation of a non-genomic Pim-1/Bad-Pser75 module is required for an efficient pro-survival effect of Bcl-xL induced by androgen in LNCaP cells.
21081150 2011 Pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by specific phosphorylation and structural transitions of the C-terminal part.
20877624 2010 Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression.
20855536 2010 Germline variation in apoptosis pathway genes and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
20810912 2010 Hypoxia downregulates p53 but induces apoptosis and enhances expression of BAD in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblasts.
20700721 2010 Assessing Bad sub-cellular localization under conditions associated with prevention or promotion of mitochondrial permeability transition-dependent toxicity.
20691103 2010 Expression of the apoptosis-related genes BCL-2 and BAD in human breast carcinoma and their associated relationship with chemosensitivity.
20647330 2010 BAD, a proapoptotic member of the BCL2 family, is a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20603619 2010 The BH3-only protein Bad confers breast cancer taxane sensitivity through a nonapoptotic mechanism.
20596645 2010 AF1q enhancement of gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of BAD expression via NF-kappaB in human squamous carcinoma A431 cells.
20339252 2010 Myricetin inhibits Akt survival signaling and induces Bad-mediated apoptosis in a low dose ultraviolet (UV)-B-irradiated HaCaT human immortalized keratinocytes.
20179209 2010 Protection from rapamycin-induced apoptosis by insulin-like growth factor-I is partially dependent on protein kinase C signaling.
20043968 2010 Protein kinase G type-Ialpha phosphorylates the apoptosis-regulating protein Bad at serine 155 and protects against apoptosis in N1E-115 cells.
20005908 2010 PTH inactivates the AKT survival pathway in the colonic cell line Caco-2.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19895838 2010 Can BAD pores be good? New insights from examining BAD as a target of RAF kinases.
19882362 2010 Immunohistochemical detection of phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, HER2 and oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in Malaysian breast cancer patients.
19773546 2009 The BH3-only protein Bim plays a critical role in leukemia cell death triggered by concomitant inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2 pathways.
19730683 2009 The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.
19690332 2009 Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions.
19679565 2009 The DNA methylome of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
19667065 2009 Identification of novel in vivo phosphorylation sites of the human proapoptotic protein BAD: pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by phosphorylation.
19641507 2008 BAD: undertaker by night, candyman by day.
19624871 2009 [Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on Pim-3 and Bad proteins in human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1].
19593445 2009 Expression of the Bcl-2 protein BAD promotes prostate cancer growth.
19587239 2009 MAP4K3 modulates cell death via the post-transcriptional regulation of BH3-only proteins.
19508210 2010 Molecular modeling of human BAD, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, integrating glycolysis and apoptosis.
19427863 2009 BimL directly neutralizes Bcl-xL to promote Bax activation during UV-induced apoptosis.
19427857 2009 Transcriptomic and proteomic approach to studying SNX-2112-induced K562 cells apoptosis and anti-leukemia activity in K562-NOD/SCID mice.
19171933 2009 {beta}-Arrestin-2 Mediates Anti-apoptotic Signaling through Regulation of BAD Phosphorylation.
19054851 2008 Human protein factory for converting the transcriptome into an in vitro-expressed proteome,.
18852119 2008 Oncogene AF1q enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through BAD-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
18832722 2008 Prostaglandin E2 signals monocyte/macrophage survival to peroxynitrite via protein kinase A converging in bad phosphorylation with the protein kinase C alpha-dependent pathway driven by 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
18798227 2008 The early phase of programmed cell death in Caco-2 intestinal cells exposed to PTH.
18775810 2008 Effects of the JAK2 inhibitor, AZ960, on Pim/BAD/BCL-xL survival signaling in the human JAK2 V617F cell line SET-2.
18676776 2009 Nicotine induces resistance to chemotherapy by modulating mitochondrial signaling in lung cancer.
18669648 2008 A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation.
18651222 2008 Downregulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor activates the Bad-mediated apoptotic pathway in human cancer cells.
18651163 2008 Effects of ultra-marathon on circulating DNA and mRNA expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in mononuclear cells.
18636124 2008 Polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 and vitamin C and matrix metalloproteinase gene families are associated with susceptibility to lymphoma.
18593990 2008 Proapoptotic Bad and Bid protein expression predict survival in stages II and III colon cancers.
18568448 2008 Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson's disease.
18508827 2008 Haem oxygenase-1 plays a central role in NNK-mediated lung carcinogenesis.
18508762 2008 Oncogenic B-RafV600E inhibits apoptosis and promotes ERK-dependent inactivation of Bad and Bim.
18449891 2008 miR-15b and miR-16 modulate multidrug resistance by targeting BCL2 in human gastric cancer cells.
18420586 2008 Caspase cleavage of HER-2 releases a Bad-like cell death effector.
18402937 2008 Anti-apoptotic actions of vasopressin in H32 neurons involve MAP kinase transactivation and Bad phosphorylation.
18402774 2008 C-RAF activation promotes BAD poly-ubiquitylation and turn-over by the proteasome.
18391004 2008 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae downregulates epithelial cell proapoptotic proteins Bad and Bim.
18387192 2008 A pathway sensor for genome-wide screens of intracellular proteolytic cleavage.
18309324 2008 No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors.
18276761 2008 Epidermal growth factor abrogates hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cultured human trophoblasts through phosphorylation of BAD Serine 112.
18246127 2008 Mutant B-RAF mediates resistance to anoikis via Bad and Bim.
18165867 2008 Bad plays a more significant role than Bid and Bim in mediating cell death signals in batch cultures of HEK 293 cells.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
18006502 2008 Inhibition of Raf-1 alters multiple downstream pathways to induce pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis.
17927446 2007 Induction of BIM is essential for apoptosis triggered by EGFR kinase inhibitors in mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas.
17900801 2007 AG490 influences UCN-01-induced cytotoxicity in glioma cells in a p53-dependent fashion, correlating with effects on BAX cleavage and BAD phosphorylation.
17696989 2007 Reelin signals survival through Src-family kinases that inactivate BAD activity.
17696955 2007 Immunohistochemical analysis of phospho-BAD protein and mutational analysis of BAD gene in gastric carcinomas.
17670745 2007 Breast cancer cell proliferation is inhibited by BAD: regulation of cyclin D1.
17557568 Mutational analysis of the BH3 domains of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family genes Bad, Bmf and Bcl-G in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
17544220 2007 Lysophosphatidic acid prevents apoptosis of Caco-2 colon cancer cells via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of Bad.
17541305 2007 Microenvironment effects on promoting upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases in Bcl-2-overexpressing renal cell carcinoma as a response to doxorubicin treatment inducing the production of metastasis.
17499381 2007 A point mutation in the putative ATP binding site of the pseudorabies virus US3 protein kinase prevents Bad phosphorylation and cell survival following apoptosis induction.
17485524 2007 Functional and structural studies of the vaccinia virus virulence factor N1 reveal a Bcl-2-like anti-apoptotic protein.
17474147 2007 Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.
17446862 2007 Functional and physical interaction between Bcl-X(L) and a BH3-like domain in Beclin-1.
17438366 BH3-only proteins and BH3 mimetics induce autophagy by competitively disrupting the interaction between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L).
17420275 2007 GATA-1 and Gfi-1B interplay to regulate Bcl-xL transcription.
17404594 2007 p53 and Bad: remote strangers become close friends.
17393317 2007 Pro-apoptotic PUMA and anti-apoptotic phospho-BAD are highly expressed in colorectal carcinomas.
17289999 2007 Apoptosis initiated when BH3 ligands engage multiple Bcl-2 homologs, not Bax or Bak.
17287851 2007 HTLV-I infection of WE17/10 CD4+ cell line leads to progressive alteration of Ca2+ influx that eventually results in loss of CD7 expression and activation of an antiapoptotic pathway involving AKT and BAD which paves the way for malignant transformation.
17274640 2007 A limited screen for protein interactions reveals new roles for protein phosphatase 1 in cell cycle control and apoptosis.
17270021 2007 Proto-oncogene, Pim-3 with serine/threonine kinase activity, is aberrantly expressed in human colon cancer cells and can prevent Bad-mediated apoptosis.
17110373 2007 Evidence for two modes of development of acquired tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance. Involvement of Bcl-xL.
17011751 2007 Raf-1 and B-Raf promote protein kinase C theta interaction with BAD.
16978419 2006 M. leprae inhibits apoptosis in THP-1 cells by downregulation of Bad and Bak and upregulation of Mcl-1 gene expression.
16949642 2007 Expression of bcl2 family proteins and active caspase 3 in classical Hodgkin's lymphomas.
16932738 2007 AKT delays the early-activated apoptotic pathway in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes via BAD translocation.
16908594 2006 Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria.
16847055 2006 Epidermal growth factor protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis by inducing BAD phosphorylation via redundant signaling pathways.
16843435 2006 p38 MAPK downregulates phosphorylation of Bad in doxorubicin-induced endothelial apoptosis.
16818649 2006 Pim-3, a proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity, is aberrantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer and phosphorylates bad to block bad-mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cell lines.
16785131 2006 BCL10 gene amplification associated with strong nuclear BCL10 expression in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma with IGH-BCL2 fusion.
16767165 2006 Epidermal growth factor and serum activate distinct pathways to inhibit the BH3 only protein BAD in prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells.
16728406 2006 Diverse antiapoptotic signaling pathways activated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, epidermal growth factor, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in prostate cancer cells converge on BAD.
16710454 2006 Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis vacuole correlates with host-cell survival.
16603546 2006 Reversible membrane interaction of BAD requires two C-terminal lipid binding domains in conjunction with 14-3-3 protein binding.
16484005 2006 BH3 domain mutation of proapoptotic genes Bad, Bmf and Bcl-G is rare in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder.
16403219 2006 Pim kinases phosphorylate multiple sites on Bad and promote 14-3-3 binding and dissociation from Bcl-XL.
16297499 2006 Estimation of prognostic value of Bcl-xL gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
16189514 2005 Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.
16148027 2005 Regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, neurotrophic factors, and APP processing in the neurorescue activity of propargylamine.
15901741 2005 BAD detects coincidence of G2/M phase and growth factor deprivation to regulate apoptosis.
15849194 2005 p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association.
15767261 2005 Cooperation of amphiregulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibits Bax- and Bad-mediated apoptosis via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
15751984 2005 A chimeric protein induces tumor cell apoptosis by delivering the human Bcl-2 family BH3-only protein Bad.
15731037 2005 Broad degradation of proapoptotic proteins with the conserved Bcl-2 homology domain 3 during infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.
15694340 2005 Differential targeting of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins by their BH3-only ligands allows complementary apoptotic function.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15231831 2004 BAD is a pro-survival factor prior to activation of its pro-apoptotic function.
15226424 2004 Rac1 inhibits apoptosis in human lymphoma cells by stimulating Bad phosphorylation on Ser-75.
15183529 2004 Positive correlation between overexpression of phospho-BAD with phosphorylated Akt at serine 473 but not threonine 308 in colorectal carcinoma.
15131699 2004 Bcl-x(L) sequesters its C-terminal membrane anchor in soluble, cytosolic homodimers.
15033904 2004 Inactivating mutations of proapoptotic Bad gene in human colon cancers.
14967141 2004 JNK suppresses apoptosis via phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein BAD.
14767529 2004 Quercetin-induced growth inhibition and cell death in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells are associated with increase in Bad and hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma expressions.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
12965220 2003 Mutation of BAD within the BH3 domain impairs its phosphorylation-mediated regulation.
12954615 2003 The PIM-2 kinase phosphorylates BAD on serine 112 and reverses BAD-induced cell death.
12931191 2003 BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis.
12897128 2003 p21-Activated kinase 5 (Pak5) localizes to mitochondria and inhibits apoptosis by phosphorylating BAD.
12842996 2003 Different antiapoptotic pathways between wild-type and mutated FLT3: insights into therapeutic targets in leukemia.
12787561 Ten years on: mediation of cell death by the common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR).
12754297 2003 Overexpression of BAD potentiates sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand treatment in the prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP.
12657644 2003 Cleavage of 14-3-3 protein by caspase-3 facilitates bad interaction with Bcl-x(L) during apoptosis.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12376548 2002 NRAGE, a p75 neurotrophin receptor-interacting protein, induces caspase activation and cell death through a JNK-dependent mitochondrial pathway.
12239175 2002 Role of PI3-kinase-dependent Bad phosphorylation and altered transcription in cytokine-mediated neutrophil survival.
12115603 2002 The anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-xL and Bcl-w target protein phosphatase 1alpha to Bad.
12087097 2002 Inhibition of phosphorylation of BAD and Raf-1 by Akt sensitizes human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel.
12084714 2002 Raloxifene, a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist, induces apoptosis through cleavage of BAD in TSU-PR1 human cancer cells.
11994280 2002 HIV-1-Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ AKT-dependent survival pathways in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.
11908866 2001 Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as sodium butyrate and trichostatin A induce apoptosis through an increase of the bcl-2-related protein Bad.
11839683 2002 Protein kinase A RIalpha antisense inhibition of PC3M prostate cancer cell growth: Bcl-2 hyperphosphorylation, Bax up-regulation, and Bad-hypophosphorylation.
11781193 Immunoexpressions of p21, Rb, mcl-1 and bad gene products in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous human prostates.
11717309 2002 Identification of a novel phosphorylation site, Ser-170, as a regulator of bad pro-apoptotic activity.
11583631 2001 BCL-2, BCL-X(L) sequester BH3 domain-only molecules preventing BAX- and BAK-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis.
11544290 2001 Diverse transcriptional response of CD4+ T cells to stromal cell-derived factor SDF-1: cell survival promotion and priming effects of SDF-1 on CD4+ T cells.
11526496 2001 The growth-promoting activity of the Bad protein in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires binding to protein 14-3-3.
11494146 2001 BAD/BCL-[X(L)] heterodimerization leads to bypass of G0/G1 arrest.
11483855 2001 Underphosphorylated BAD interacts with diverse antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins to regulate apoptosis.
11410287 2001 The proapoptotic protein Bad binds the amphipathic groove of 14-3-3zeta.
11278822 2001 The serine/threonine kinase PAK4 prevents caspase activation and protects cells from apoptosis.
11278245 2001 Bcl-B, a novel Bcl-2 family member that differentially binds and regulates Bax and Bak.
11206074 2000 Rationale for Bcl-xL/Bad peptide complex formation from structure, mutagenesis, and biophysical studies.
10949026 2000 14-3-3 proteins and survival kinases cooperate to inactivate BAD by BH3 domain phosphorylation.
10949025 2000 Aven, a novel inhibitor of caspase activation, binds Bcl-xL and Apaf-1.
10926925 2000 Inhibition of Akt and its anti-apoptotic activities by tumor necrosis factor-induced protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2) cleavage.
10880354 2000 Regulation of BAD by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated via phosphorylation of a novel site, Ser155.
10837489 2000 MCL-1S, a splicing variant of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, encodes a proapoptotic protein possessing only the BH3 domain.
10837486 2000 BAD Ser-155 phosphorylation regulates BAD/Bcl-XL interaction and cell survival.
10811615 2000 Protein phosphatase 1alpha is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis.
10611223 2000 p21-activated kinase 1 phosphorylates the death agonist bad and protects cells from apoptosis.
10579309 1999 Characterization of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and the stimulation of its message by gonadotropins in the rat ovary.
10558990 1999 Cell survival promoted by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway by transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
10521512 1999 Regulation of bad phosphorylation and association with Bcl-x(L) by the MAPK/Erk kinase.
10407019 1999 alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins.
10381646 1999 Survival activity of Bcl-2 homologs Bcl-w and A1 only partially correlates with their ability to bind pro-apoptotic family members.
10195903 1999 Ca2+-induced apoptosis through calcineurin dephosphorylation of BAD.
9973195 1999 BNIP3alpha: a human homolog of mitochondrial proapoptotic protein BNIP3.
9878060 1999 Boo, a novel negative regulator of cell death, interacts with Apaf-1.
9651683 1998 The kit receptor promotes cell survival via activation of PI 3-kinase and subsequent Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bad on Ser136.
9463381 1998 The conserved N-terminal BH4 domain of Bcl-2 homologues is essential for inhibition of apoptosis and interaction with CED-4.
9388232 1997 Dimerization properties of human BAD. Identification of a BH-3 domain and analysis of its binding to mutant BCL-2 and BCL-XL proteins.
9381178 1997 Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt.
9369453 1997 Interference of BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter)-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells by 14-3-3 isoforms and P11.
9305851 1997 BH3 domain of BAD is required for heterodimerization with BCL-XL and pro-apoptotic activity.
8929532 1996 Bcl-2 targets the protein kinase Raf-1 to mitochondria.
8929531 1996 Serine phosphorylation of death agonist BAD in response to survival factor results in binding to 14-3-3 not BCL-X(L)
7834748 1995 Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, displaces Bax and promotes cell death.